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Anatomy Objective 1, Chapter 1


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Anatomy Objective 1, Chapter 1

  1. 1. Essential ? #1: What is anatomy and physiology?
  2. 2. Anatomy and Physiology <ul><li>Two branches of science the provide the foundation for understanding the body’s parts and functions. </li></ul><ul><li>Anatomy (anatome = to cut up) – study of structure and the relationships among structures </li></ul><ul><li>Physiology – study of functions of the body parts </li></ul>
  3. 3. How Anatomy first studied <ul><li>First studied by dissection (dis = apart; secare = to cut) of cadavers </li></ul><ul><li>Include earliest examinations of sacrificial victims to the sophisticated analyses of the body performed by modern scientists </li></ul><ul><li>Begins at least as early as 1600 BC, the date of publication of an Egyptian anatomical papyrus that has survived to this day; this treatise identifies a number of organs and shows a basic knowledge of blood vessels (heart – blood, tears, urine, sperm) </li></ul>
  4. 4. Cont. <ul><li>Earliest medical scientist whose works used today is Hippocreates, a Greek physician active in the late 6th and early 5th centuries BC </li></ul><ul><li>4th century BC, Aristotle produced a system, based on dissection of animals; works produced around this time are the first to identify the difference between arteries and veins, and the relations between organs are described more accurately than in previous works </li></ul>
  5. 5. Cont. <ul><li>First use of human cadavers for anatomical research occurred later in the 4th century BC, when Herophilos and Erasistratus performed dissections of cadavers in Alexandria </li></ul><ul><li>Major anatomist of ancient times was Galen, active in the 2nd century AD; he compiled much of the knowledge obtained by previous writers, and furthered the inquiry into the function of organs by performing vivisection on animals; his collection of drawings, based mostly on dog anatomy, would hold as a “Gray’s Anatomy” of the ancient world for 1500 years </li></ul>
  6. 6. Cont. <ul><li>Gallows (Roman 14 th -16 th century) </li></ul><ul><li>Graves (Michelangelo 17 th -18 th century); discovery of immune system </li></ul><ul><li>Example of Galileo, traveled and even implemented dissections with paid admission </li></ul><ul><li>Murder (19 th century) until parliament passed the Anatomy Act of 1832, which finally provided for an adequate and legitimate supply of corpses </li></ul><ul><li>The relaxed restrictions on dissection provided the groundwork for “Gray’s Anatomy,” a text that was a collective effort and became widely popular, especially for the traveling physician </li></ul>
  7. 7. Relationship of Anatomy to Physiology <ul><li>Bones of skull tightly jointed to protect brain </li></ul><ul><li>Bones of fingers loosely jointed to allow for movement </li></ul><ul><li>Teeth have different shapes for biting, tearing, and grinding food </li></ul><ul><li>Air sacs of lungs thin for diffusion </li></ul>
  8. 8. Subdivisions of Anatomy <ul><li>Surface anatomy – study of the form and markings of the surface of the body </li></ul><ul><li>Gross anatomy – (macroscopic) study of structures that can be examined without using a microscope </li></ul><ul><li>Systemic anatomy – study of specific systems of the body such as the nervous system, etc. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Cont. <ul><li>Regional anatomy – study of a specific region of the body such as the head or chest </li></ul><ul><li>Radiographic anatomy – study of the structure of the body that includes the use of x-rays </li></ul><ul><li>Developmental anatomy – study of the development from the fertilized egg to adult form </li></ul>
  10. 10. Subdivisions of Physiology <ul><li>Cell physiology – study of the functions of cells </li></ul><ul><li>Pathophysiology – study of functional changes associated with disease and aging </li></ul><ul><li>Exercise physiology – study of changes in cell and organ functions during muscular activity </li></ul>
  11. 11. Cont. <ul><li>Neurophysiology – study of functional characteristics of nerve cells </li></ul><ul><li>Immunology – Study of body defense mechanisms </li></ul><ul><li>Etc. </li></ul>