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WMATA’s Post-9/11 Security Apparatus: Use of Federal Grants


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Presentation for Transportation Vulnerability, Risk, and Security class, Spring 2013

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WMATA’s Post-9/11 Security Apparatus: Use of Federal Grants

  1. 1. WMATA’s Post-9/11 SecurityApparatus:Use of Federal GrantsDavid KochTransportation Vulnerability, Risk, and SecurityKaren Lowrie, Instructor
  2. 2. Context
  3. 3. Policy shifts after 9/11/01• WMATA seen as over-prepared before 9/11• Performed vulnerability assessment, regular multi-agency drills, improvedcommunication• After 9/11 requested $190 million for safety and security investments• Trash and recycling receptacles were removed and later replaced with bomb-resistantones• Newspaper vending machines and bike lockers were removed from stations• Police presence increased at major stations• Asked passengers to be eyes and ears of the system• Increased first responder and employee training
  4. 4. Federal Grant Programs• Department of Homeland Security offers two grant programs fortransit systems:• Urban Areas Security Initiative (UASI), started 2003• Transit Security Grant Program (TSGP), started 2005• Administered by Federal Emergency ManagementAdministration (FEMA) with Transportation SecurityAdministration (TSA)
  5. 5. Federal Grant Programs -UASI• Yearly call for applications from major urban areas forprojects that enhance regional preparedness• Assists efforts to enhance cities’ capacity to prevent,protect against, respond to, and recover from terrorist acts• Cities originally divided into Tier I and II
  6. 6. Federal Grant Programs -UASI$0$100$200$300$400$500$600$700$800$9002005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012MillionsofdollarsYearUASI Grant Allocations, 2005-2012• Funding goes to lead agencies in region which apportionfurther awards• Starting in 2011 application process is “wholly competitive”0%10%20%30%40%50%60%70%80%$0$10$20$30$40$50$60$70$802005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012PercentageoftotalUASIfundsMillionsofdollarsFiscal YearNational Capital Region UASI Grants, 2005-2012Total NCRfundingPercent oftotal
  7. 7. Federal Grant Programs -TSGP• Funding goes to transit agencies in high-risk urban areas• Projects protect assets, enhance deterrence, supply training anddrills• Cities divided into Tier I and II until 2011
  8. 8. Federal Grant Programs -TSGP$0$50$100$150$200$250$300$350$4002005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012MillionsofdollarsFiscal yearTSGP Grant Allocations, 2005-2012• High-risk cities receive largest portion of funds• Awards can be used forplanning, equipment, training, exercises, management andadministration0%5%10%15%20%25%30%35%40%$0$5$10$15$20$25$30$35$402005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012PercentoftotalTSGPfundsMillionsofdollarsFiscal yearNational Capital Region TSGP Grants, 2005-2012Total NCRfundingPercent oftotal
  9. 9. Metro’s Use of FederalGrantsCustomer and employeecommunication0.3%Decontamination1%Metro Transit PDequipment2%Card access/intrusionmonitoring4%Expand intrusiondetection systems4%Additional bus cameras9%Chemical/biologicaldetection14%Upgrade public addresssystem22%Back-up operationscontrol center44%2004 Metro Matters Security ProgramAnticipated Total Spending by 2010Total anticipated spending: $143.6millionBus security cameraPerimeter security
  10. 10. $0$10$20$30$40$50$60$70$80$902005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012FundsinmillionsYearTotal federal funds by grant program, 2005-2012Total grant fundsUASI totalTSGP totalTotal grants received, 2005-2012: $134.9million$29,889,88122%$105,090,8678%2005-12 Total Grant AwardsUASI totalTSGP totalMotorized emergency responsevehicleMetro’s Use of FederalGrants
  11. 11. CBRN detectionequipment3%Planning and riskassessments5%Training and exercises7%Back-up OperationsControl Center8%Personnel (includingcanines)15%Radio system upgrade16% Security camera systems23%Facilities security23%Security project categories, 2005-2012Canine teamMulti-agency drillMetro’s Use of FederalGrants
  12. 12. Metro’s Use of FederalGrants• Latest budgets do not anticipate security funding beyond fiscalyear• Security is now an ongoing issue and a normal budget item• Safety and security program continues to be funded exclusivelythrough federal grantsEmergency drill Police training
  13. 13. Impact of Grants on WMATA• Significant security issues have beenaddressed:• Increased public and employee outreach efforts• Infrastructure and other vulnerabilities havebeen mitigated• More and better risk management strategies• Better emergency response capabilities• Has security improved? Unknown since weknow of no attempted terrorist attacks012345672006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012CrimespermillionridersYearMetro Crime Rate, 2006-2012Rail crime permillion ridersBus crime permillion riders “See something, say something”campaign
  14. 14. Impact of Grants on WMATA• Language in latest policy documents has shifted toemergency planning tone• WMATA is looking for ways to get multiple uses out ofsafety and security investments• Random bag searches faced public backlash, haveremained• 85% of riders are highlysatisfied with security, moreconcerned about safetyRandom bag search
  15. 15. Thank you!Images and diagrams courtesy WMATA, NCPC, DHS