Lecture 9 Problem Solving in IAQ Management

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Lecture 9 Problem Solving in IAQ Management

  1. 1. I. Scientific and Systematic Management of IAQ II. The Importance of A Standard for IAQ III. In Harmony With Nature IV. Building Management of the 21 st Century V. Give Meaning to IAQ Management VI. Introduction to the Hinds IAQ Profile Monitoring System VII. Automatic IAQ Profile Monitoring Systems VIII. Automatic & Continuous Monitoring of IAQ IX. Problem Solving in IAQ Management X. Calibration (to be continued) IAQ Lecture Series
  2. 2. Hinds International (HK) Ltd. IAQ Lecture Series Speaker : Kee-Neng Wai, Ph.D Date : May 26, 2011 Venue : EMSD IX. Problem Solving in IAQ Management
  3. 3. Science & Technology vs. Politics in Environmental Issues <ul><li>S & T : Based on knowledge, humanity, the truth </li></ul><ul><li>Politics : Based on power, money, to win </li></ul>Example : Al Gore Tony Blair Lee Kuan Yew China vs. U.S., U.K. & Europe Hong Kong
  4. 5. Problem solving in IAQ Management <ul><li>Shall we take a political approach? </li></ul><ul><li>or </li></ul><ul><li>a scientific and technological approach? </li></ul>or Both?
  5. 6. IAQ Objectives Money Saved 節省金錢 II. Healthy Environment 健康工作環境 IV. Communication & Fair Trade 交流及公平交易 III. Problem Solving 解決問題 I. Energy Saving 節省能源 減少排放
  6. 7. Comfort Indicators Toxic Gases Carcinogens & BRI IAQ Guidelines ( 指標 ) Formaldehyde ppb <24 <81 Radon Bq/m 3 <150 <200 RSP (PM 10 ) µg/m 3 <20 <180 Airborne Bacteria cfu/m 3 <500 <1,000 Ozone ppb <25 <61 Nitrogen Dioxide ppb <21 <80 TVOC ppb <87 <261 Carbon Monoxide ppm <1.7 <8.7 Parameter Unit Excellent Good Temperature ºC 20 to 25.5 <25.5 Relative Humidity % 40 to 70 <70 Air Movement m/s <0.2 <0.3 Carbon Dioxide ppm <800 <1,000 Recommended NEW Guidelines 21 to 25 45 to 65 <0.3 <800/ <1,200 <100 <20/ <80 <100/ <300 <2.0/ <10 <100 <200 TD 2.5 Particle Numbers Delete
  7. 8. Comfort Factors 1. What is wrong with the 25.5 o C/70% RH condition? Answer : Mold and insect growth. 2. What change is needed for “Air Movement” Guidelines? Answer : One single guideline is needed. Solution : Change guidelines to 21 / 25 o C for Temperature 45 / 65% for Relative Humidity Parameter Unit Current Guidelines Recommendation Temperature ºC 20 to 25.5 < 25.5 21 to 25 Relative Humidity % 40 to 70 < 70 45 to 65 Air Movement m/s < 0.2 < 0.3 < 0.3 Carbon Dioxide ppm < 800 < 1,000 < 800 / < 1,200
  8. 9. Temperature and Humidity Control <ul><li>Specified Condition : 23 o C / 60%RH </li></ul>Problem I : Indoor RH too high. Solution : 1. Adjusting cooler temp. and air flow. 2. Adjusting and pre-cooling fresh air intake. 3. Air cooler design. Problem II : Indoor RH too low in winter. Case 1 : A TV studio requiring 20 o C / <50%RH. Case 2 : A storage warehouse requiring < 15 o C / <50%RH Problem III : Human factors and specific requirements. Solution : Humidifier.
  9. 10. Problems Related to CO2 Level <ul><li>1. Indoor CO2 Level </li></ul><ul><li>IAQ Guidance Notes : <800 / <1,000 </li></ul><ul><li>Recommendation : <800 / <1,200 </li></ul><ul><li>Reasons : Work Efficiency, Health, Energy Saving. </li></ul><ul><li>Recommendation is based on: </li></ul><ul><li> Yawning Threshold 1,500 Sick </li></ul><ul><li> Dozing Threshold 2,000 Building </li></ul><ul><li> Perspiring, headache, restlessness 2,500 Syndrome </li></ul><ul><li> and increased heart-rate above 2,500 </li></ul><ul><li>Long terms effects : Hypertension, pains & aches </li></ul><ul><li>stomach acid/ulcer </li></ul>2. Outdoor CO2 Level Global warming, carbon footprint, energy cost.
  10. 13. Problems relating to CO2 level in IAQ 1. Problems : Health & work efficiency Energy cost and carbon footprint Global warming 2. Problems : Human factors and specific needs (Including laws, regulation and politics) Solution : Ventilation control Management with Fresh air intake database and Exhaust air control knowledge base Air flow pattern control - Optimization Solution : Management on database and knowledge base Professional and public recognition
  11. 14. Toxic Gases Problems : High concentration. Problem : What can we do when the outdoor level is higher than indoor level? Solution : Remove source of pollutant Dilution with fresh air Scrubbing & detoxification Isolate & exhaust Solution : Consult the professionals /or politicians Parameter Unit Current Guidelines Recommendation Ozone ppb < 25 < 61 <100 Nitrogen Dioxide ppb < 21 < 80 < 20 / < 80 TVOC ppb < 87 < 261 < 100 / < 300 Carbon Monoxide ppm < 1.7 < 8.7 < 2.0 / < 10
  12. 15. Outdoor Air Quality Trend of Hong Kong 8-Hr. Ave. IAQ Urban (320) Excellent (50) Rural (320) Good (120) 1-Hr. Ave. IAQ Urban (282) Excellent (40) Rural (119) Good (150) 1-Hr. Ave. IAQ Urban (3200) Excellent (2,000) Rural (2060) Good (10,000) 1-Hr. Ave. IAQ Urban (164) Excellent (20) Rural (147) Good (180)
  13. 16. 8-Hr. Ave. IAQ Urban (320) Excellent (50) Rural (320) Good (120)
  14. 17. 1-Hr. Ave. IAQ Urban (282) Excellent (40) Rural (119) Good (150)
  15. 18. 1-Hr. Ave. IAQ Urban (3200) Excellent (2,000) Rural (2060) Good (10,000)
  16. 19. 1-Hr. Ave. IAQ Urban (164) Excellent (20) Rural (147) Good (180)
  17. 20. Carcinogens & SBS/BRI Recommended changes : Formaldehyde : change to < 100ppb Radon : change to < 200 Bq./m 3 RSP : change to < TD 2.5 Particle Nos. Airborne Bacteria : To be deleted (Microorganism) (Mold counts) Parameter Unit Current Guidelines Recommendation Formaldehyde Ppb < 24 < 81 <100 Radon Bq./m 3 < 150 < 200 < 200 RSP(PM 10 ) µ g/m 3 < 20 < 180 TD 2.5 Particle Nos. Airborne Bacteria (Misnomer) cfu/m 3 < 500 < 1000 Delete
  18. 21. <ul><li>Solution for high levels of Carcinogens & SBS/BRI </li></ul>- Remove sources of pollution - Scrubbing - Detoxification & decontamination - Dilution with fresh air Radon - Removal of sources - 100% concealment - Dilution with fresh air RSP - Removal by precipitation and filtration - Scrubbing Microorganism (Mainly Fungi) - Clean environment - Cool and dry environment - Filtration and decontamination Formaldehyde
  19. 22. 我要做好呢份工 for IAQ Objectives of IAQ Management <ul><li>Labour saving and cost effectiveness </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge based IAQ management </li></ul><ul><li>Data based IAQ management </li></ul><ul><li>Problem solving </li></ul><ul><li>Communication </li></ul><ul><li>Professional and public recognition </li></ul>

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