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Nutrition and life span


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This presentation explores some of the factors that influence how long a human being lives, what affects the length of our lives, nutrition effects on life span and how to use diet and nutrition to stay healthy and live long.

Published in: Healthcare
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Nutrition and life span

  1. 1. Diet and Nutrition II Nutrition and Life Span By Dr. Madhumita Sen
  2. 2. Learning Objectives  At the end of this lecture the student will know  What life span means.  What are the factors that govern life- span.  How nutrition affects life span.  What are the dietary changes needed to keep a long and healthy life.
  3. 3. What is Life-span?  The life expectancy of a particular species is genetically determined.  Human life-expectancy is about 120 years.  Life span is an epidemiological standard.  It is measured as the average age of death in a population cohort.  The goal of medicine is to prevent disease, relieve suffering, and prolong life.
  4. 4. Definition  Life expectancy equals the average number of years a person born in a given country would live if mortality rates at each age were to remain constant in the future.  Worldwide, the average life expectancy at birth was 67.88 years (65.71 years for males and 70.14 years for females) over the period 2005–2010 according to United Nations World Population Prospects 2010.
  5. 5. Factors affecting Life-span  Human life-span is affected by: 1. Public health 2. Nutrition 3. Infant and childhood mortality 4. Vaccinations 5. Risky behavior 6. Accidents 7. Disease prevalence like infections, cancers, diabetes, heart disease, etc.
  6. 6.  In August 2007, the National Commission on Prevention Priorities found that over 100,000 lives per year could be saved through intensifying five services to 90% of the identified population. Those services were: 1. smoking cessation counselling; 2. breast cancer screening in women over 40 years of age; 3. screening for colorectal cancer in adults ≥50 years of age; 4. influenza immunizations in adults ≥50 years of age; 5. the use of aspirin in high-risk cardiovascular patients 
  7. 7. The top ten causes of death in the world today  Heart Disease  Cancer  Stroke (cerebrovascular diseases)  Chronic lower respiratory diseases  Accidents (unintentional injuries)  Diabetes  Alzheimer's disease and dementias  Influenza/Pneumonia:  Chronic renal failure  Septicemia
  8. 8.  "Bad men live that they may eat and drink, whereas good men eat and drink that they may live." - Socrates  In 1978, Strasser coined the term 'primordial prevention', referring to prevention attained through a self-directed lifestyle that did not allow risk factors to develop in a population.
  9. 9.  Many people experience some decline in health with advancing age (usual aging), some maintain very good health (successful aging), and others experience morbidity or disability in old age that is quite severe or quickly progressing (pathological aging).  Life span and aging is composed of multiple indicators (including chronic disease, physical function, depressive symptoms, social support, social participation, and economic satisfaction) and that there are multiple trajectories for successful aging over time among older adults.
  10. 10. List by the World Health Organization (2011) Overall rank Country Overall life expectan cy Male life expectan cy Male rank Female life expectan cy Female rank 1  Japan 104 79 12 86 1 1   Switzerland 83 80 4 85 2 4  Singapore 82 80 4 85 2 4  Iceland 82 81 3 84 9 4  Australia 82 80 4 84 9 73  Thailand 74 71 82 77 75 73  Malaysia 74 72 67 76 87
  11. 11. Reversible Risk Factors in Aging Non communicable Diseases Environmental and Behavioural Risk Factors Psychological and Metabolic Risk Factors Cardiovascular Disease Tobacco use Hypertension Cancer Excessive alcohol use Overweight/ obesity COPD Insufficient physical activity Raised blood glucose Diabetes Unhealthy diets Raised cholesterol Stroke/ Dementias Sleep lack Stress/anxiety
  12. 12. Add life to years  The risk of heart disease, cancer, stroke, and diabetes can be reduced substantially by eating nutritious natural foods, maintaining a normal weight, exercising regularly, and not smoking.  The chance of death can also be decreased by avoiding drugs, alcohol abuse, pollution, violence, and wars.  At the same time, it is important to practice good hygiene, get competent medical care, get protective vaccinations, and avoid risky behavior that can result in accidents or infection with the viruses that cause AIDS or hepatitis.
  13. 13. Illnesses Linked to Poor Diet  Numerous studies have proven that eating the right foods can decrease the likelihood of developing certain diseases. Some of these are:  1. Heart disease, hypertension and stroke: This can be caused by the intake of too much salt, high cholesterol and fatty foods  2. Osteoporosis: This affects mainly older women, but its effects can be mitigated by consuming calcium rich foods.  3. Cancer: A number of poor food choices are linked to various types of cancer such as bowel cancer.  4. Alzheimer’s disease and Dementias
  14. 14. Can we prolong life?  The only definite known intervention that can prolong life is starvation!  Studies at the molecular level have shown that several genes in the sirtuin class, create enzymes that increase the activity of the mitochondria and slow the cell's aging process.  These genes are activated during calorie restriction.  However, calorie restriction can create problems of their own.
  15. 15. Dangers of Under nutrition  Stunting of growth and in children, poor mental development.  Malnutrition, anorexia, listlessness,  Death by starvation  Development of nutritional deficiencies  Osteoporosis  Impaired immunity  Reduced body’s ability to cope with stress
  16. 16. Dangers of over nutrition Of course, obesity is an even bigger risk to life! Obesity can cause chronic inflammatory states which leads to: 1. Cancers of uterus, breast, colon, prostate, liver, pancreas, gall bladder. 2. T2DM and metabolic syndrome. 3. Coronary artery disease, heart attacks. 4. Hypertension, strokes. 5. Cardiomyopathy.
  17. 17. Dangers of obesity Contd. 6. Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver disease. 7. Osteoarthritis. 8. Reproductive problems. Poly Cystic Ovarian syndrome (PCOS) in women, low sperm count in men. 9. Obstructive Sleep Apnoea and pulmonary hypertension. 10. Gall bladder disease.
  18. 18. Causes of Aging
  19. 19. So how much should we eat? The amount of food that can be consumed has two extremes: 1) low enough to cause death from starvation, or 2) high enough to lead to obesity.  The amount of food associated with the longest life span is somewhere between these extremes.  The chances of survival are increased just by maintaining a lean body.
  20. 20. Optimum Nutrition   Should provide the right quantities of protein, fat, carbohydrates, vitamins, minerals, fiber, and probiotic bacteria to maintain a healthy body and to sustain the desired level of activity for the best quality of life.  Recommended Diet of 2000 calories per day, consists of 25% protein, 15% fat, and 30% carbohydrate, 30% as vegetables, fruits and fibre.
  21. 21.  A new study suggests eating a Mediterranean diet might increase lifespan.  The findings, published in the journal AGE, show that elderly people who eat a Mediterranean diet -- which is high in fish and vegetables and low in animal products like milk and red meat -- have about a 20% increased chance of living longer compared with their non-Mediterranean- eating counterparts.
  22. 22. Fiber-rich, "plant-strong" diet could extend lifespan  National Cancer Institute researchers found that those aged 50 to 71 who ate at least 26 grams of fiber a day had a 22 % lower risk of dying over 9 years compared with those who ate 13 grams of fiber a day or less.  Whole grains like oatmeal, wheat bran, and barley have a real health impact. They're rich in antioxidants like selenium and zinc that protect tissues from oxidative damage which is common in chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, and Crohn disease.
  23. 23. Effects of dietary restriction on mammalian tissues: Liver: Increase in gluconeogenesis and glycogenolysis . Decrease in glycolysis Muscle: Increase in mitochondrial biogenesis and respiration. Increase in β-oxidation of fatty acids Increase in protein turnover Fat: Decrease in storage of triglycerides Decrease in secreted leptin Increase in secreted adiponectin
  24. 24.  Pancreatic β-cells: Decrease in secreted insulin  Brain: Decrease in pituitary secretion of growth hormone, thyroid hormone, gonadotropins  Increase in adrenal secretion of corticosteroids  Whole organism: Increase in insulin sensitivity and decrease in blood glucose  Increase in metabolism
  25. 25. Lessons from Okinawa  Known as "the land of the immortals", Okinawa boasts 900 people aged 100 or over, the highest number of verified centenarians in the world.  Those who live there eat most of their food lightly steamed.  While they do eat small amounts of animal products, they consume it mostly raw, such as fresh fish.  They eat more tofu and soya products than any other population in the world, and a vast amount of different vegetables and fruits.
  26. 26.  The Okinawans are physically active, and have a stress-minimising spiritual outlook.  They live mostly in villages, allowing for a relaxed and rural way of life, with a strong sense of community, sharing the joys and hardships of their lives.  They have a deep respect for age, with elders playing an important role in the community.
  27. 27. When to eat  One of the leading theories of aging, the glycemic theory, states that excess glucose leads to pathological changes by binding with proteins and creating advanced glycation end-products (AGEs).  This has motivated many nutritionists to advise prevention of excessive rise of glucose after eating.  Some do this by eating small meals frequently, a technique called "grazing", and by increasing their intake of fiber to slow the absorption of carbohydrates from the intestine.
  28. 28. Does Fasting help?  Recent research on eating only every other day, called "Intermittent Fasting", has shown beneficial effects that met or exceeded those of calorie restriction including reduced serum glucose and insulin levels.   One important aspect of intermittent fasting is that it does not require much calorie restriction on the non-fasting days and does not cause stunted growth.
  29. 29. What about Supplements?  The free-radical theory of aging suggests that antioxidant supplements, such as Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Co-Q10, lipoic acid, might extend human life.  Some people think that if you take vitamin pills by the handful, you don’t have to bother watching what you eat.  However, combined evidence from several clinical trials suggest that β-Carotene supplements and high doses of Vitamin E and B- complex increase mortality rates.
  30. 30.  As supplements are either made from natural substances or mimic substances produced by our bodies, many people assume they cannot do any harm.   Many studies have since shown that vitamins from supplements do not act on the body in the same way as vitamins from foods.  Calcium supplements - often prescribed for osteoporosis - could raise the risk of heart attacks by 30 per cent.   This increase is due to the risk of calcium supplements accelerating the hardening of blood vessels.
  31. 31.  Studies showed that older women who took a daily vitamin supplement, even just a multivitamin, had an increased risk of dying of cardiovascular disease and cancer.  The link between supplement intake and death risk was strongest with iron.  Taking vitamin E supplements significantly increased the risk of prostate cancer in healthy men even after they stopped taking them.
  32. 32.  A 2004 Cochrane review of studies found there was not enough evidence that 2000mg vitamin C supplements prevented colds in the general population.  More recently, the US Women's Health Study found a link between vitamin C supplements and an increased risk of hardening arteries in some people with diabetes. OR
  33. 33. What about Hormones and Phytochemicals?   Other substances proposed to extend lifespan include oxytocin, insulin, human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), and erythropoietin (EPO).  However, hormone supplements have shown no benefits in any study.   Phytochemicals have many natural antioxidants.  Resveratrol is a sirtuin stimulant that appears to extend lifespan.
  34. 34. Is there an Ideal Weight for Longevity?  The least mortality was found with a Body Mass Index 23.5 to 24.9 in men and 22.0 to 23.4 in women.  The rate of suicide has been found to be greater for men with BMIs below 21.  Being underweight or overweight is associated with increased mortality.
  35. 35. The role of Exercise  The amount of food consumed and the level of exercise are the two components of the diet equation that can be controlled significantly.  In general, people who exercise regularly have a lower death rate than sedentary people, regardless of their weight.
  36. 36.  A recent systematic review, first-authored by TJ Saunders of Obesity Panacea, found that a single day of bed rest is sufficient to raise triglycerides, and that 2 hours of sitting increases insulin resistance and impairs glucose tolerance – moving the body closer to a diabetic phenotype.  When sitting, dietary fats are taken up only by adipose tissue. When standing, they are taken up by muscle and adipose tissue both.  Time spent standing helps to push fat into muscle cells as much as vigorous daily exercise!
  37. 37.  Research shows that remaining active can help to maintain both mental and physical health.  Keeping up the activities you enjoy doing will help to maintain physical fitness and preserve muscle tissue.  Preserving strength will help to maintain your independence.  Remember, activity doesn't necessarily mean joining an exercise class.  Gardening, walking to the shops and housework can all count as types of activity too.
  38. 38. Don’t worry,Be Happy!  Another very important contributor to a long and healthy life, apart fro diet and exercise, is being stress free.  Therefore, stress reduction methods such as meditation, prayer and social interactions are an integral part of longevity strategies.
  39. 39. Sleep Is Good  Sleep is highly beneficial for a healthy lifespan. Consequences of poor quality or insufficient sleep include:  Higher rates of cancer.  Impaired immunity and vulnerability to infection.  Higher rates of heart disease.  Higher all-cause mortality.  Faster cognitive decline with age.  Shortening of telomeres.  Higher rates of diabetes.
  40. 40. The best six doctors anywhere And no one can deny it Are sunshine, water, rest, and air Exercise and diet. These six will gladly you attend If only you are willing Your mind they'll ease Your will they'll mend And charge you not a shilling. -Nursery rhyme
  41. 41. Key Points  Making our life span approximate our life expectancy is a goal we all aim for.  Methods used essentially co-relate with leading a healthy life.  They consist of a balanced diet, exercise and healthy lifestyle measures.
  42. 42. Q? Thank you