The other face of global mobility:higher education serving studentsfrom migrant communities        Dirk Van Damme        H...
Outline1. The context: increasing demand for skills,   expanding higher education systems but still   huge waste of talent...
1.THE CONTEXT              3
Increasing need for skills• Demographic transition and a rapidly changing  economy dramatically increase the need for  ski...
Expanding higher education systems• Higher education systems are  – Recruiting more students than even before  – Deliverin...
10                                  15                                       20                                           ...
Global student mobility          Percentage of all foreign tertiary students enrolled by destination Market share (%)     ...
International students2007, OECD Education database                                8
Waste of talent?• Higher education is not very effective in tapping  on all available human resources  – High failure and ...
Failure remains a huge problem…    Proportion of students who enter a tertiary programme%   but leave without at least a f...
Higher education participation according to educational               attainment father (2004) Educational attainment fath...
Success rates of students according to educational  attainment mother (Antwerp University, 2006)Diploma mother            ...
2UNTAPPED STOCKS OFTALENT                     13
Changing populations       The foreign-born population in OECD countries, 2000-200640.035.030.0     In 2006 12% of the pop...
Percentage of 15 year-old school pupils with at least one parent bornabroad and percentage of 15 year-old school pupils bo...
Percentage point changes in the share of 15 year-old school pupils with at leastone parent born abroad and of 15 year-old ...
300                                  350                                        400                                       ...
Gaps in educational achievement   • “SES” and “speaking a different language at home” largely explain the     performance ...
Proportion of 20-24y-olds who are not in education and have not attained upper secondary education, by migrant status (200...
Educational opportunities for migrants • Rapidly increasing share of school population • Achievement gaps in school educat...
3HE PARTICIPATION OFMIGRANT STUDENTS                      21
Proportion of 25-29 year-olds who either have a tertiary education qualification or are currently enrolled in a tertiary e...
Increasing participation disadvantaged England               Increase for advantaged areas in the same                   p...
Difference in 25-29y olds in tertiary education between migrants and born in       country and difference in 20-24y olds w...
Migrant students in HE• In most countries educational participation and  qualification of migrant students are lagging  be...
Difference in 25-29y olds in tertiary education between migrants and                                                      ...
4.BENEFITS AND PROSPECTS                         27
Benefits and prospects• More migrant students accessing and succeeding  in higher education might have very powerful  econ...
The economic cost of educational underachievement• McKinsey calculated the economic cost of the  1983-1998 achievement gap...
Proportion of employed 25-29y-old non-students with a tertiaryeducation, working as technicians or as professionals by mig...
Difference between 25-29y olds foreign born and born in country for                                                       ...
Link with innovation
5.CONCLUSIONS              33
Conclusions• Demographic changes, skill demands of the  knowledge economy and social change at large  will increasingly re...
Conclusions• Access and – slowly – success of migrant  students in HE is improving, but much more  needs to be done• Minin...
Thank you !dirk.vandamme@oecd.org www.oecd.org/edu/ceri                         36
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The other face of global mobility aca presentation 14102011

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The other face of global mobility aca presentation 14102011

  1. 1. The other face of global mobility:higher education serving studentsfrom migrant communities Dirk Van Damme Head of the Centre for Educational Research and Innovation (CERI) – OECD/EDU
  2. 2. Outline1. The context: increasing demand for skills, expanding higher education systems but still huge waste of talent2. Untapped stocks of talent3. Higher education participation of students from a migrant background4. Benefits and prospects5. Conclusions 2
  3. 3. 1.THE CONTEXT 3
  4. 4. Increasing need for skills• Demographic transition and a rapidly changing economy dramatically increase the need for skilled jobs and people• Increasing international competition for talent and high-skilled labour• Countries will increasingly look into the possibilities of high-skilled migration to solve short-term skill needs• But there may be more sustainable policy approaches… 4
  5. 5. Expanding higher education systems• Higher education systems are – Recruiting more students than even before – Delivering more qualified graduates than… – Receiving more (public and private) resources than… – Attracting more international students and international staff than…• Expansion, massification and internationalisation will continue to grow 5
  6. 6. 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 0 5 Canada % United States New Zealand Estonia Finland Australia Norway Sweden Netherlands Switzerland 2000sUnited Kingdom Denmark Japan Germany Iceland 1990s Belgium OECD average Luxembourg EU19 average Ireland 1980s France Spain Hungary Slovenia Greece 1970s Austria Poland Korea groups 25-34 years, 35-44 years, 45-54 years and 55-64 years (2007)Slovak RepublicCzech Republic Italy Growth in university-level qualifications Mexico Chile Brazil Approximated by the percentage of the population that has attained tertiary-type A education in the age Turkey Portugal
  7. 7. Global student mobility Percentage of all foreign tertiary students enrolled by destination Market share (%) 2000 2008302520 3.3 million tertiary students are enrolled outside their country, compared to 215 million in 2000.10 5 0 Germany Italy Australia Spain Japan Austria Korea China Belgium France Sweden United Kingdom Canada United States South Africa Switzerland New Zealand Netherlands Other OECD countries Other partner countries Russian Federation
  8. 8. International students2007, OECD Education database 8
  9. 9. Waste of talent?• Higher education is not very effective in tapping on all available human resources – High failure and drop out rates, especially in the early years – Low access and low success rates of students from disadvantaged backgrounds • Low SES students • Low educational capital • Ethnic minority students 9
  10. 10. Failure remains a huge problem… Proportion of students who enter a tertiary programme% but leave without at least a first tertiary degree (2005) 10
  11. 11. Higher education participation according to educational attainment father (2004) Educational attainment father Man Women Low schooled 14.0 25.6 Higher secondary education 26.2 40.7 Higher education 61.4 49.5 11
  12. 12. Success rates of students according to educational attainment mother (Antwerp University, 2006)Diploma mother % Success RateNo diploma/primary school certificate 25.7Higher secondary education diploma 38.8Short non-university higher education degree 43.3Long non-university higher education degree 58.8University degree 58.4 12
  13. 13. 2UNTAPPED STOCKS OFTALENT 13
  14. 14. Changing populations The foreign-born population in OECD countries, 2000-200640.035.030.0 In 2006 12% of the population in OECD countries was born in another country25.020.015.010.0 5.0 0.0 2000 (left scale) 2000-2006 (left scale) 14
  15. 15. Percentage of 15 year-old school pupils with at least one parent bornabroad and percentage of 15 year-old school pupils born abroad in 2009 With at least one parent born abroad (↗) Born abroad 60 But, in 2009, 19% of the 15y old school 50 population was from a migrant background 40 30 20 10 0 SWE OECD SVK ISL ITA ESP GBR ISR LUX KOR JPN TUR FIN DEU CAN NZL SVN PRT POL MEX NOR DNK GRC AUT BEL CHE HUN CZE NLD FRA AUS EST IRL USA CHL 15
  16. 16. Percentage point changes in the share of 15 year-old school pupils with at leastone parent born abroad and of 15 year-old school pupils born abroad, 2000-09 With at least one parent born abroad (↗) Born abroad 14 12 10 And that percentage is rapidly increasing 8 6 4 2 0 -2 -4 -6 -8 -10 -12 SWE OECD ISR GBR ITA ESP LUX JPN TUR ISL NZL FIN DEU CAN POL MEX AUT DNK CHE CZE FRA AUS NLD BEL NOR GRC HUN USA PRT IRL CHL 16
  17. 17. 300 350 400 450 500 550 600 Finland Hong Kong-China Singapore Canada New Zealand Australia Netherlands Belgium Norway Estonia Native Students Switzerland United States Liechtenstein Sweden Germany Ireland France Denmark United Kingdom Hungary OECD average Portugal Macao-China Italy Slovenia Second-generation students Greece Spain Czech Republic Croatia Israel PISA 2009 data (reading scale) Luxembourg Austria Dubai (UAE) Russian Federation Serbia Mexico students have lower learning outcomes Trinidad and Tobago On average, especially in Europe, migrant Brazil Montenegro First-generation students Jordan Argentina Kazakhstan Gaps in educational achievement Qatar17 Panama Azerbaijan Kyrgyzstan
  18. 18. Gaps in educational achievement • “SES” and “speaking a different language at home” largely explain the performance gap between the two groups in many countries. But they are not the only reasons. • Other factors: availability of educational resources at home, reading at home at a young age, and participating in ECEC, etc. Performance difference in reading Accounting for students socio -economic background Accounting for students socio -economic background and language spoken at home Score point 20 difference 038 ptsRoughly - 20equivalentto oneyear of - 40schooling(science -proxy) - 60 - 80 -100
  19. 19. Proportion of 20-24y-olds who are not in education and have not attained upper secondary education, by migrant status (2007) 19
  20. 20. Educational opportunities for migrants • Rapidly increasing share of school population • Achievement gaps in school education between native born and migrant students – With strong impact of SES and language spoken at home – But with very large variation between countries • Unqualified and out-of-school 20-24y olds are in most countries disproportionally from migrant backgrounds • And what about higher education? 20
  21. 21. 3HE PARTICIPATION OFMIGRANT STUDENTS 21
  22. 22. Proportion of 25-29 year-olds who either have a tertiary education qualification or are currently enrolled in a tertiary education programme, by migrant status Born abroad Born in the country Total 70 2007 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 22
  23. 23. Increasing participation disadvantaged England Increase for advantaged areas in the same period was only 4% (from 55% to 59%) 23
  24. 24. Difference in 25-29y olds in tertiary education between migrants and born in country and difference in 20-24y olds with secondary education Migrants less in tertiary education Migrants more in tertiary education Migrants more with secondary education Migrants more with secondary education Australia Portugal Difference in secondary education attainment Hungary UK Canada Iceland Norway Netherlands Sweden Finland France OECD Germany Luxembourg Czech R Spain Switzerland Belgium Austria Italy Greece Migrants less in tertiary education Migrants more in tertiary education Migrants less with secondary education Migrants less with secondary education Difference in or with tertiary education 24
  25. 25. Migrant students in HE• In most countries educational participation and qualification of migrant students are lagging behind those of native students• But there are indications of rising participation levels• Large differences between countries suggest that this has little to do with innate capacities nor that it should be a insolvable problem• There seems to be a link in country profiles between migrant participation and participation of foreign students in higher education 25
  26. 26. Difference in 25-29y olds in tertiary education between migrants and born in country and percentage of foreign students (2007-2008) Migrants less in tertiary education Migrants more in tertiary education More than average foreign students More than average foreign students AustraliaPercentage foreign students in tertiary education Switzerland UK Austria Canada Belgium France Germany Norway Sweden OECD Czech R Netherlands Greece Portugal Iceland Finland Hungary Italy Spain Migrants less in tertiary education Migrants more in tertiary education Less than average foreign students Less than average foreign students Difference in or with tertiary education 26
  27. 27. 4.BENEFITS AND PROSPECTS 27
  28. 28. Benefits and prospects• More migrant students accessing and succeeding in higher education might have very powerful economical benefits – Additional skills input in the economy has a positive impact on growth – Employment opportunities improve – A more ‘open’ science and innovation system also seems to be a more productive and innovative one 28
  29. 29. The economic cost of educational underachievement• McKinsey calculated the economic cost of the 1983-1998 achievement gap in PISA results for the US today – Racial gap: black and Latino students to level of white students 2 to 4% 2008 GDP – Income gap: students from families earning <25k US$ to level of students from families >25k: 3 to 5% (1% 2008 US GDP ≈ 165 billion US$) 29
  30. 30. Proportion of employed 25-29y-old non-students with a tertiaryeducation, working as technicians or as professionals by migrant status Born abroad Born in the country Total 100 2007 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 30
  31. 31. Difference between 25-29y olds foreign born and born in country for tertiary education and employment (2007) Migrants less in tertiary education Migrants more in tertiary education Migrants with tertiary education more employed Migrants with tertiary education more employedDifference 25-29y olds with tertiary ed in suitable employment Hungary Netherlands Czech R Norway Austria Luxembourg France Germany OECD Canada Iceland Australia Finland Italy Belgium Greece Portugal Spain Migrants less in tertiary education Migrants more in tertiary education Migrants with tertiary education less employed Migrants with tertiary education less employed Difference in or with tertiary education 31
  32. 32. Link with innovation
  33. 33. 5.CONCLUSIONS 33
  34. 34. Conclusions• Demographic changes, skill demands of the knowledge economy and social change at large will increasingly request HE to mine hitherto untapped and even undiscovered talent, beyond the ‘easy’ solution of recruiting high-skilled on the international market.• There are large ‘reservoirs’ of talent in the disadvantaged communities in our counties, more specifically in the migrant community. 34
  35. 35. Conclusions• Access and – slowly – success of migrant students in HE is improving, but much more needs to be done• Mining talents in disadvantaged students will require more effective pedagogy and educational structures in institutions• Beyond the ethical call of duty and political correctness, economic and social benefits are potentially very huge, both for society at large and institutions 35
  36. 36. Thank you !dirk.vandamme@oecd.org www.oecd.org/edu/ceri 36

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