Doç. Dr. Khaled Marar
EUROPEN UNİVERSITY OF LEFKE
Doç.Dr.KHALED MARAR- CHAPTER I 1
1.1.The Transportation System and Higway Engineering
Transportation System: The services provided for the movement of people
and goods between different locations.
Transportation Engineering: The application of technological and
scientific principles to the planing,functional design,operation and
management of facilities for any subsystem of transportation in order to
provide for the safe rapid,comfortable,economical and enviromentally
compatible movement of people and goods.
Highway Engineering: Is a part of transportation engineering and applies
the above principles for the planing,design and construction of highways.
Doç.Dr.KHALED MARAR- CHAPTER I 2
1.2.Functions and objectives of Transportation
(a)Transportation makes goods and services available where and when
they are needed.
(b)Transportation makes effective use of natural resources.
(c) Transportation expands trade.
(d)Transportation is a requirement for the existence of large scale
production and hence increases productivity and reduces cost of
(e)Transportation provides mobility in our society for
culturel,recreational and social purpose and promotes health and
(f)Transportation contributes to the nations ability to defend itself.
(g)Transportation promotes social and political unity of a nation.
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1.3.1 Functional Suitability
Highways provide high speeds,high degree of accessibility and route flexibility .
They are suitable for passenger services and small shipments.
Railways and waterways are preferred to highways for transporting large quantities
of bulk cargo over long distances.The initial construction costs of railways are
higher than those for highways.Cost of passenger service is usually low but
sometimes speed may be a problem.Rail transport in crowded cities has become a
very popular mode of passenger transport.
Pipelines move large volumes with minumum handling.
Air transportation provides speed and comfort but high costs limit availability.It is
suitable for passenger services and movement of high value goods.
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1.3.2 Cost of Transportation Goods
Total transportation cost( goods of TL/ton-Km) of terminal costs and hauling
cost.Terminal costs are those costs associated with the handling,loading and
unloading of the goods while the hauling costs is the cost of carrying the
goods.Haul cost is &Proportional to distance.
Fig.1.1 : Shows a graphical representation of the cost of goods transportation
between higway,railway and waterway mode.When a cost comparison is to be
made between these modes of goods transportation the terminal cost is smallest
for highway and highest for waterways;while the hauling cost is low for waterways
and highest for highways.
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Fig.1.1 Graphical Representation of Cost of Goods
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Example 1.1 Assume that the cost of goods transportation by
different modes is given by the following formula:
Y=Total Transportation Cost(TL/ton-Km)
(a)Draw a graph to show the cost relationship for all of these three modes.
(b)Compare the haul distances for all three modes.
(c)Compare the haul distances for highway and waterway modes.
(b)Highway is economical up to 300 Km,railway between 300-850 Km and
waterway above 850 Km.
(c)Highway is economical up to 575 Km,waterway above 575 Km.
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