THE G.I. BILL●World War II veterans (GI’s)get to attend college for free● Millions of GIs boughthomes, attendedcollege, started businesses, orfound jobs
THE G.I. BILL ● The GI Bill made new homes very affordable to returning soldiersPresident Franklin Roosevelt signs the GI Bill in 1944 ● Between 1945 and 1954, the U.S. added 13 million new homes
Truman and civil rights ● One of the major acts made by Truman was when he made an executive order to end segregation in the armed forces ● Truman also asked Congress to pass a civilrights bill that would make lynching a federal crime
ELECTION of 1948 ● Truman angered many Southern Democrats by Harry S Truman Thomas Dewey Strom Thurmondsupporting integration ● Many people didn’t think he would be re-elected
Integration – mixing of groupspreviously separated: equaltreatment for all ethnic groups
● The era of confrontation and competition between the U.S. and the Soviet Union when the threat of nuclear war created constant world tension United States Soviet Union vs. Democracy Communism
The Cold War United States Russia • Believed in a communistic• Believed in democratic forms of forms of governmentgovernment • Believed in workers revolting•Believed the free enterprise system (striking) against businesswas necessary for economic growth owners and taking control of government
Soviets take over Eastern Soviet troops move into Germany near the end of World War II Europe● As World War II ended, the Soviet army occupied the countries of EasternEurope that Germany hadconquered during the war
The Iron CurtainPoland, Romania,Czechoslovakia,Hungary Bulgariaand East Germanybecame satellitenations of SovietUnion“An iron curtain has descended across the Continent” – Prime Minister Winston Churchill
Peep under theIron curtainMarch 6, 1946Who is “Joe”?What part ofEurope is sealedoff?What does thewall symbolize?
Letter from U.S. diplomatGeorge Kennan that led to theU.S. policy of containment of communism.Kennan said the Russians were concerned aboutinvasions from the west and wanted a buffer zoneRussians wanted to spread communism world-wideU.S. should use diplomatic, economic and military actions to keep communism contained
Truman Doctrine● U.S. foreign policy established by President Truman saying the U.S. would protect democracies throughout the world “It must be the policy of the United States to support free peoples who are resisting attempted subjugation by armed minorities or outside pressures” -- Harry Truman
Truman Doctrine● It pledged that the United Stateswould fight Communism worldwide American tanks provided by the Truman Doctrine roll through Turkey
Aid for Europe ● Secretary of State George Marshall toured Western Europe. ●Marshall feared that poor Europeans would turn to CommunismChildren in a London suburb, waiting outside the wreckage of what was their home
MarshallPlan● U.S. plan for rebuildingWestern Europe, and stoppingcommunism after World War II ● Plan pumped billions of dollars into Western Europe for food and supplies George C. Marshall
Marshall Plan aids Western Europe The Marshall Plan proved to be a great success
The Potsdam ConferenceThe Potsdam Conference was a meeting of the Allied leaders during World War II to decide what to do with Germany
Germany Divided British ● After World War II, Germany was Soviet divided into four zones, occupied by French, British, Amer ican, and SovietFrench troops ● Berlin, the capital American city, was divided
East and West Germany formed East BerlinWest East West Berlin GermanyGermany ● In June of 1948, the French, British and American zones were joined into the nation of West Germany after the Soviets refused to end their occupation of Germany.
● In response, theSoviets cut off WestBerlin from the rest ofthe world with ablockade. Eventual site of the Berlin Wall
Berlin Airlift● President Trumandecided to avoid theblockade by flying in food and othersupplies to the needypeople of West Berlin
Berlin Airlift● The Berlin Airliftsaved the people of WestBerlin from fallingunder Soviet Unioncontrol
Birth of NATONorth Atlantic Treaty Organization ● Formed in 1949 to protect Western Europe from Soviet aggression
The Warsaw Pact● The Warsaw Pact was theSoviet Union’s response to the creation of the NorthAtlantic Treaty Organization
Cold War spreads to Asia ● Communists take over in China China Korea● The country of Korea becamethe next battleground in the ColdWar
The Korean War The Cold War gets HOT● Following World WarII, the Allies dividedKorea at the 38th parallel● Soviets controlledNorth Korea; U.S. setsup a democracy in SouthKorea
The Korean War A “Police Action” (1950-1953)●“Domino Theory”If one country falls to communism, others around it will fall as well
The Korean War The Cold War gets HOT ● On June 25, 1950, North Korea invades South Korea ● UN forces under Macarthur come to the aid of South Korea ● Communist forces push UN forces to brink of defeat, but UN forces push back
The Korean War● North Koreans pushedback to border with China ● Chinese enter war on the side of North Koreans ● Macarthur calls for an invasion of China, wants to use the atomic bomb An artillery officer directs UN troops as they drop white phosphorous on a Communist-held post in February 1951.
The Korean War ● War ends in a stalemate ● Korean War ended July 1953 ● Korea was divided at the 38th parallel● U.S. began a major military build-up;began using military force to preventspread of communism
Red Scare ● U.S. citizens in 1950s feared Communists wanted to take overthe world. This fear was known as the Red Scare.
Red Scare ● People who were accused of being Communists were often “blacklisted” ● If someone was blacklisted, it meant they were denied work or ostracized from societyMovie stars Lauren Bacall and Humphrey Bogart lead aprotest during height of Hollywood Blacklist controversy
McCarthyism ● In 1952, U.S. Senator Joe McCarthy began holding Senate hearings● McCarthy turned the hearingsinto witch-hunts, destroyingpeople’s reputations
Russians launch Sputnik The Russians have beaten America into space—they have the technological edge!
The Space Race Begins● In 1961, Russian cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin blasted off into space, making the Soviet Union the first nation to launch a human into space ● Kennedy said he wanted U.S. to land a man on the moon by the end of the 1960s
The Space Race Begins ● on July 20, 1969, when Neil Armstrong became the first human to step foot on the moon“That’s one small step for man,one giant leap for mankind.” – Neil Armstrong
Berlin Wall Built ● Soviets wanted to keep Germans from moving out of East Germany into West Berlin
Bay of Pigs Debacle (1961) ● CIA-trained Cuban exiles led an attack at the Bay of Pigs in Cuba in an attempt to overthrow Castro ● Invasion was a disaster and failed;
Cuban Missile Crisis ● U.S. and Russia came extremely close to nuclear war when Russians place nuclear missiles in Cuba in November of 1962
Cuban Missile Crisis● United States placesan embargo onincoming shipments toCuba from the SovietUnion
Cuban Missile Crisis ● Kennedy threatens a U.S. invasion of Cuba unless Soviet missiles are removed ● The Russians agreed to take their missiles out of Cuba if the U.S. removed theirs from TurkeyPresident John F. Kennedy thinking in the OvalOffice during the Cuban Missile Crisis in 1962