Page |1 Training report Manufacturing practice IITT COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING POJEWAL (NAWANSHAHR) (PB) Submitted to: Mr. Gurnnam Singh(Head, Department of M.P.) Submitted by: Dushmanta Nath Roll no: 81301113016 Branch: IT
Page |3 INTRODUCTIONAIM: To be familiar with different types of operations which arecarried out in the carpentry shop and to make a job of the givendimensions by using different tools in carpentryTOOLS USED: Hand saw, Steel rule, Iron Jack Plane, Bench Vice,Chisel, Mallet etc.OPERATIONS AND PROCEDURE: The different types ofoperations to be carried out in the carpentry shop and theprocedure is given as follows:1. CUTTING: The desired raw material was cut from a givenmaterial of wood.2. DIMENSIONING: The two pieces were dimensioned accordingto given size.3. PLANING: Both the pieces were planted with help of Iron JackPlane.4. GROOVING: One piece was grooved with help of chisel andmallet and the other was fitted into it by striking it with mallet.5. FINISHING: The job was then given a finishing touch with helpof Iron Jack Plane and was checked with help of Try Square In thatway the job was prepared.PRECAUTIONS: The following precautions should be kept inmind:1. The tools which are under operation should not be blunt.2. The job should be tightened in the bench vice up to the desiredstrength i.e. neither too tight nor too loose.
Page |4 3. The wastes or the wooden pieces should not be thrown on the ground as they may strike somebodys foot. 4. After the job is complete all the tools should be replaced properly to their original places CARPENTRY TOOLS In the carpentry shop the tools are classified as under: Measuring Tools Marking Tools Cutting Tools Planning Tools Drilling and Boring Tools Holding Tools Striking Tools Sharpening Tools 1. MEASURING TOOLS: (a)Fourfold box wood rule: It is marked with inch and millimeter scale. It is used for marking and measuring. (b)Steel rule: It is made up of stainless steel and is marked with scale. (c)Contraction scale: It is also a rule type scale used for making patterns. Casting allowances are added to this scale. (d) Inch tape: It is made up of a flexible thin strip. It is folded around a centre pin attached with a small handle. It is graduated. 2. MARKING TOOLS: (a) Pencil: Lead pencil is generally used for marking purposes. (b) Scriber: It has a sharp conical edge used to mark on even hard surfaces. The front edge is hardened so as to resist wear and tear. It is made up of carbon steel. (c) Marking gauge: It is used to draw parallel lines. The movable
Page |5portion of the gauge is adjusted to suitable position and istightened on to stem.(d) Mortise gauge: It is to draw parallel lines. Its working is similarto marking gauge except that it has two sharp edges, oneadjustable and the other adjustable or fixed.(e) Try Square: It is used to draw lines at right angle, parallel or tocheck the trueness of planned surfaces. It is made up of a steelblade with a heavy base.(f) Bevel: It consists of a wooden handle fitted with an adjustableblade. The blade can be rotated by 180 with respect to handle. Itis used for marking various angles.(g) Compass / Dividers: These are used for dividing equal no. ofparts and for drawing arcs and circles. It consists of two legs witha spring on the top of the legs. A screw is also attached at centreof legs for adjustment.3. CUTTING TOOLS:Saw and chisel are used as cutting tools in carpentry shop.SAW: A saw is a multi-tooth tool made up of thin sheet attachedwith a wooden handle. Its teeth are ground and sharpened toachieve smooth cutting.DIFFERENT TYPES OF SAW :(a) Rip Saw:It is a hand saw from 30cm to 75 cm long, containing one to oneand half teeth per cm. It should not be called a hand saw but a ripsaw only.(b) Tendon Saw: It derives its name from tenor name of joint. It is a thin sawranging from 20 cm to 40 cm in length and is supported by back of
Page |6wrought iron or brass, hence it is also called back saw. It containsabout 4 teeth per cm.(c) Coping Saw:It is used for cutting sharp or quick curves either internal orexternal.(d) Compass Saw: It is a short narrow saw tapering towards the point, used forcutting sweep sand large interior curves by hand, sometimestermed as table saw(e) Keyhole Saw: It is used for cutting thick internal curves where it is impossible touse other saws.(f) Cross-Cut Saw: It is a saw provided with two handles, one at each end use forcutting heavy timber across the grains.(g) Bow Saw: It consists of a wooden frame, a bar, a string, lever and twohandles. It is used to produce curved surfaces with quick turns.The blade is tightened with help of string and lever.SETTING OF SAW TEETH: The teeth of saw are bend in opposite direction alternatively. It isknown as saw teeth setting. It is to form a clearance b/w twocutting edges so that the saw may work without any restriction.
Page |7CHISELS: There are three types of chisels commonly used in carpentryshop.(a) Firmer Chisel: It is a general purpose chisel used to finish inside grooves. It hasvarious sizes of cutting edge depending upon the work to be done.Width varies from 5 mm to 35 mm.(b) Mortise Chisel: It is used to make mortises. Mortise chisel is used for heavy cuts.The blade thickness varies from 5 mm to 12 mm.(c) Gauge Chisel: It is used to finish curved holes. Gauge chisels are of two type’si.e. inside and outside. 4. PLANING TOOLS: For wood working processes the following planes are used:(a) Wooden Jack Plane: Its body is made of beach wood. Theseare available from 350 mm to 425 mm in length and with bladesfrom 50 mm to 75 mm in width.(b) Iron Jack Plane: Its whole body is made of cast iron, providedwith a wooden handle at the back and wooden knob at the front forholding it with both hands. These planes are 125 mm to 250 mm inlength with blade width from 30 mm to 60 mm.(c) Trying Plane: It is nothing but a longer wooden jack plane, thelength of stock varying from 500 mm to 760 mm. It is used forprecision finishing work after the surface is prepared by the jackplane. 5. DRILING AND BORING TOOLS: These are used forproducing holes in wood. Some commonly used tools are asfollows:(a) Auger: It is a steel bar having an eye at one end to fix thehandle and has a screw point at the other end.(b) Gimlet: Its cutting edge is like that of a twist drill and is used tobore small holes in the wood.(c) Brace and bits: A brace is an appliance used for holdingsdifferent types of bits for producing holes in wood.The most useful is ratchet brace as shown in fig. The commontypes of bits used in conjunction with a brace are as follows:1. Centre bit2. Auger bit
Page |83. Counter-sink bit4. Nose bit5. Spoon bit(d) Hand drill: It consists of a forged body, on the top which isprovided a wooden handle and at the bottom a chuck.It is used for drilling small holes only.6. HOLDING DEVICES:1. Carpenters bench2. Carpenters vice3. Bar or T-cramp4. C-clamp5. Hand screw7.STRIKING TOOLS:(a)Mallet: It is made of hard wood and is rectangular or round inshape, provided with a wooden handle.(b)Claw hammer: It is made of steel and carries the striking face atone end and the claw at the other. The face is used to drive thenails into the wood and claw for extracting nails out of the wood.(c)Pean hammer: It may be a ball pean or cross pean hammer. It isused for driving in nails.
P a g e | 10 INTRODUCTIONAIM: To be familiar with diff. types of operations which are carriedout in the fitting shop and to make the job of the given dimensionsTOOLS USED: Hacksaw, Bastard file, dead smooth file, BenchVice, Steel Rule, Scriber, Try Square etc.OPERATIONS AND PROCEDURE: The diff. types of operationscarried out are as follows:1. DIMENSIONING: The required raw material was cut from thegiven piece of iron with help of hacksaw and desired dimensionswere made on the cut piece with the help of a scriber.2. CUTTING: The job was then fitted in the vice and was cutaccording to the dimensions made on it.3. FINISHING: The job was first made fine with the help of bastardfile and then with help of dead smooth file and then job waschecked with help of try square.PRECAUTIONS:1. Hacksaw should be used very carefully as it can break by a littlewrong movement2. Dimensioning made should be very accurate.3. The tools used should be replaced to their original places afterthe job is complete.4. Avoid wearing loose clothes. In fitting shop unwanted material is removed with the help ofhand tools. Commonly used tools are hacksaw, files, chisels etc.
P a g e | 11TOOLS USED IN FITTING SHOP:Fitting shop tools are classified as under:1. Clamping tools2. Measuring and Marking tools3. Cutting tools4. Striking tools5. Drilling tools 1. CLAMPING TOOLS:Bench Vice: It is a common tool used for holding jobs. It consistsof cast iron body and cast iron jaws. Two jaw plates are fitted on both the jaws. Jaw plates aremade up of high carbon steel and are wear resistant. One jaw is fitted to the body and the other slides on a squarethreaded screw with the help of a handle. The jaws are opened upto a required length, job is placed in b/w the jaws. (a) Pin Vice: It is used to hold wire or small diameter rods. Itconsists of a small chuck made up of tool steel and a mild steelhandle. (b) Pipe Vice: It is used to hold pipes. It consists of a verticalscrew with square threads. A handle is attached on top of thescrew. A movable jaw is fixed on the lower end of screw. It gripsthe pipe at four ends.2. MEASURING AND MARKING TOOLS: (a) Try Square (b) Bevel Protector (c) Combination Set (d) Centre Square (e) Scriber and Surface Gauge (f) Dot Punch (g) Centre Punch(h) V-Block(i) Steel Rules(j) Micrometer(k) Dial Indicator
P a g e | 12(l) Dividers(m)Calipers3. CUTTING TOOLS:The chief cutting tools used in fitting are:1. Cold Chisels: It differs from other chisels by the fact that it hasno wooden handle. It is made of goodgrade tool steel with a hardened cutting edge and a beveled headat the other end.2. Hacksaw: Hand Hacksaw consists of a metal frame, fitted with awooden handle. The blades are made of carbon or high speedsteel. The best all round blade for hand use is the one with 16 to18 teeth per 25 mm.Setting of teeth: This is done to increase the width of the cutslightly larger than the blade thickness to facilitate smooth cuttingoperation and removal of saw dust. For blades with 1 mm pitch;one tooth is set to the right, one to the left and one isleft unset. For blades with higher pitch each tooth is setalternatively.3. Files: A file is a hardened piece of high grade steel with slantingrows of teeth. It is used to cut smoother fit metal parts. It cuts onlyon the forward stroke.4. STRIKING TOOLS: The various types of hammers used are:1. Ball-pean hammer2. Straight-pean hammer3. Cross-pean hammer4. Double-faced hammer5. Lead hammer6. Raw-hide headed hammer5. DRIILING TOOLS: Drills: The following two types of drills arecommonly used:1. Flat drill2. Twist drillDrilling machines and appliances:1. Hand drill2. Breast drill3. Ratchet brace4. Portable electric hand drill
P a g e | 14 INTRODUCTIONAIM: To be familiar with welding process and diff. types of weldingoperations to be carried out in welding shopTOOLS USED: Hacksaw, anvil, welding electrodes, protectingglasses, scriber, welding set.OPERATIONS AND PROCEDURE: The diff. types of operationsare: 1. CUTTING: The required raw material is cut from a huge pieceof iron. 2. DIMENSIONING: The dimensions were made on the materialwith the help of scriber.3. EARTHING: Now the work piece was earthed through thewelding set and was placed on the anvil for welding purpose.4. WELDING: The work pieces were then welded with the help ofwelding set by keeping the protecting glasses in b/w the eyes andwork piece.PRECAUTIONS: 1. The work pieces should be put on the anvil in the position inwhich we want to join them. 2. Welding should be done only by wearing protective glasses oneyes to protect them from harmful radiations. 3. After the welding is over the job must be kept on the anvil untilit is not cooled down. 4. Replace all the tools used to their original places after the job iscompleted.
P a g e | 15 Welding is a process of joining two materials with the help ofheat or pressure or by some other means. The cost of welding isvery less as compared to other processes.TYPES OF WELDING:FORGE WELDING: In this two metal pieces are heated upto theplastic stage in the furnace. Then it is hammered so that ahomogeneous mixture is formed at the joint.GAS WELDING: Gas welding is the process in which a gas flame is used to raisethe temperature of the metals to be joined. The metals are heatedup to melting. The metal flows and on cooling it solidifies. A fillermetal may be added to the flowing molten metal to fill up cavitymade during the end preparation. Many combinations of gases areused in gas welding but the most common of these is oxygen andacetylene.OXY-ACETYLENE WELDING:This process can be used for almost all the metals and alloys usedfor engg purposes. A temperature flame of 3200 degree Celsiuscan be produced by this method. There are two systems of oxy-acetylene welding.1. High pressure system: In this process the oxygen andacetylene are taken for use from high pressure cylinders.2. Low pressure system: In this system oxygen is taken from lowpressure cylinder and acetylene is produced by the action ofcalcium carbide and water.Principle of oxy-acetylene welding:A very hot flame is produced by burning of the gases coming fromthe torch tip. The edges to be welded are heated to melting. A fillermetal is also added to complete the welding. This molten metalmixture when solidifies on cooling forms a welded joint.
P a g e | 16Apparatus:1. Oxygen cylinder2. Acetylene cylinder3. Pressure gauge4. Valve5. Hose pipes6. Torch7. Welding tip8. Pressure regulators9. Lighter10. Goggles Oxygen and acetylene cylinders are filled with gases. Bothcylinders are attached with pressure gauges, regulators andcylinder valves.Applications:All the metals can be welded with proper filler metals. Sameequipment may be used for cutting purposes.Oxy-acetylene welding is particularly used for sheet metal work.Advantages of oxy-acetylene welding:1. Equipment is cheap.2. It can be used for welding all metals.3. Maintenance of equipment is very less.4. It is a portable process.5. It is specially used for sheet metal work.Disadvantages:1. It takes long time to heat the job as compared to arc welding.2. Heat affected area is more.3. Gases are expensive and difficult to store.
P a g e | 17TYPES OF GAS FLAMES:There are three types of gas flames:1. Oxidizing flame2. Carburizing flame3. Neutral flame1. Oxidizing flame:When the volume of oxygen gas is more than that of acetylenemixed into the torch then the flame produced is called oxidizingflame. This flame is used for welding brass and also for cutting themetals. The ratio of oxygen to acetylene varies from about 1.2 to1.5.2. Carburizing flame:The ratio of oxygen to acetylene is 0.9 to 1. It is also called areducing flame and has a temperature of 3040 degree celsius.It isused to join those materials which are readily oxidized.3. Neutral flame:When the ratio of oxygen and acetylene is equal, a neutral flame isobtained. It has a temperature of 3250 degree celsius. It does notreact chemically with the parent metal and protects it fromoxidation.Types of welded joints:The type of joint is determined by the relative positions of the twopieces being joined.The following are the five basic types of commonly used joints:1. Lap joint2. Butt joint3. Corner joint4. Edge joint5. T-jointThe figures of these joints have been given.Welding Positions:
P a g e | 18It is easiest to make welds in flat positions. The common weldingpositions are:1. Flat position2. Horizontal position3. Vertical position4. Overhead positionDefective welds:A weld not properly welded is a defective weld. A properly madeweld should have following characteristics:1. The weld should not crack in the bend test.2. Its appearance should be ripple like and not spongy.3. It should not have cavities and the grain size should be uniform.Defects in welding:Some important welding defects are:1. Cracked welds2. Porous welds3. Insufficient penetration4. Non-uniform uneven weld5. Warping
P a g e | 20 INTRODUCTIONAIM: To make a job of the given dimensions by using differenttools in smithy.TOOLS USED: Furnace, anvil, hammers, tongs, clamping devices.OPERATIONS AND PROCEDURE:1.DRAWING: It is the process in which a red hot metal piece isbeaten up by a hammer. The thickness of diameter is decreasedbut length increases.2. UPSETTING: It is the process in which the diameter of the hotwork piece is increased and length is reduced. Hot metal pieceis placed on the anvil in vertical position. It is struck with a handhammer.3. SWAGING: It is a process used toy form a finished differentshapes such as hexagonal etc.4. BENDING: The process of giving desired angles or curvature tohot pieces is known as bending.PRECAUTIONS:1. The fire should be lightened in the furnace very carefully.2. All the exhaust gases and smoke should go to the chimney.3. The metal piece should be neither overheated nor under heated.4. Never hold the hammer and tongs loose while working.5. Never wear silky clothes while working in smithy shop.The process of giving desired shape to a metal piece by heatingand hammering is known as forging. The metal piece is heated upto forging temperature. The processes involved in forging arehammering, pressing, swaging, bending and flattening etc.
P a g e | 21FORGING TOOLS AND EQUIPMENTS:1. Furnace or Hearth2. Anvil3. Hammer4. Tongs5. Chisel6. Flatter or Flattener7. Swages, Top and Bottom8. Punches9. Hardie10. Gouge1. FURNACE OR HEARTH: It is used for heating the metal piece.Furnace consists of four legs, a cast iron or steel body, ironbottom, a chimney or a blower. Its main parts are:(a) Hearth(b) Tuyere(c) Hood(d) Chimney(e) Water tank2. ANVIL: A block on which forging work is done is known as anvil.It is made up of cast iron, steel or wrought iron.It is either supported on an iron base or mounted on the foundation3. HAMMER: Various kinds of hammers such as sledge hammers,straight hammers, flat and cross peans, Smiths ball pean hammeretc. are used in smithy.4. TONGS: These are used to hold the hot jobs.5. CHISEL: It is used to the metal.6. FLATTER OR FLATTENER: It is used to give smooth finish toflat surfaces.7. SWAGES, TOP AND BOTTOM: To shape convex surfaces andto give finish to round, square, hexagonal or octagonal shapedsections.
P a g e | 228. PUNCHES: To make recesses of any shape in hot metal.9. HARDIE: To nick the bar and to shape the cold work.10. GOUGE: To cut plates to curves. FORGING TEMPERATURE RANGE OF VARIOUS METALS:Metals Temperature (degree celsius)1. Aluminum and magnesium alloys 350 to 5002. Copper, Brass and Bronze 600 to 9503. Mild steel 750 to 13004. Wrought iron 900 to 13005. Medium carbon steel 750 to 12506. High carbon and alloy steels 800 to 11507. Stainless steel 940 to 1180Defects in forging:The defects found in forgings are due to one or more of thefollowing reasons:1. Poor quality of metal2. Improper heating of component for forging3. Incorrect die design4. Faulty forging design5. Defective forging methods6. Uneven cooling of stock after forging
P a g e | 23Some of the defects found in forging are as follows:1. Longitudinal cracks2. Transverse cracks3. Hair cracks4. Mismatched forgings5. Scale pits6. Fiber flow lines discontinued7. Oversize components8. Burnt and overheated metal
P a g e | 25 INTRODUCTIONFOUNDRY: The place where jobs are prepared by melting andpouring the molten metal into moulds is known as foundry.MOULD: A mould is a cavity so prepared that it can be used tomake castings by molten into it.PATTERN: Pattern is a model of anything which is used to preparemoulds by placing it in sand.TOOLS USED IN FOUNDRY Lifter Showel Trowel Hand riddle Strike off bar Vent Wire Draw spike Rammers Slicks Smoothers and corner slicks Mallet Swab Sprue cutter Spure pin Nails and wire pieces Draw screws and rapping plate Moulding boxes or flasks Bellow
P a g e | 26 Ladles CruciblesPATTERN MAKING:Pattern is an mirror image of the casting, when it is used withsuitable mouiding material it forms a cavity called as mould.Requirements of pattern making are:Pattern Material: Plaster Metals Plastics WaxTYPES OF PATTERNS: Single piece pattern Two piece or split pattern Multi piece pattern Match plate patterns Gates pattern Skeleton pattern Sweep pattern Pattern with loose pieces Cope and drag pattern Follow board pattern Segmental patternDESIGN CONSIDERATION IN PATTERN
P a g e | 27The following points should be considered, while designing apattern: Proper allowances should be provided. The parting line should be carefully selected. A proper material should always be selected. The wall thickness and section should be kept as uniform as possible. Abrupt changes should be avoided. Use of offset should be encouraged to as great extent as it is possible. For large scale production of small casting, the use of gated or match-plate pattern should be encouraged. All sharp corners and edges should be invariably provided with suitable fillets to enable an easy withdrawal of pattern, smooth flow of molten metal and ensure a sound casting.
P a g e | 28 INTRODUCTIONAIM: To be familiar with the diff. types of operations which arecarried out in the sheet metal shop and to make a job of the givendimensions.TOOLS USED: Steel rule, Steel square, Divider, Centre punch,Straight snips, Mallet.
P a g e | 29OPERATIONS AND PROCEDURE: The diff. types of operationsto be carried out in the sheet metal shop and the procedurefollowed is given as below:1. MEASURING AND MARKING: A standard size sheet may haveto be cut so that each piece being sufficient for making one suchcomponent.2. LAYING OUT: Laying out means the operation of scribing thedevelopment of the surface of the component on the sheet/ sheetblank, together with overlapping, bending and hammering etc.3. CUTTING: The sheet metal is cut with the help of snips.4. HAND FORMING: The term metal forming stands for shapingand / or bending of sheet in three dimensions in order to give it adesired shape and size of the final product.5. EDGE FORMING AND WIRING: The edges of the sheet metalproducts are formed to ensure safety of hands and to providestiffness to the products.6. BENDING: Sheet metal is required to be bent at different anglesto shape it into the required form.PRECAUTIONS:1. Hammering should not be done in lazy mood.2. Heavy blows should not be given on the tail of the anvil.3. Hammer should have proper handle length.4. Blunt chisels should not be used.5. Dimensioning of the metal sheet should be done accurately.Sheet metal work is regarded as working of thin metallic sheet withhand tools and simplest machines. Many important engg. Articlesmade up of sheet metal find their application in houses, agriculture,machinery, decorative articles etc.TYPES OF SHEET METALS:1. Steel (ferrous) sheets
P a g e | 302. Non-ferrous sheets3. Coated (galvanized) sheets4. Uncoated (plain) sheetsTOOLS USED IN SHEET METAL SHOP: Various hand tools areused in sheet metal as described below:MARKING TOOLS:Marking tools are used in sheet metal shop according to requireddimensions. Various marking tools are:1. Steel Rule:These are available in variety of sizes. The rule could be steel footrule, folding rule or tape rule.2. Steel Square:It is an L-shaped piece of hardened steel. It is used to makesquare corners. It is also used for checking and marking angles.3. Scriber:It is a steel wire of 200 mm length with one end sharp andhardened to mark lines on metallic sheet.4. Divider:It is used to scribe arcs on metallic sheets.5.Trammel Points:It is used for drawing large circles and arcs. It has two straight,removable legs tapered to needle pointand mounted on separate holders.6. Punches:The following two punches are used:(a) Prick Punch(b) Centre Punch(a) Prick Punch:
P a g e | 31It is used for making indentation marks for locating the centreposition for dividers having included angle of 30 degree.(b) Centre Punch:It is used for marking the location of points and the centre of holesto be drilled. Its tapered point is grounded to 90 degree includedangle.CUTTING TOOLS:Cutting tools used in this shop are:1. Straight Snips:For cutting along straight line, straight snip is used whose bladesare straight. It is used to cut 22 S.W.G or lighter. To cut sheets ofgreater thickness lever shearing machine is used.2. Bent Snips:Blades are curved back from the cutting edge, which allows themetal to slide over the blades.3. Chisels:These are generally used in sheet metal shop for cutting sheets,rivets and bolts.4. Striking Tools: ♦ Hammers ♦ Ball Pean hammer ♦ Square face hammer ♦ Raising hammer ♦ Riveting hammer5. Supporting Tools:
P a g e | 32 ♦ Hand stake ♦ Half round stake ♦ Taper stake ♦ Grooving stake ♦ Hose stakeSHEET METAL OPERATIONS: ♦ Measuring and marking ♦ Laying out ♦ Hand cutting and shearing ♦ Hand forming ♦ Nibbling ♦ Circle cutting ♦ Piercing and blanking ♦ Edge forming and wiring ♦ Joint making ♦ Bending ♦ Drawing
P a g e | 34AIM: To make a job on lathe machine of given dimensions.OBJECTIVE: To be familiar with diff. tubes of operations carriedout in machine shop.OPERATIONS AND PROCEDURE:1. CUTTING: The desired raw material was cut from a given longrod of iron.2. MARKING: The job was marked the desired dimensions up towhich it was to turned taper and parallel.3. TIGHTENING: The job was then tightened into the chuck andthen its centre was checked with the help of surface gauge.4. FACING: The facing of the job was done on both ends with thehelp of tool fitted in the tool post.5. TAPER TURNING: The job was then turned taper by rotatingthe cross-slide at desired angle.6. FILING: Now the job was made fine with the help of bastard fileand then by dead smooth file.Hence the job got ready by passing through the diff. operationswith which we were made familiar. The shop where most of the work is performed on differentmachines is called machine shop. In machine shop, the rawmaterial is cut, machined, formed or shaped with the help ofmachine.Different machines used in machine shop are:-1. Lathe machine2. Shaper3. Milling machine4. Planning machine5. Drilling machine6. Grinding machine
P a g e | 357. Threading machine.Some of t he machines are explained below:-LATHE:-A lathe is a powered mechanical device in which the work is heldand rotated against a suitable cutting tool for producing cylindricalforms in the metal, wood or any other machinable material.Parts of lathe:1. Bed: It is a geavy rigid casting made in one piece. It is the baseor foundation of the lathe.2. Headstock: It is permanently fastened to the inner ways at theleft hand end of the bed. It serves to support the spindle anddriving arrangements.3. Tailstock: It is situated at the right hand end of the bed. It isused to support the right end of the work.4. Carriage: It controls and supports the cutting tool. It has thefollowing five parts: Saddle: It is a H-shaped casting fitted over the bed. It moves along the guide ways. Cross-slide: It carries the compound slide and tool post; can be moved by hand or by power. Compound rest: It is marked in degrees; used during taper turning to set the tool for angular cuts. Tool post: The tool is clamped on the tool post. Apron: It is attached to the saddle and hangs in front of the bed.Lathe operations: Facing Rough turning Shouldering Radius turning
P a g e | 36 Necking Taper turning Thread cutting Forming Chamfering Knurling Drilling Boring Counter sinking Counter boringSHAPER: It is a reciprocating type of machine tool intended primarily toproduce vertical, horizontal or inclined flat surfaces. The cuttingtool cuts only in the forward stroke.Classification of shaper:1. According to the type of the mechanism used for givingreciprocating motion to the ram: Crank type Geared type Hydraulic type2. According to the position and travel of ram: Horizontal type Vertical type Travelling head type3. According to the type of cutting stroke: Push type Draw type4. According to the type of design of the table: Standard shaper Universal shaper
P a g e | 37Principal parts:1. Base: It is made of cast iron to resist vibration and takes up highcompressive load.2. Column: It is a box like casting mounted upon the base. Itencloses ram driving mechanism.3.Ram: It is a reciprocating member which reciprocates on theguide ways above the column.4. Cross-rail: It is mounted on the front vertical guide ways of thecolumn. it has two parallel guide ways on its top.5. Table: It is made of cast iron and is rectangular in shape. It hasT- slots on its top surface.DRILLING MACHINE: It is one of the simplest, moderate and accurate machine toolused in production shop and tool room. Its chief function is to makeholes. Drilling is the process of making hole or enlarging a hole inan object by forcing a rotating tool called "Drill".Operations performed: Reaming Boring Counter sinking TappingClassification of drilling machines: Hand drill - power operated Bench drilling machine Upright drilling machine Radial drilling machine Multi-spindle drilling machine
P a g e | 38 GRINDING MACHINES: Grinding is a metal cutting operation performed by a rotatingabrasive tool, called “grinding wheel". Such wheels are made offire grains of abrasive materials held together by a bondingmaterial called a "Bond". Grinding wheel: It is a multi- tooth cutter made up of many hard particles knownas "abrasives" which have been crushed to leave sharp edgeswhich do the cutting. Abrasives: these are substances used for grinding and polishingoperations. Abrasives may be classified as follows:1. Natural: Sandstone Emery Corundum Diamonds2. Artificial: Silicon carbide Aluminum oxide FINALLY, SPECIALLY THANKS TO OURPRINCIPAL WHO PROVIDES US TO ALL EQUIPMENTAND NECESSORY MACHINES TO DO ALL PRACTICALWHICH IS VERY USEFUL FOR OUR FUTURE’S WORK
P a g e | 39AS WELL AS OUR PRACTICAL LIFE. AND NODOUGHT HE PROVIDED US A WELL EDUCATEDFACULTIES AND THEY (FACULTIES) GIVE USTHEIR BEST.Signature Signature(External) (Lecturer)