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Reading notes 3

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Reading notes 3

  1. 1. Speech and Language Milestones to look for: Birth to 5 months• Reacts to loud sounds.• Turns head toward a sound source.• Watches your face when you speak.• Vocalizes pleasure and displeasure sounds (laughs, giggles, cries, or fusses).• Makes noise when talked to.6 - 11 months• Understands "no-no".• Babbles (says "ba-ba-ba" or "ma-ma-ma").• Tries to communicate by actions or gestures.• Tries to repeat your sounds. 12 - 17 months• Attends to a book or toy for about two minutes.• Follows simple directions accompanied by gestures.• Answers simple questions nonverbally.• Points to objects, pictures, and family members.• Says two to three words to label a person or object (pronunciation may not be clear).• Tries to imitate simple words. Reading Notes Module 3
  2. 2. 18 - 23 months• Enjoys being read to.• Follows simple commands without gestures.• Points to simple body parts such as "nose."• Understands simple verbs such as "eat," "sleep."• Correctly pronounces most vowels and n, m, p, h, especially in the beginning of syllables and short words. Also begins to use other speech sounds.• Says 8 to 10 words (pronunciation may still be unclear).• Asks for common foods by name.• Makes animal sounds such as "moo."• Starting to combine words such as "more milk."• Begins to use pronouns such as "mine.” 2 - 3 years• Knows about 50 words at 24 months.• Knows some spatial concepts such as "in," "on."• Knows pronouns such as "you," "me," "her."• Knows descriptive words such as "big," "happy."• Says around 40 words at 24 months.• Speech is becoming more accurate but may still leave off ending sounds. Strangers may not be able to understand much of what is said.• Answers simple questions.• Begins to use more pronouns such as "you," "I."• Speaks in two to three word phrases.• Uses question inflection to ask for something (e.g., "My ball?").• Begins to use plurals such as "shoes" or "socks" and regular past tense verbs such as "jumped." Reading Notes Module 3
  3. 3. 3 - 4 years• Groups objects such as foods, clothes, etc.• Identifies colors.• Uses most speech sounds but may distort someof the more difficult sounds such as l, r, s, sh,ch, y, v, z, th. These sounds may not be fully mastered until age 7 or 8.• Uses consonants in the beginning, middle, and ends of words. Some of the more difficult consonants may be distorted, but attempts to say them.• Strangers are able to understand much of what is said.• Able to describe the use of objects such as "fork," "car," etc.• Has fun with language. Enjoys poems and recognizes language absurdities such as, "Is that an elephant on your head?"• Expresses ideas and feelings rather than just talking about the world around him or her.• Uses verbs that end in "ing," such as "walking," "talking."• Answers simple questions such as "What do you do when you are hungry?"• Repeats sentences.4 - 5 years• Understands spatial concepts such as "behind," "next to."• Understands complex questions.• Speech is understandable but makes mistakes pronouncing long, difficult, or complex words such as "hippopotamus."• Says about 200 - 300 different words.• Uses some irregular past tense verbs such as "ran," "fell."• Describes how to do things such as painting a picture.• Defines words.• Lists items that belong in a category such as animals, vehicles, etc.• Answers "why" questions. Reading Notes Module 3
  4. 4. 5 years• Understands more than 2,000 words.• Understands time sequences (what happened first, second, third, etc.).• Carries out a series of three directions.• Understands rhyming.• Engages in conversation.• Sentences can be 8 or more words in length.• Uses compound and complex sentences.• Describes objects.• Uses imagination to create stories. Reading Notes Module 3
  5. 5. Signs and Effects of a LANGUAGE Disorder• SIGNS- Child may show impaired comprehension and pour verbal expression.• SOCIAL EFFECTS- Child may be excluded from play and group activities. Child may withdraw from group situations.• ACADEMIC EFFECTS- Child may fail to understand instruction. This may have the same result as missing school altogether. "Learning problems" may result.Signs and Effects of an ARTICULATION/ SOUND SEQUENCING Disorder• SIGNS- Atypical production of speech sounds; " speech impairment "; speech sounds not typical for childs chronological age.• SOCIAL EFFECTS- Child may be ignored or excluded from group activities.• ACADEMIC EFFECTS- Child may have decoding or comprehension problems with respect to specific words.Signs and Effects of a FLUENCY Disorder• SIGNS- Abnormal flow of verbal expression, characterized by impaired rate or rhythm and perhaps " struggle behavior ".• SOCIAL EFFECTS- Child may begin to avoid speaking in group settings.• ACADEMIC EFFECTS- Child may do poorly on reports, oral assignments, and reading. Child may withdraw from group learning activities.Signs and Effects of a HEARING Disorder• SIGNS- Child may give evidence of not hearing speech.• SOCIAL EFFECTS- Child may appear to be isolated. Child may not participate in group activities as a matter of course.• ACADEMIC EFFECTS- Child may fail to follow directions or fail to get information from instructions. Reading Notes Module 3
  6. 6. Signs and Effects of a LANGUAGE Disorder• SIGNS- Child may show impaired comprehension and pour verbal expression.• SOCIAL EFFECTS- Child may be excluded from play and group activities. Child may withdraw from group situations.• ACADEMIC EFFECTS- Child may fail to understand instruction. This may have the same result as missing school altogether. "Learning problems" may result.Signs and Effects of an ARTICULATION/ SOUND SEQUENCING Disorder• SIGNS- Atypical production of speech sounds; " speech impairment "; speech sounds not typical for childs chronological age.• SOCIAL EFFECTS- Child may be ignored or excluded from group activities.• ACADEMIC EFFECTS- Child may have decoding or comprehension problems with respect to specific words.Signs and Effects of a FLUENCY Disorder• SIGNS- Abnormal flow of verbal expression, characterized by impaired rate or rhythm and perhaps " struggle behavior ".• SOCIAL EFFECTS- Child may begin to avoid speaking in group settings.• ACADEMIC EFFECTS- Child may do poorly on reports, oral assignments, and reading. Child may withdraw from group learning activities.Signs and Effects of a HEARING Disorder• SIGNS- Child may give evidence of not hearing speech.• SOCIAL EFFECTS- Child may appear to be isolated. Child may not participate in group activities as a matter of course.• ACADEMIC EFFECTS- Child may fail to follow directions or fail to get information from instructions. Reading Notes Module 3
  7. 7. Signs of Possible Language Disorders In The Classroom• Inattentiveness when giving instructions after an orienting activity.• Difficulty with sequencing during manual activities or on paper and pencil activities.• Inability to express thoughts on a regular basis to a degree in consistent with assessed, demonstrated, or assumed potential.• Difficulty in getting ideas across to peers in a work or play group or other children are expressing dissatisfaction with the childs communication style.• "Class clown" behavior in the situations where disruption masks an inability to perform or to pay attention.• Extreme forgetfulness, even in situations of obvious importance to the child - particularly in situations that occur often on a regular basis.• Lack of communication with others, which can often be misinterpreted as natural reticence or quietness. Be aware of this especially where limited English proficiency might mask the underlying problem. Since communication disorders can occur regardless of a childs primary language, teachers reticence/quietness is normal, caused by an inability to speak adequate English, or is a mask for possible communication disorder. In these cases, it is wise to consult with the speech-language pathologist.• Coping behaviors were students have established a set of nonverbal signals to substitute for oral language.• Lack of progress on instructional assessment, particularly in areas of sequencing, recalling details, and general comprehension.• Self-expressed frustration with school task or even with the ability to learn. The set of behaviors labeled as "poor self concept" often gives a clue that a communication disorder might be involved. Disjointed conversational style to a degree unusual for age and developmental level. Reading Notes Module 3
  8. 8. Now lets look at you can do to assess the speech and language development of the children you are working with:Phonology – – Do you understand most of what the child is saying?Semantics- – Is the child able to name objects in his environment or does he use thing and stuff? Can he follow directions?* Can he answer wh questions?* *Check the handouts section for checklists for these skills.Pragmatics* - – Is the child able to engage in turn taking? – – Is the child able to engage in conversational exchange? – Can He tell a story? *Check the handouts section for checklists for these skills. Reading Notes Module 3

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