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The Early Development and Impact of 4G Technology  VISHALYA
Outline  •  Previous Technologies -1G, 2G, 3G (CDMA, GSM, UMTS) –  Multiplexing; Frequency, Time & Code •  Reasons for New...
1G Technology
Previous  Technology  - 1G “First Generation”  •  Analog   -  Continuous in amplitude and time  -  Variations in the signa...
2G Technology
Previous Technology - 2G  •  Advantages  -  Digital - consists of 1s and 0s  •  Digital signal: 1) Low level, 2) High leve...
Previous Technology - 2G  -  Allows for lower powered radio signals that require less battery power  -  CODEC introduction...
Previous Technology - 2G  •  Advantages  -  The digital voice encoding allows digital error checking  •  increase sound qu...
3G Technology
Previous Technology - 3G  •  CDMA - Code Division Multiple Access -  Form of multiplexing  -  Does not divide up the chann...
Types of Multiplexing  •  FDMA - Each phone call is allocated one frequency for the entire duration of the call.  •  TDMA ...
Frequency Division Multiple Access  Time Division Multiple Access  Code Division Multiple Access frequency
Reasons for New Research  •  Government are forced to  support to the financially troubled operators  • 3G phones are expe...
How 4G Works
What is 4G?  •  Fourth Generation Technology •  Faster and more reliable  -100 Mb/s  (802.11g wireless = 54Mb/s,  3G = 2Mb...
Communications Architecture  •   Broadcast layer : fix access points, (ie cell tower) connected by fiber, microwave, or sa...
Ad Hoc Networks  •  Spontaneous self organization of networks of devices •  Not necessarily connected to internet  •  4G w...
When?  •  China Mobile, KPN, NTT DoCoMo, Orange, Intel, Motorola, Sprint Nextel, T-Mobile and Vodafone already doing resea...
 
 
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early development of 4g technology

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early development of 4g technology

  1. 1. The Early Development and Impact of 4G Technology VISHALYA
  2. 2. Outline • Previous Technologies -1G, 2G, 3G (CDMA, GSM, UMTS) – Multiplexing; Frequency, Time & Code • Reasons for New Research • How 4G Works - Architecture, AdHoc, IP core, OFDM • Impact of 4G - economic, socio-cultural, political
  3. 3. 1G Technology
  4. 4. Previous Technology - 1G “First Generation” • Analog - Continuous in amplitude and time - Variations in the signal - disrupts over long distances • Simplest type to wireless data • Average between 4,800 to 9,600 bps (bits per second)
  5. 5. 2G Technology
  6. 6. Previous Technology - 2G • Advantages - Digital - consists of 1s and 0s • Digital signal: 1) Low level, 2) High level, 3) Rising edge, and 4) Falling edge
  7. 7. Previous Technology - 2G - Allows for lower powered radio signals that require less battery power - CODEC introduction - program that encodes and decodes digital data stream or signal • Translates data from digital to analog and vice versa speaker voice CODEC 10111001
  8. 8. Previous Technology - 2G • Advantages - The digital voice encoding allows digital error checking • increase sound quality • lowers the noise level - Going all-digital allowed for the introduction of digital data transfer • SMS - “short message service” • E-mail
  9. 9. 3G Technology
  10. 10. Previous Technology - 3G • CDMA - Code Division Multiple Access - Form of multiplexing - Does not divide up the channel by time or frequency - Encodes data with a special code associated with each channel
  11. 11. Types of Multiplexing • FDMA - Each phone call is allocated one frequency for the entire duration of the call. • TDMA - Each phone call is allocated a spot in the frequency for a small amount of time, and "takes turns" being transmitted. • CDMA - Each phone call is uniquely encoded and transmitted across the entire spectrum, in a manner known as spread spectrum transmission.
  12. 12. Frequency Division Multiple Access Time Division Multiple Access Code Division Multiple Access frequency
  13. 13. Reasons for New Research • Government are forced to support to the financially troubled operators • 3G phones are expensive • Lack of 2G mobile user buy-in for 3G wireless service • Lack of coverage because it is still a new service - i.e. Champaign-Urbana uses 2.5G - Chicago is 3G equipped
  14. 14. How 4G Works
  15. 15. What is 4G? • Fourth Generation Technology • Faster and more reliable -100 Mb/s (802.11g wireless = 54Mb/s, 3G = 2Mb/s) • Lower cost than previous generations • Multi-standard wireless system - Bluetooth, Wired, Wireless (802.11x) • Ad Hoc Networking • IPv6 Core • OFDM used instead of CDMA • Potentially IEEE standard 802.11n - Most information is proprietary
  16. 16. Communications Architecture • Broadcast layer : fix access points, (ie cell tower) connected by fiber, microwave, or satellite (ISP) • Ad-hoc/hot-spot layer: wireless LANs (ie. internet at Starbuck’s) • Personal Layer Gateway: devices that connect to upper layers; cell phone, fax, voice, data modem, MP3 players, PDAs • Info-Sensor layer: environmental sensors • Fiber-optic wire layer : high speed subterranean labyrinth of fiber optic cables and repeaters
  17. 17. Ad Hoc Networks • Spontaneous self organization of networks of devices • Not necessarily connected to internet • 4G will create hybrid wireless networks using Ad Hoc networks • Form of mesh networking - Very reliable
  18. 18. When? • China Mobile, KPN, NTT DoCoMo, Orange, Intel, Motorola, Sprint Nextel, T-Mobile and Vodafone already doing research on 4G • Much of this information is proprietary at this time • Expected release of 4G services as early as 2008. • Majority of companies expect widespread use of 4G systems by 2010. • Lifecycle of 4G is estimated to be 15 years.

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