LinuxIntroduction    August 2012
AgendaHistoryIntroductionPartitionFileSystemPermissionCommands
History• Unix (very expensive)  Minix (for students)• Enter Linus Torvalds – Linux Kernel• With GNU’s Richard Stallman – ...
Introduction•   Cheap•   Huge community•   Open source•   Presence of mind•   Jobs•   Better understanding
Introduction•   Monolithic Kernel•   bash, sh, ksh, csh - CLI•   X Windows + Gnome, KDE•   Ext2, ext3, ext4 File System•  ...
Linux Kernel• Monolithic Kernel – Resource Manager  for process, memory or hardware.• Process – Threads, POSIX• Memory – p...
Bourne-again shell  There are 10 types of people in this world, who understand binary and   those who don’t.• Macro proces...
Distro & InstallationPackages: for example to each Distrodebian: distmandrake: Mandrakeredhat: RedHatsuse: susefedora: Fed...
File System & Partitioning                             9
File System & Partitioning                             10
File System & PartitioningA Sample of Paritioning:/boot    100MSWAP     512M/        2000M/usr     6000M/home    1000M/tmp...
File System & Deviceshda1: first partition of first IDE drivehda2: second partition of first IDE drivesdc3: third partitio...
File System & Devices                        13
File System & Devices                        14
File System & Permission                           15
File System & Permission                               $ chmod a=r testfile                               (read & wipe out...
File System & Permission                           17
YP New System                                                             MS Servers                                      ...
Accumulate & JBossRefer other slides pls.                          19
THANK YOU
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Linux Introduction

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  • Linux supports numerous file system types Ext2: This is like UNIX file system. It has the concepts of blocks, inodes and directories. Ext3: It is ext2 filesystem enhanced with journalling capabilities. Journalling allows fast file system recovery. Supports POSIX ACL (Access Control Lists). (POSIX: Portable OS Interface) Isofs (iso9660): Used by CDROM file system. Sysfs: It is a ram-based filesystem initially based on ramfs. It is use to exporting kernel objects so that end user can use it easily. Procfs: The proc file system acts as an interface to internal data structures in the kernel. It can be used to obtain information about the system and to change certain kernel parameters at runtime using sysctl command. For example you can find out cpuinfo with following command “cat /proc/cpuinfo” NFS: Network file system allows many users or systems to share the same files by using a client/server methodology. NFS allows sharing all of the above file system. Linux also supports Microsoft NTFS, vfat, and many other file systems. See Linux kernel source tree Documentation/filesystem directory for list of all supported filesystem.
  • /bin và /sbin Chứa những file cần thiết cho quá trình khởi động và những lệnh thiết yếu để duy trì hệ thống. /dev Chứa các định danh ánh xạ của thiết bị hoặc những file đặc biệt. /etc Chứa các file cấu hình của hệ thống và nhiều chương trình tiện ích. /lib Chứa các thư viện dùng chung cho các lệnh nằm trong /bin và /sbin. Và thư mục này cũng chứa các module của nhân. /mnt hoặc /media Mount point mặc định cho những hệ thống file kết nối bên ngoài. /proc Lưu các thông tin của nhân, chỉ có thể ghi được nội dung trong thư mục /proc/sys . /boot Chứa nhân Linux để khởi động và các file system maps cũng như các file khởi động giai đoạn hai. /home ( tùy chọn ) Thư mục dành cho người dùng khác root. Thông tin khởi tạo thư mục mặc định của người dùng được đặt trong /etc/skel/ /root ( tùy chọn ) Thư mục mặc định của người dùng root. /tmp Thư mục chứa các file tạm thời. /usr Thư mục chứa những file cố định hoặc quan trọng để phục vụ tất cả người dùng. /usr/local hoặc /opt (tùy chọn) Thư mục chứa các phần mềm cài thêm. /var/www , /var/ftp/ hoặc /srv (Suse) Thư mục chứa thông tin của các dịnh vụ WEB hay FTP. /var Thư mục chứa các thông tin hay thay đổi như: spool và log
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  • Linux Introduction

    1. 1. LinuxIntroduction August 2012
    2. 2. AgendaHistoryIntroductionPartitionFileSystemPermissionCommands
    3. 3. History• Unix (very expensive)  Minix (for students)• Enter Linus Torvalds – Linux Kernel• With GNU’s Richard Stallman – Bash Shell• Linux Kernel + Shell = GNU/Linux• “Linux is obsolete” - Andrew Tanenbaum, 1992 – Monolithic kernel – Multithreading file system is useless • Cost to rebuild: $1.4 Billion = 6 million lines of code • In 87% of Servers and supercomputers • The Open Source Initiative
    4. 4. Introduction• Cheap• Huge community• Open source• Presence of mind• Jobs• Better understanding
    5. 5. Introduction• Monolithic Kernel• bash, sh, ksh, csh - CLI• X Windows + Gnome, KDE• Ext2, ext3, ext4 File System• Everything is a file• Multi-user – Built to last 5
    6. 6. Linux Kernel• Monolithic Kernel – Resource Manager for process, memory or hardware.• Process – Threads, POSIX• Memory – page size, swapping• Virtual file system• Every major protocols supported in Linux – SCTP, TCP, VPN, IP Tunnel etcAnatomy of Linux Kernel: http://www.ibm.com/developerworks/linux/library/l-linux-kernel/? S_TACT=105AGX59&S_CMP=GR&ca=dgr-lnxw07LKernalAnatomy 6
    7. 7. Bourne-again shell There are 10 types of people in this world, who understand binary and those who don’t.• Macro processor for commands– The main port of entry• Default on Linux and Mac OS X• Interactive and Shell scripting• Shell script == .bat files (but way more powerful and easier!)• It’s interpreted - shell reads each line and acts on it immediately• Automate task, create own command, play with your box! 7
    8. 8. Distro & InstallationPackages: for example to each Distrodebian: distmandrake: Mandrakeredhat: RedHatsuse: susefedora: Fedoraimages: image of Linux (Kernel modules, installation process/boot, system recoverydosutils: some tools for the installation from DOS 8
    9. 9. File System & Partitioning 9
    10. 10. File System & Partitioning 10
    11. 11. File System & PartitioningA Sample of Paritioning:/boot 100MSWAP 512M/ 2000M/usr 6000M/home 1000M/tmp 2000M/var remain spaceMoreover, Multiple OS/Boot Supported by Linux (LILO – LInux boot LOader, ...) 11
    12. 12. File System & Deviceshda1: first partition of first IDE drivehda2: second partition of first IDE drivesdc3: third partition of the third SCSI driveIDE: 4 main partitions & 1 of them could be extended one (allow sub-par).In Linux: max 64 IDE partitions & 16 SCSI 12
    13. 13. File System & Devices 13
    14. 14. File System & Devices 14
    15. 15. File System & Permission 15
    16. 16. File System & Permission $ chmod a=r testfile (read & wipe out all pers) -r--r--r— $ chmod g+x testfile (execute perm. for group) -r--r-xr— $ chmod u+wx testfile (write & execute for owner) -rwxr-xr— $ chmod ug-x testfile (remove execute for both owner group)chmod –R 777 directory-name/ -rw-r--r--d = directory- = regular filel = symbolic links = Unix domain socketp = named pipec = character device fileb = block device file 16
    17. 17. File System & Permission 17
    18. 18. YP New System MS Servers (DB servers, …) Ext: 190.60.21.91 172.17.17.96 Ext: 190.60.21.89 172.17.17.98 Yepex ME Production 1 172.17.17.92 Yepex ME Production 2 172.17.17.102 172.17.17.97 Ext: 190.60.21.92 Ext: 190.60.21.93 172.17.17.95 172.17.17.99 Ext: 190.60.21.90 Yepex ME Staging Ext: 190.60.21.88 18
    19. 19. Accumulate & JBossRefer other slides pls. 19
    20. 20. THANK YOU

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