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Advanced Topics in IP Multicast
Deployment
BRKIPM-2008
Greg Shepherd
Distinguished Engineer
© 2014 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.BRKIPM-2008 Cisco Public
Abstract Reminder
 This session covers t...
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 Multicast Market Overview
 PIM Configu...
Multicast Overview
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Multicast Applications
6
 Finance (Tradi...
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Multicast Benefits For Content Delivery
G...
PIM Configuration Notes
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Multicast Application Types
9
Multicast A...
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The Multicast “Application Spectrum”
10
M...
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Impact of Source Specific Multicast (SSM)...
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Socket Interface Extensions for Multicast...
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Rendezvous Points Auto-RP
13
 Dynamic wa...
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Auto-RP Listener – Cisco IOS
14
 Use glo...
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Avoid DM Fallback Automatically – Cisco I...
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Auto-RP in IOS XR
 IOS XR supports Auto-...
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Rendezvous Points - Anycast RP
 Allows R...
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Anycast RP – MDSP Config
18
Interface loo...
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Combining Anycast RP with Auto-RP
19
Inte...
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Anycast RP (PIM) - Operations
20
• FHR se...
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Anycast RP – PIM Config (NXOS)
21
B
RP2
A...
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ip multicast-routing
!
interface Loopback...
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Phantom RP with Auto-RP
23
ip pim send-rp...
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Intermittent Sources
24
 “Intermittent” ...
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Intermittent Sources – (S,G) Expiry Timer...
Interconnecting PIM Domains
Interconnecting PIM Domains
- NAT / Service Reflection
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Benefits of Multicast Destination NAT
28
...
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Multicast Service Reflection Interface
29...
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Service Reflection Interface Configuratio...
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Service Reflection – Receiver / Group Ran...
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Service Reflection Parameters
32
interfac...
Interconnecting PIM Domains
- Static and Dynamic Models
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Interconnecting PIM Domains
• Static Forw...
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Static Subscriptions with IGMP
Customers ...
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Virtual RP
36
Source Network
Customer
224...
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Edge Router is RP
37
Source Network
Custo...
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Edge Router is RP - Caveat
38
Source Netw...
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Edge Router Proxy Registers to RP
39
Sour...
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Edge Router is RP and MSDP Peer
40
Source...
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Edge Router is RP and MSDP Peer
41
Source...
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Static Forwarding—Cable Model
42
 Basic ...
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interface Vlan6
ip igmp static-group 224....
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Advantages of Static Forwarding
Provider ...
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Dynamic Forwarding Options
 Rising data ...
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Source Network
Customer
224.0.31.20
Desti...
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Source Network
e0
IGMP
IGMP
interface Loo...
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Dynamic Forwarding – igmp mroute-proxy (D...
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Dynamic Forwarding – igmp mroute-proxy (D...
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Source Network
Customer
224.0.2.64
Destin...
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Dynamic Forwarding – (S,G) PIM Joins
 Wo...
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Market Data Design Whitepapers
52
 Marke...
Label Switched Multicast
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What is Label Switched Multicast ?
54
 I...
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LSM Protocols
55
For BUILDING LSP’s:
 Mu...
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LSM Services
56
 LSM architecture suppor...
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MLDP P2MP - Signalling
 Egress router (l...
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MLDP P2MP - State
 Control Plane: 1 P2MP...
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MLDP MP2MP - Signalling
 Leaf sends mLDP...
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MLDP MP2MP - State
 Control Plane: 1 MP2...
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RSVP-TE - Signalling
 Leafs sends BGP Au...
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RSVP-TE Example - State
 Control Plane: ...
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Applications of LSM
 IPTV / Internet mul...
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Applications of LSM (cont)
 MVPN (Ros...
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LSM Status
65
LSM Protocols Distinct Prop...
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LSM – Decision Points
 MLDP and RSVP are...
High Availability
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Service Availability Overview
68
IP Host ...
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Source Redundancy: Approaches
69
Primary ...
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Source Redundancy: Anycast/Prioritycast
S...
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Source Redundancy - Anycast/Prioritycast
...
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Anycast / Prioritycast Benefits
 Sub-sec...
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Multicast Fast Convergence
 IP multicast...
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Multicast Only Fast ReRoute - MoFRR
 Mak...
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MoFRR - Concept Example
75
S
R
B
Join
Pat...
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LineCard
LineCard
LineCard
LineCard
ACTIV...
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Automatic IP Multicast Tunneling
 Automa...
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Elements Required for Deploying AMT
 AMT...
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AMT Components
• Gateway
• Initiates conn...
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Elements Required for Deploying AMT
80
Mc...
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Elements Required for Deploying AMT
81
 ...
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Live-Live
 Live-Live—Spatial Separation
...
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Cable Industry Example
 Path separation ...
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cFRR - PIM/mLDP Break Before Make
84
RPF ...
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cFRR -PIM/mLDP Make Before Break
1. Recei...
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Multipath for IP Multicast
 In unicast, ...
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Cisco IOS IPv4 Per (S,G)
Improvements for...
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Next-Hop Load-Split Algorithm
 Needed to...
Multicast in 802.11
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Background on Video and Wi-Fi Multicast
9...
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MAC Layer Enhancement: MC2UC
91
Multicast...
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Video Stream Multicast Delivery Solution
...
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Video Stream Delivery Solution
93
Stream ...
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Network Layer Enhancement
 Improved m...
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Multicast Mode Selection
95
 Multicast m...
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Agenda
96
 Multicast Market Overview
 P...
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Questions?
97
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Call to Action…
Visit the World of Soluti...
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 Complete your online session
evaluation...
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Final Thoughts
 Get hands-on experience ...
Advanced Topics in IP Multicast Deployment
Advanced Topics in IP Multicast Deployment
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Advanced Topics in IP Multicast Deployment

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Advanced Topics in IP Multicast Deployment

  1. 1. Advanced Topics in IP Multicast Deployment BRKIPM-2008 Greg Shepherd Distinguished Engineer
  2. 2. © 2014 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.BRKIPM-2008 Cisco Public Abstract Reminder  This session covers tools and techniques that will assist with deploying IP Multicast.  We begin with some configuration examples which discuss PIM modes and Rendezvous Point Deployment models for PIM SM domains  Examples are then given for ways of interconnecting separate PIM domains  A description of a technology called Automatic Multicast Tunnels (for extending multicast content between sites which are not homogeneously connected) is provided  We discuss the integration of multicast with MPLS (Label Switched Multicast).  We discuss ways of delivering a highly available multicast service.  We briefly discuss the deployment of IP Multicast in a wireless environment.  This session is primarily for network engineers in enterprise and service provider network environment. Attendees should have a basic understanding of IP Multicast 3
  3. 3. © 2014 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.BRKIPM-2008 Cisco Public  Multicast Market Overview  PIM Configuration notes  Interconnecting PIM domains  Label Switched Multicast  High Availability  Multicast in 802.11 4 Agenda
  4. 4. Multicast Overview
  5. 5. © 2014 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.BRKIPM-2008 Cisco Public Multicast Applications 6  Finance (Trading, Market Data, Financial SP) ‒ Tibco, Hoot-n-Holler, Data Systems  Enterprise Video and collaborative environments ‒ Cisco TelePresence®, DMS, MP/WebEx Video Conferencing, Video Surveillance  Broadband (Entertainment) ‒ Includes Cable, DSL, ETTH, LRE, Wireless ‒ Broadcast TV / IP/TV, VOD, Connected Home  Service Provider (Transit Services) ‒ Native v4 and v6 ‒ Label Switched Multicast (LSM) ‒ Multicast VPNs (IP and MPLS-based)
  6. 6. © 2014 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.BRKIPM-2008 Cisco Public Multicast Benefits For Content Delivery Growth of Internet Based Live Video Services 7 By 2014 10% of all Internet video content will be live
  7. 7. PIM Configuration Notes
  8. 8. © 2014 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.BRKIPM-2008 Cisco Public Multicast Application Types 9 Multicast Applications One-to-Many (1toM) Many-to-Many (MtoM) Many-to-One (Mto1) Audio/Video Lectures, presentations, concerts, television, radio Push Media News headlines, weather updates, sports scores Distribution Web site content, executable binaries Announcements Network time, multicast session schedules, random numbers, keys, security Monitoring Stock prices, sensors Conferencing Audio/Video conferences, whiteboards Sharing Resources Synchronized distributed databases Games Multi-player with distributed interactive simulations Others Concurrent processing, collaboration, two-way distance learning Resource Discovery Service location, device discovery Data Collection Monitoring applications, video surveillance Others Auctions, polling, jukebox, accounting For a detailed analysis see RFC3170
  9. 9. © 2014 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.BRKIPM-2008 Cisco Public The Multicast “Application Spectrum” 10 Many-to-Many | Few applicationsOne-to-Many applications SSM For One-to-Many applications Eliminates need for RP Engineering Data and Control Planes decoupled Bidir For Many-to-Many | Few applications Drastically reduces (S,G) state in network Data and Control Planes decoupled All modes can coexist and applications can be moved gracefully (by group) between modes SM For One-to-Many applications Original (Classic) Supports both Shared and Source Trees
  10. 10. © 2014 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.BRKIPM-2008 Cisco Public Impact of Source Specific Multicast (SSM)  Hosts join a specific source within a group Content identified by specific (S,G) instead of (*,G) Hosts responsible for learning (S,G) information  Last-hop router sends (S,G) join toward source Shared Tree is never Joined or used Eliminates possibility of content Jammers Only specified (S,G) flow is delivered to host  Eliminates Networked-Based Source Discovery No RPs for SSM groups  Simplifies address allocation Content sources can use same group without fear of interfering with each other 11
  11. 11. © 2014 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.BRKIPM-2008 Cisco Public Socket Interface Extensions for Multicast  Protocol Independent (supports both IPv4 and IPv6)  Source-Specific Multicast API – Section 5.1.2 of the RFC – MCAST_JOIN_SOURCE_GROUP Join Source Specific Group – MCAST_LEAVE_SOURCE_GROUP Leave Source Specific Group – MCAST_LEAVE_GROUP Drop all sources for group / interface  Suggested best practices – One multicast group per socket to prevent overload – Verify interface presently used for multicast (Ethernet, Wi-Fi, 3G, etc..) Source Filters (RFC 3678) 12
  12. 12. © 2014 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.BRKIPM-2008 Cisco Public Rendezvous Points Auto-RP 13  Dynamic way to learn RP to Group mapping information for IPv4  Two IANA reserved groups forward mapping information: ‒ 224.0.1.39 - cisco-rp-announce ‒ 224.0.1.40 - cisco-rp-discovery  Groups carry Group to RP mappings  Usually forwarded in Dense Mode: ‒ IOS state appear in mroute tables ‒ NXOS creates no visible mroutes / configured to forward / listen to groups: ‒ ip pim auto-rp forward listen ‒ IOS XR RPF floods to neighbors (no requirement for Dense Mode)  This helps when: ‒ RP address and group ranges change often ‒ Network has many routers ‒ Simple config desired ‒ Several RPs for different applications ‒ RPs maintained by different administrative groups
  13. 13. © 2014 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.BRKIPM-2008 Cisco Public Auto-RP Listener – Cisco IOS 14  Use global command (recommended): ‒ ip pim autorp listener ‒ Added support for Auto-RP Environments ‒ Modifies interface behavior: Interface configured in SM and only use DM for Auto-RP group Only needed if Auto-RP is used  Use with interface command ‒ ip pim sparse-mode Prevents DM Flooding  No longer need: ‒ ip pim sparse-dense-mode ‒ Available 12.3(4)T, 12.2(28)S, 12.1(13)E7
  14. 14. © 2014 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.BRKIPM-2008 Cisco Public Avoid DM Fallback Automatically – Cisco IOS  IOS global command – no ip pim dm-fallback  Totally prevents DM Fallback! – No DM Flooding (since all state remains in SM)  Default RP Address = 0.0.0.0 [nonexistent] – Used if all RPs fail  All SPTs remain active  Enabled by default if all interfaces are in sparse mode  Available 12.3(4)T, 12.2(33)SXH 15
  15. 15. © 2014 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.BRKIPM-2008 Cisco Public Auto-RP in IOS XR  IOS XR supports Auto-RP  IOS XR Auto RP operation is interoperable with IOS  IOS XR needs no DM state  Auto RP groups RPF flooded to PIM neighbors  No support for AutoRP in IPv6 in ANY OS 16
  16. 16. © 2014 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.BRKIPM-2008 Cisco Public Rendezvous Points - Anycast RP  Allows RP redundancy (even with static RP assignment)  Converges in (deterministic) IGP timescale  Relies on MSDP (IOS and IOS XR) or entirely based on PIM (NXOS)  http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc3446 17
  17. 17. © 2014 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.BRKIPM-2008 Cisco Public Anycast RP – MDSP Config 18 Interface loopback 0 ip address 10.0.0.1 255.255.255.255 ip pim sparse-mode Interface loopback 1 ip address 10.0.0.2 255.255.255.255 ! ip msdp peer 10.0.0.3 connect-source loopback 1 ip msdp originator-id loopback 1 Interface loopback 0 ip address 10.0.0.1 255.255.255.255 ip pim sparse-mode Interface loopback 1 ip address 10.0.0.3 255.255.255.255 ! ip msdp peer 10.0.0.2 connect-source loopback 1 ip msdp originator-id loopback 1 B RP2 A RP1 C D ip pim rp-address 10.0.0.1 ip pim rp-address 10.0.0.1
  18. 18. © 2014 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.BRKIPM-2008 Cisco Public Combining Anycast RP with Auto-RP 19 Interface loopback 0 ip address 10.0.0.1 255.255.255.255 Interface loopback 1 ip address 10.0.0.2 255.255.255.255 ! ip pim send-rp-announce loopback 0 scope 32 ip pim send-rp-discovery loopback 1 scope 32 ! ip msdp peer 10.0.0.3 connect-source loopback 1 ip msdp originator-id loopback 1 Interface loopback 0 ip address 10.0.0.1 255.255.255.255 Interface loopback 1 ip address 10.0.0.3 255.255.255.255 ! ip pim send-rp-announce loopback 0 scope 32 ip pim send-rp-discovery loopback 1 scope 32 ! ip msdp peer 10.0.0.2 connect-source loopback 1 ip msdp originator-id loopback 1 MSDP B RP2 A RP1 C ip multicast-routing ip pim autorp-listener no ip pim dm-fallback D •Rapid RP failover of Anycast RP •No DM Fallback •Configuration flexibility of Auto-RP •Ability to disable undesired groups
  19. 19. © 2014 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.BRKIPM-2008 Cisco Public Anycast RP (PIM) - Operations 20 • FHR sends registers to RP1 • RP1 decapsulates packet, replicates it down RPT, joins SPT • Copy of register sent to RP2, source is RP1’s address • RP1 sends register-stop to FHR • RP2 decapsulates packet, replicates it down RPT, joins SPT • RP2 sends register-stop to RP1 • If no RPTs exist, discard register, send register-stop to sender, LHR and/or RP1 RP1 10.1.1.1 RP2 10.1.1.1 LHR RP 2 10.1.1.1 FHR FHR10.1.1.1 PIM register PIM register stop
  20. 20. © 2014 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.BRKIPM-2008 Cisco Public Anycast RP – PIM Config (NXOS) 21 B RP2 A RP1 feature pim interface loopback1 ip address 10.10.10.10/32 ip router ospf 10 area 0.0.0.0 ip pim sparse-mode interface loopback2 ip address 100.100.100.100/32 ip router ospf 10 area 0.0.0.0 ip pim sparse-mode ip pim anycast-rp 100.100.100.100 10.10.10.10 ip pim anycast-rp 100.100.100.100 20.20.20.20 ip pim rp-address 100.100.100.100 group-list 224.0.0.0/4 feature pim interface loopback1 ip address 20.20.20.20/32 ip router ospf 10 area 0.0.0.0 ip pim sparse-mode interface loopback2 ip address 100.100.100.100/32 ip router ospf 10 area 0.0.0.0 ip pim sparse-mode ip pim anycast-rp 100.100.100.100 10.10.10.10 ip pim anycast-rp 100.100.100.100 20.20.20.20 ip pim rp-address 100.100.100.100 group-list 224.0.0.0/4 C feature pim ip pim rp-address 100.100.100.100 group-list 224.0.0.0/4 feature pim ip pim rp-address 100.100.100.100 group-list 224.0.0.0/4 D
  21. 21. © 2014 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.BRKIPM-2008 Cisco Public ip multicast-routing ! interface Loopback0 ip address 1.1.1.1 255.255.255.252 ip pim sparse-mode ip ospf network point-to-point ! interface Ethernet0/0 ip address 10.1.1.1 255.255.255.0 ip pim sparse-mode ! interface Ethernet1/0 ip address 10.1.2.1 255.255.255.0 ip pim sparse-mode ! router ospf 11 network 1.1.1.0 0.0.0.3 area 0 network 10.1.1.0 0.0.0.255 area 0 network 10.1.2.0 0.0.0.255 area 0 ! ip pim bidir-enable ip pim rp-address 1.1.1.2 bidir BiDir Phantom RP 22 RP: 1.1.1.2 ip multicast-routing ! interface Loopback0 ip address 1.1.1.1 255.255.255.248 ip pim sparse-mode ip ospf network point-to-point ! interface Ethernet0/0 ip address 10.1.1.2 255.255.255.0 ip pim sparse-mode ! interface Ethernet1/0 ip address 10.1.2.2 255.255.255.0 ip pim sparse-mode ! router ospf 11 network 1.1.1.0 0.0.0.7 area 0 network 10.1.1.0 0.0.0.255 area 0 network 10.1.2.0 0.0.0.255 area 0 ! ip pim bidir-enable ip pim rp-address 1.1.1.2 bidir SP 30 Bit Mask 29 Bit Mask OSPF requires P2P interfaces Question: Does Bidir RP have to physically exist? Answer: No. It can be a phantom address.
  22. 22. © 2014 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.BRKIPM-2008 Cisco Public Phantom RP with Auto-RP 23 ip pim send-rp-announce 1.1.1.2 scope 32 bidir ip pim send-rp-discovery Loopback1 scope 32 interface Loopback0 ip address 1.1.1.1 255.255.255.252 ip pim sparse-mode ip pim send-rp-announce <[int] | [ip-address]> scope [group-list] [bidir]  Previously, Auto-RP could only advertise IP address on interface (e.g. loopback) as RP  New option has been added—now we can advertise any address on a directly connected subnet  In example below, Phantom RP address is being advertised through Auto-RP; the source of the Mapping packets are the address on Loopback  Available 12.4(7)T, 12.2(18)SXF4
  23. 23. © 2014 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.BRKIPM-2008 Cisco Public Intermittent Sources 24  “Intermittent” means applications / sources that temporarily stop sending for > 3 minutes  (S,G) state times out. Initial packets lost during SPT switchover  Solutions:  PIM-Bidir or PIM-SSM (no data driven events)  Periodic keepalives or heartbeats
  24. 24. © 2014 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.BRKIPM-2008 Cisco Public Intermittent Sources – (S,G) Expiry Timer 25  (S,G) expiry timer:  Set on every router to maintain state for entire trading day (36000 seconds = 10 hours) ip pim sparse sg-expiry-timer <secs> Available 12.2(18)SXE5, 12.2(18)SXF4, 12.2(35)SE and NXOS 7010-1# sh run pim | in sg ip pim sg-expiry-timer 36000 sg-list sg-expiry 7010-1# sh route-map sg-expiry route-map sg-expiry, permit, sequence 10 Match clauses: ip multicast: group 239.1.2.0/23 Set clauses:
  25. 25. Interconnecting PIM Domains
  26. 26. Interconnecting PIM Domains - NAT / Service Reflection
  27. 27. © 2014 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.BRKIPM-2008 Cisco Public Benefits of Multicast Destination NAT 28 • Address Collision ‒ Solves overlapping services in scoped address range • Domain Separation ‒ Creates two PIM domains ‒ Edge router becomes source / receiver in each domain • Redundancy ‒ Allows creation of A and B stream • Source Network Issues ‒ Allows free selection and scoping of source subnet • Translation or Splitting options: ‒ Multicast-to-Multicast ‒ Multicast-to-Unicast ‒ Unicast-to-Multicast
  28. 28. © 2014 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.BRKIPM-2008 Cisco Public Multicast Service Reflection Interface 29 • Appears as multicast receiver in source domain • Appears as multicast source in receiver domain • Similar to loopback interface – logical interface always up • Resides on unique subnet excluded from IGP updates • Maintains information about:  Input interface  Private-to-public destination group mappings  Mask length which defines destination pool range  Source IP address of translated packet PIM Domain A PIM Domain BVif 1 Interface
  29. 29. © 2014 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.BRKIPM-2008 Cisco Public Service Reflection Interface Configuration 30  Asssign Vif1 to globally unique IP subnet  Vif1 subnet to be used as source address of NATed packets  Advertise Vif1 subnet in routing protocol  Configure multicast routing for NATed address range not shown (PIM- SM, SSM, or Bidir-PIM) interface Vif1 ip address 10.1.1.1 255.255.255.0 ip pim sparse-mode ! router eigrp 1 network 10.0.0.0 no auto-summary PIM Domain A PIM Domain B Vif1 Interface 224.1.1.0 to 239.1.1.0 224.1.1.1 to 239.1.1.1 . . . 224.1.1.255 to 239.1.1.255 Configure Vif1 & Routing:
  30. 30. © 2014 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.BRKIPM-2008 Cisco Public Service Reflection – Receiver / Group Range 31 interface Vif1 ip address 10.1.1.1 255.255.255.0 ip pim sparse-mode ip igmp static-group class-map static ! class-map type multicast-flows static group 224.1.1.0 to 224.1.1.255 PIM Domain A PIM Domain B Vif1 Interface 224.1.1.0 to 239.1.1.0 224.1.1.1 to 239.1.1.1 . . . 224.1.1.255 to 239.1.1.255  Static IGMP groups pull streams from PIM Domain A to Border Router  Use IGMP Static Group Range to simplify configuration  Supported since 12.2(18)SXF5
  31. 31. © 2014 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.BRKIPM-2008 Cisco Public Service Reflection Parameters 32 interface Vif1 ip address 10.1.1.1 255.255.255.0 ip pim sparse-mode ip service reflect Gig0/0 destination 239.1.1.0 to 239.1.1.255 mask-len 24 source 10.1.1.2 PIM Domain A PIM Domain B Vif1 Interface 224.1.1.0 to 239.1.1.0 224.1.1.1 to 239.1.1.1 . . . 224.1.1.255 to 239.1.1.255  Include input interface  Define destination pool range and mask length  Specify source IP address from Vif1 subnetGig0/0
  32. 32. Interconnecting PIM Domains - Static and Dynamic Models
  33. 33. © 2014 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.BRKIPM-2008 Cisco Public Interconnecting PIM Domains • Static Forwarding • Static Service Levels—Cable Model • Dynamic Forwarding • Hybrid Design • Provider / Customer prefer least coordination • Providers under contract to deliver stream • Each side wants to limit organizational liability / coordination • Provider / Customer have separate multicast domains • Therefore: – Traffic statically nailed up, no PIM Neighbors, no edge DR, no PIM Joins accepted, no RP shared, no MSDP peering 34 Brokerage Content Provider Financial Service Provider Brokerage Brokerage Content Provider Content Provider
  34. 34. © 2014 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.BRKIPM-2008 Cisco Public Static Subscriptions with IGMP Customers Want Ability to “Nail Up” Service  Existing Issues – ip igmp join-group <group>  Sends an IGMP report out the interface  Traffic gets punted to CPU – ip igmp static-group <group>  Adds interface to OIL  Does not send IGMP report out the interface  Workarounds – Separate router—Put IGMP join group on a dedicated router 35
  35. 35. © 2014 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.BRKIPM-2008 Cisco Public Virtual RP 36 Source Network Customer 224.0.2.64 DestinationSource 10.2.2.2 e0 e1 interface Ethernet0 ip address 10.1.2.1 255.255.255.0 ip pim sparse-mode ip igmp static-group 224.0.2.64 Virtual RP interface Ethernet1 ip address 10.1.2.2 255.255.255.0 ip pim sparse-mode ip pim rp-address 10.1.1.1 ip route 10.1.1.1 255.255.255.255 10.1.2.5 router ospf 11 network 10.1.0.0 0.0.255.255 area 0 redistribute static subnets ip pim rp-address 10.1.1.1  Feed is statically nailed up  Customer Edge router advertises RP address from upstream interface  Every router in customer network needs to know about the RP
  36. 36. © 2014 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.BRKIPM-2008 Cisco Public Edge Router is RP 37 Source Network Customer 224.0.2.64 DestinationSource 10.2.2.2 e0 e1 interface Ethernet0 ip address 10.1.2.1 255.255.255.0 ip pim sparse-mode ip igmp static-group 224.0.2.64 RP interface Ethernet1 ip address 10.1.2.2 255.255.255.0 ip pim sparse-mode interface Loopback0 ip address 10.1.1.1 255.255.255.255 ip pim sparse-mode ip pim rp-address 10.1.1.1 ip pim rp-address 10.1.1.1  Feed is statically nailed up  Customer Edge router is RP—so that it will accept a non-connected source  Every router in customer network needs to be know about the RP
  37. 37. © 2014 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.BRKIPM-2008 Cisco Public Edge Router is RP - Caveat 38 Source Network Customer 224.0.2.64 DestinationSource 10.2.2.2 e0 e1 interface Ethernet0 ip address 10.1.2.1 255.255.255.0 ip pim sparse-mode ip igmp static-group 224.0.2.64 RP interface Ethernet1 ip address 10.1.2.2 255.255.255.0 ip pim sparse-mode interface Loopback0 ip address 10.1.1.1 255.255.255.255 ip pim sparse-mode ip pim rp-address 10.1.1.1 ip pim rp-address 10.1.1.1  Feed is statically nailed up  Customer Edge router is RP—so that it will accept a non-connected source  Every router in customer network needs to be know about the RP This Method Will Not Work with Future Versions of IOS
  38. 38. © 2014 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.BRKIPM-2008 Cisco Public Edge Router Proxy Registers to RP 39 Source Network Customer 224.0.2.64 DestinationSource 10.2.2.2 e0 e1 RP interface Ethernet1 ip address 10.1.2.2 255.255.255.0 ip pim dense-mode proxy-register list 100 access-list 100 permit ip any any ip pim rp-address 10.1.1.1 interface Loopback0 ip address 10.1.1.1 255.255.255.255 ip pim sparse-mode ip pim rp-address 10.1.1.1 interface Ethernet0 ip address 10.1.2.1 255.255.255.0 ip pim sparse-mode ip igmp static-group 224.0.2.64  Feed is statically nailed up  Customer Edge router has dense-mode on IIF and proxy registers to RP  RP is configured inside customer network
  39. 39. © 2014 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.BRKIPM-2008 Cisco Public Edge Router is RP and MSDP Peer 40 Source Network Customer 224.0.2.64 DestinationSource 10.2.2.2 e0 e1 RP interface Ethernet1 ip address 10.1.2.2 255.255.255.0 ip pim dense-mode interface Loopback0 ip address 10.1.1.1 255.255.255.255 ip pim sparse mode interface Loopback1 ip address 10.1.3.2 255.255.255.255 ip pim sparse mode ip pim rp-address 10.1.1.1 ip msdp peer 10.1.3.1 connect-source Loopback1 ip msdp originator-id Loopback1 RP interface Loopback0 ip address 10.1.1.1 255.255.255.255 ip pim sparse mode interface Loopback1 ip address 10.1.3.1 255.255.255.255 ip pim sparse mode ip pim rp-address 10.1.1.1 ip msdp peer 10.1.3.2 connect-source Loopback1 ip msdp originator-id Loopback1
  40. 40. © 2014 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.BRKIPM-2008 Cisco Public Edge Router is RP and MSDP Peer 41 Source Network Customer 224.0.2.64 DestinationSource 10.2.2.2 e0 e1 RP interface Ethernet1 ip address 10.1.2.2 255.255.255.0 ip pim dense-mode interface Loopback0 ip address 10.1.1.1 255.255.255.255 ip pim sparse mode interface Loopback1 ip address 10.1.3.2 255.255.255.255 ip pim sparse mode ip pim rp-address 10.1.1.1 ip msdp peer 10.1.3.1 connect-source Loopback1 ip msdp originator-id Loopback1 RP interface Loopback0 ip address 10.1.1.1 255.255.255.255 ip pim sparse mode interface Loopback1 ip address 10.1.3.1 255.255.255.255 ip pim sparse mode ip pim rp-address 10.1.1.1 ip msdp peer 10.1.3.2 connect-source Loopback1 ip msdp originator-id Loopback1 Dense mode is required on the IIF so that the A flag will be set and MSDP will forward an SA
  41. 41. © 2014 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.BRKIPM-2008 Cisco Public Static Forwarding—Cable Model 42  Basic Service ‒ ip access-list standard basic-service permit 239.192.1.0 0.0.0.255 ! Basic service channels  Premium Service ‒ ip access-list standard premium-service permit 239.192.1.0 0.0.0.255 ! Basic service channels permit 239.192.2.0 0.0.0.255 ! Premium service channels  Premium Plus Service ‒ ip access-list standard premium-plus-service permit 239.192.1.0 0.0.0.255 ! Basic service channels permit 239.192.2.0 0.0.0.255 ! Premium service channels permit 239.192.3.0 0.0.0.255 ! Premium Plus service channels Adapt Cable Model of Provisioning by qualifying multicast boundary with each of following:
  42. 42. © 2014 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.BRKIPM-2008 Cisco Public interface Vlan6 ip igmp static-group 224.0.2.64 ip igmp static-group 224.0.2.65 ip igmp static-group 224.0.2.66 ... ip igmp static-group 224.0.2.80 Static Forwarding - Group Range Command  Subscribing dozens or hundreds of groups can be cumbersome with the static-group command:  The static group range command simplifies the config:  Available in 12.2(18)SXF5 43 class-map type multicast-flows market-data group 224.0.2.64 to 224.0.2.80 interface Vlan6 ip igmp static-group class-map market-data
  43. 43. © 2014 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.BRKIPM-2008 Cisco Public Advantages of Static Forwarding Provider and Customer Have Separate Multicast Domains  Each free to use any forwarding model, e.g. PIM-SM, PIM-SSM, PIM-Bidir  Each responsible for their portion of the delivery model—clear demarcation  Simple, straight-forward  Has traditionally been first choice for Financial Service Provider 44 Main Disadvantage Customer unable to control subscriptions and bandwidth usage of last mile dynamically As data rates climb this is more of a issue
  44. 44. © 2014 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.BRKIPM-2008 Cisco Public Dynamic Forwarding Options  Rising data rates and 24 hour trading drive the requirement for dynamic subscriptions  Methods: – IGMP Membership Reports – PIM Joins—*,G for PIM-SM and PIM-Bidir – PIM Joins—S,G for PIM-SSM 45
  45. 45. © 2014 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.BRKIPM-2008 Cisco Public Source Network Customer 224.0.31.20 DestinationSource 10.2.2.2 e0 e1 IGMP IGMP PIM Dynamic Forwarding – Provider Wants IGMP Report  Assumes that hosts sit on edge of customer network or breaks multicast delivery model  Stretches the original design and purpose of IGMP  In deployment today – We can make this work dynamically today with a combination of:  ip igmp helper  ip igmp proxy-service  ip igmp mroute-proxy  Industry may want to recommend this model going forward 46
  46. 46. © 2014 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.BRKIPM-2008 Cisco Public Source Network e0 IGMP IGMP interface Loopback1 ip address 10.3.3.3 255.255.255.0 ip pim sparse-mode ip igmp helper-address 10.4.4.4 ip igmp proxy-service ip igmp access-group filter-igmp-helper ip igmp query-interval 9 interface Ethernet0 ip address 10.2.2.2 255.255.255.0 ip pim sparse-mode ip igmp mroute-proxy Loopback1 ip pim rp-address 20.20.20.20 ip route 20.20.20.20 255.255.255.255 10.4.4.4 e1 Customer e0 loopback1 PIM 10.4.4.0/24 47 Dynamic Forwarding – igmp mroute-proxy  igmp proxy service and helper are configured on loopback  Downstream interface is configured with igmp mroute-proxy  Every router in customer network needs to be know about the virtual RP Virtual RP: 20.20.20.20
  47. 47. © 2014 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.BRKIPM-2008 Cisco Public Dynamic Forwarding – igmp mroute-proxy (Detail) 48 Source Network e0 IGMP (*, 239.254.1.0), 00:00:01/00:02:55, RP 20.20.20.20, flags: SC Incoming interface: FastEthernet1/15, RPF nbr 10.2.2.2, RPF-MFD Outgoing interface list: Vlan194, Forward/Sparse, 00:00:01/00:02:55, H e1 Customer e0 loopback1 PIM 10.4.4.0/24  PIM (*,G) Join message is received on e0 interface and mroute state is created; igmp mroute-proxy command on interface causes special internal flag to be added to mroute  PIM (*,G) Join message filters up towards virtual RP  The first PIM (*,G) Join on e0 triggers an unsolicited IGMP report to be generated on the loopback1 interface  Host sends IGMP report and creates mroute state
  48. 48. © 2014 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.BRKIPM-2008 Cisco Public Dynamic Forwarding – igmp mroute-proxy (Detail) 49 Source Network e0 IGMP IGMP e1 Customer e0 loopback1 PIM 10.4.4.0/24  When periodic IGMP query is run on loopback1 the igmp proxy-service command initiates a walk through the mroute table looking for mroute-proxy flag; IGMP report generated for each mroute with flag.  While mroute is kept alive (with PIM joins) IGMP reports are forwarded  The igmp helper command directs the IGMP report out the e1 interface  IGMP reports are dynamic - only sent when there is interest in the customer domain; however edge router does not respond to queries from provider router  Consideration: •More IGMP messages •Complex configuration
  49. 49. © 2014 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.BRKIPM-2008 Cisco Public Source Network Customer 224.0.2.64 DestinationSource 10.2.2.2 e0 e1 RP RP RP Dynamic Forwarding – PIM / MSDP  Provider accepts PIM join – Sparse Mode  Provider must supply RP addr  Requires PIM Neighbor relationship  No RP on customer Side  One multicast domain – Source Specific Multicast  Provider must supply S,G info  Requires PIM Neighbor relationship  MSDP – Standard Interdomain Multicast – Requires peering relationship 50
  50. 50. © 2014 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.BRKIPM-2008 Cisco Public Dynamic Forwarding – (S,G) PIM Joins  Works in situations ideal for SSM  No need to share RP info or use MSDP  Redundancy options: – Host Side  Host can join both primary and secondary servers—for both A and B streams  Host will need to arbitrate between primary and standby – Network/Server Side  Anycast Source—Hosts only join one server and network tracks server and forwards active stream 51
  51. 51. © 2014 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.BRKIPM-2008 Cisco Public Market Data Design Whitepapers 52  Market Data Network Architecture (MDNA)  Trading Floor Architecture  Design Best Practices for Latency Optimization  IP Multicast Best Practices for Enterprise Customers ‒ http://www.cisco.com/go/financial A Set of Four Documents that Cover All Aspects of Network and Application Design for Market Data Distribution
  52. 52. Label Switched Multicast
  53. 53. © 2014 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.BRKIPM-2008 Cisco Public What is Label Switched Multicast ? 54  IP multicast packets are transported using MPLS encapsulation.  MPLS encoding for LSM documented in rfc5332.  Unicast and Multicast share the same label space.  MPLS protocols RSVP-TE and LDP are modified to support P2MP and MP2MP LSPs.
  54. 54. © 2014 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.BRKIPM-2008 Cisco Public LSM Protocols 55 For BUILDING LSP’s:  Multicast LDP (MLDP) ‒ Extensions to LDP ‒ Support both P2MP and MP2MP LSP ‒ RFC6388  RSVP-TE P2MP ‒ Extensions to unicast RSVP-TE ‒ RFC4875 For ASSIGNING FLOWS to LSPs: • BGP RFC6514 Also describes Auto-Discovery • PIM RFC6513 • MLDP In-band signaling • Static
  55. 55. © 2014 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.BRKIPM-2008 Cisco Public LSM Services 56  LSM architecture supports a range of services or “clients”  Clients use combination of multicast signalling and control plane  All LSM traffic is forwarded using MFI or LFIB mechanisms Shares the same forwarding plane as unicast MPLS LSM Forwarding (MFI/LFIB) P2MP TE VPLS Native IPv4 mVPN IPv4 Native IPv6 MLDPControl Plane C-Multicast Signalling Forwarding Plane BGP / PIM / PORT / Static Clients m6PE m6VPE IPv6
  56. 56. © 2014 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.BRKIPM-2008 Cisco Public MLDP P2MP - Signalling  Egress router (leaf) receives PIM Join  Leaf sends mLDP label mapping to Ingress router (Root) (via core)  Ingress PE received one update due to receiver driven logic 57 Ingress Router (Root) Leaf Leaf Leaf CE Receiver CE Receiver CE Receiver Source Label Mapping
  57. 57. © 2014 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.BRKIPM-2008 Cisco Public MLDP P2MP - State  Control Plane: 1 P2MP LSP  Forwarding Plane: 1 P2MP LSP replication  When leaf router wants to leave, message only sent to next branch point, not to ingress PE; 58 Ingress Router (Root) Leaf Leaf Leaf CE Receiver CE Receiver CE Receiver Source P PE
  58. 58. © 2014 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.BRKIPM-2008 Cisco Public MLDP MP2MP - Signalling  Leaf sends mLDP label mapping to Root, (just like P2MP)  On each link, label mapping sent in reverse direction (away from root), creating bidirectional MP2MP LSP 59 Ingress Router (Root) Leaf Leaf Leaf CE Sender/Re ceiver CE CE Sender/Re ceiver Label Mapping TO root Sender/Rec eiver Sender/Rec eiver Label Mapping FROM root
  59. 59. © 2014 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.BRKIPM-2008 Cisco Public MLDP MP2MP - State  Control Plane: 1 MP2MP LSP  Forwarding Plane: 4 P2MP LSP  Control plane state converted to set of P2MP replications in forwarding plane 60 Ingress Router (Root) Leaf Leaf Leaf CE Receiver CE Receiver CE Receiver P PESender/Rec eiver
  60. 60. © 2014 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.BRKIPM-2008 Cisco Public RSVP-TE - Signalling  Leafs sends BGP Auto Discovery leaf to notify ingress PE  Ingress PE sends RSVP-TE Path messages to leaves  Leaves respond with RSVP-TE Resv messages 61 Ingress Router (Root) Leaf Leaf Leaf CE Receiver CE Receiver CE Receiver Source BGP Auto Discovery leaf updates or static configuration Resv Path
  61. 61. © 2014 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.BRKIPM-2008 Cisco Public RSVP-TE Example - State  Control Plane: 3 P2P sub-LSPs from the Root to the Leaves  Data Plane: The 3 P2P sub-LSP are merged into 1 P2MP for replication  When a leaf want to leave, the control message is sent all the way to ingress PE to remove the LSP 62 Ingress Router (Root) Leaf Leaf Leaf CE Receiver CE Receiver CE Receiver Source P PE
  62. 62. © 2014 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.BRKIPM-2008 Cisco Public Applications of LSM  IPTV / Internet multicast transport – draft-ietf-mpls-mldp-in-band-signaling-02 – 1-1 mapping between IP multicast flow and LSP – Forwarding uses the global table (non-VPN)  VPLS – draft-ietf-pwe3-p2mp-pw-00 – Use MLDP to create Pseudowires  Carriers Carrier service – draft-wijnands-mpls-mldp-csc-01 – A provider offering services to another provider 63
  63. 63. © 2014 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.BRKIPM-2008 Cisco Public 64 Applications of LSM (cont)  MVPN (Rosen Model) – RFC6037 – Using MLDP MP2MP for the default MDT (MI-PMSI). – Using MLDP or RSVP-TE P2MP for the data MDT (MS-PMSI). – Same as GRE model, just the encapsulation changed.  MVPN (Dynamic partitioned MDT) – draft-rosen-l3vpn-mvpn-mspmsi-05. – Dynamic model of above. – Using MLDP MP2MP for the dynamic MDT.
  64. 64. © 2014 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.BRKIPM-2008 Cisco Public LSM Status 65 LSM Protocols Distinct Properties MLDP draft-ietf-mpls-ldp-p2mp-08  Dynamic Tree Building suitable for broad set Multicast Applications  FRR as optional capability  Receiver-driven dynamic tree building approach P2MP RSVP-TE RFC-4875  Deterministic bandwidth guarantees over entire tree (calculation overhead limits this to static tree scenarios)  Headend-defined trees  FRR inherent in tree setup  Useful for small but significant subset of Multicast Applications: Broadcast TV where bandwidth restrictions exist
  65. 65. © 2014 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.BRKIPM-2008 Cisco Public LSM – Decision Points  MLDP and RSVP are both useful tree building protocols for transporting multicast over MPLS.  It depends on the application and the scalability/feature requirements which protocol is preferred.  Aggregation is useful to limit the number of LSPs that are created. Too much aggregation causes flooding.  There are different options to assign multicast flows to LSP’s, PIM, BGP, MLDP in-band signaling and static.  For general purpose MVPN we recommend MLDP for tree building and PIM for assigning flows to the LSP. 66
  66. 66. High Availability
  67. 67. © 2014 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.BRKIPM-2008 Cisco Public Service Availability Overview 68 IP Host Components Redundancy  Single transmission from Logical IP address ‒ Anycast — Use closest instance ‒ Prioritycast — Use best / preferred instance Benefit over anycast: no synchronization of sources needed, operationally easier to predict which source is used ‒ Signaling host to network for fast failover RIPv2 as a simple signaling protocol Normal configuration to inject source routes into IGP (OSPF/ISIS)  Dual Transmission with Path separation
  68. 68. © 2014 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.BRKIPM-2008 Cisco Public Source Redundancy: Approaches 69 Primary Backup Live-Live/Hot-Hot  Two sources: one is active and src’ing content, second is in standby mode (not src’ing content)  Heartbeat mechanism used to communicate with each other  Two sources, both are active and src’ing multicast into the network  No protocol between the two sources  Only one copy is on the network at any instant  Single multicast tree is built per the unicast routing table  Two copies of the multicast packets will be in the network at any instant  Two multicast trees on almost redundant infrastructure  Uses required bandwidth  Uses 2X network bandwidth  Receiver’s functionality simpler: Aware of only one src, failover logic handled between sources  Receiver is smarter: Is aware/configured with two feeds (s1,g1), (s2,g2) / (*,g1), (*,g2) Joins both and receives both feeds  This approach requires the network to have fast IGP and PIM convergence  This approach does not require fast IGP and PIM convergence
  69. 69. © 2014 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.BRKIPM-2008 Cisco Public Source Redundancy: Anycast/Prioritycast Signaling  Redundant sources (or NMS) announce Source Address via RIPv2  Per stream source announcement  Routers redistribute (with policy) into IGP – Easily done from IP/TV middleware (UDP) – No protocol machinery required—only periodic announce packets – Small periodicity for fast failure detection – All routers support RIPv2 (not deployed as IGP):  Allows secure constrained configuration on routers 70 Src RIP (v2) Report (UDP) Router
  70. 70. © 2014 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.BRKIPM-2008 Cisco Public Source Redundancy - Anycast/Prioritycast  Policies – Anycast: Clients connect to the closest instance of redundant IP address – Prioritycast: Clients connect to the highest-priority instance of the redundant IP address  Also used in other places – e.g. PIM-SM and Bidir-PIM RP redundancy  Policy simply determined by routing announcement and routing config – Anycast well understood – Prioritycast: Engineer metrics of announcements or use different prefix length 71 Secondary 10.2.3.4/32 Rcvr 2Rcvr 1 Primary 10.2.3.4/31 Example: Prioritycast with Prefixlength Announcement
  71. 71. © 2014 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.BRKIPM-2008 Cisco Public Anycast / Prioritycast Benefits  Sub-second failover possible  Represent program channel as single (S,G) – SSM: single tree, no signaling; ASM: no RPT/SPT  Move instances “freely” around the network – Most simply within IGP area – Regional to national encoder failover options (BGP based)  No proprietary source sync protocol required  Per program failover – Use different source address per program 72
  72. 72. © 2014 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.BRKIPM-2008 Cisco Public Multicast Fast Convergence  IP multicast – Failures/changes corrected by re-converging trees – Re-convergence time is sum of:  Failure detection time + Unicast routing re-convergence time  ~ #Multicast-trees x PIM re-convergence time – “Typical” reconvergence times:  ~ 200 msec initial tree rebuild (500 - 4000 trees convergence/sec for subsequent trees)  Same behavior with PIM and mLDP  Do not require RSVP-TE for general purpose multicast deployments  Sub 50 msec FRR possible for PIM or mLDP – Make-before-break during convergence – Use of link-protection tunnels 73
  73. 73. © 2014 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.BRKIPM-2008 Cisco Public Multicast Only Fast ReRoute - MoFRR  Make-before-Break solution  Multicast routing doesn’t have to wait for unicast routing to converge  An alternative to source redundancy, but: – Don’t have to provision sources – Don’t have to sync data streams – No duplicate data to multicast receivers  No repair tunnels  No new setup protocols  No forwarding/hardware changes  http://tools.ietf.org/html/draft-karan-mofrr-00 74
  74. 74. © 2014 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.BRKIPM-2008 Cisco Public MoFRR - Concept Example 75 S R B Join Path Data Path Alt Path Alt Data Path Wasted Bandwidth Wasted Bandwidth R Not 1. D has ECMP path {BA, CA} to S 2. D sends join on RPF path through C 3. D can send alternate-join on BA path 4. A has 2 oifs leading to a single receiver 5. When RPF path is up, duplicates come to D 6. But D RPF fails on packets from B 7. If upstream of D there are receivers, bandwidth is only wasted from that point to D 8. When C fails or DC link fails, D makes local decision to accept packets from B 9. Eventually unicast routing says B is new RPF path rpf Path (RPF Join) Alt Join (Sent on Non-rpf) Data Path Interface in oif-list Link Down or RPF-Failed Packet Drop DD AA BB CC
  75. 75. © 2014 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.BRKIPM-2008 Cisco Public LineCard LineCard LineCard LineCard ACTIVE STANDBY Failure ACTIVE Periodic PIM Joins GENID PIM Hello Triggered PIM Joins Multicast HA for SSM: Triggered PIM Join(s)  Active Route Processor receives periodic PIM Joins in steady-state  Active Route Processor fails  Standby Route Processor takes over  PIM Hello with GENID is sent out  Triggers adjacent PIM neighbors to resend PIM Joins refreshing state of distribution tree(s) preventing them from timing out 76 How Triggered PIM Join(s) Work When Active Route Processor Fails:
  76. 76. © 2014 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.BRKIPM-2008 Cisco Public Automatic IP Multicast Tunneling  Automatic IP Multicast Tunneling: –http://tools.ietf.org/id/draft-ietf-mboned-auto-multicast  Designed to provide a migration path to a fully multicast enabled backbone  Allows multicast to reach unicast-only receivers without the need for any explicit tunneling  Provide benefits of multicast wherever multicast is already deployed –Hybrid solution –Multicast networks get the benefit of multicast  Works seamlessly with existing applications –Requires only client-side shim (somewhere in client) and router support (in some places) Supports IPv4, IPv6, IPv4 mcast over IPv6, IPv6 mcast over IPv4 77
  77. 77. © 2014 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.BRKIPM-2008 Cisco Public Elements Required for Deploying AMT  AMT requires Multicast  AMT requires Source Specific Multicast  AMT Gateway –Sits in the end device, home network  AMT Relay – Site in the Service Provider network AMT architecture 78 AMT Relay AMT Gateway
  78. 78. © 2014 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.BRKIPM-2008 Cisco Public AMT Components • Gateway • Initiates connection to multicast network via AMT Discovery message • Discovery message sent to “well known” Anycast address • May be a host (PC, Mac, Xbox, Android, ConnectedTV, iPad, …) Running as a Java applet on host or embedded in an application • Or part of home or enterprise gateway/router with LAN multicast enabled • Relay • Listens for AMT Discovery messages to build AMT tunnel to requesting gateways • May be on a router at the unicast/multicast boundary or in an appliance near the boundary • Part of the Service Provider infrastructure 79
  79. 79. © 2014 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.BRKIPM-2008 Cisco Public Elements Required for Deploying AMT 80 Mcast-Enabled ISP Unicast-Only Network Content Owner Mcast-Enabled Local Provider Multicast Traffic Unicast Stream Enables Multicast Content to a Large (Global) Audience Creates an Expanding Radius of Incentive to Deploy Multicast AMT Relay AMT Gateway
  80. 80. © 2014 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.BRKIPM-2008 Cisco Public Elements Required for Deploying AMT 81  AMT deployment scenario Mcast-Enabled ISP Content Owner Mcast-Enabled Local Provider Enables Multicast Content to a Large (Global) Audience Creates an Expanding Radius of Incentive to Deploy Multicast AMT Relay AMT Gateway Mcast-Enabled Local Provider Multicast Traffic Unicast Stream
  81. 81. © 2014 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.BRKIPM-2008 Cisco Public Live-Live  Live-Live—Spatial Separation – Two separate paths through network; can engineer manually (or with RSVP-TE P2MP ) – Use of two topologies (MTR) – “Naturally” diverse/split networks work well (SP cores, likely access networks too), especially with ECMP – Target to provide “zero loss” by merging copies based on sequence number  Live-Live—Temporal Separation – In application device—delay one copy—need to know maximum network outage 82
  82. 82. © 2014 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.BRKIPM-2008 Cisco Public Cable Industry Example  Path separation does not necessarily mean separate parts of network! – Carrying copies counterclockwise in rings allows single ring redundancy to provide live-live guarantee; less expensive network  Target in cable industry (previously used non-IP SONET rings!) – IP live-live not necessarily end-to-end (STB), but towards Edge-QAM (RH*)— merging traffic for non-IP delivery over digital cable – With path separation in IP network and per-packet merge in those devices solution can target zero packet loss instead of just sub 50msec 83 STBs STBs HFC1 HFC2RH1b RH1b RH1a
  83. 83. © 2014 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.BRKIPM-2008 Cisco Public cFRR - PIM/mLDP Break Before Make 84 RPF change on C from A to C: 1.Receive RPF change from IGP 2.Send prunes to A 3.Change RPF to B 4.Send joins to B Same methodology, different terminology in mLDP ‒ RPF == ingres label binding Some more details (not discussed) A B S(ource) Cost: 10 C Cost: 12 R(eceiver)
  84. 84. © 2014 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.BRKIPM-2008 Cisco Public cFRR -PIM/mLDP Make Before Break 1. Receive RPF change from unicast 2. Send joins to A 3. Wait for right time to go to 4. – Until upstream is forwarding traffic 4. Change RPF to A 5. Send prunes to B Should only do Make-before-Break when old path (B) is known to still forward traffic after 1. – Path via B failed but protected – Path to A better, recovered – Not: path via B fails, unprotected  Make before Break could cause more interruption than Break before Make ! 85 A B S(ource) Cost: 10 C Cost: 12 R(eceiver)
  85. 85. © 2014 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.BRKIPM-2008 Cisco Public Multipath for IP Multicast  In unicast, multipath selection happens during packet forwarding  In multicast, multipath selection happens during RPF-selection for PIM join! – Multipath selection happening whenever route from RPF-lookup has more than one path (like from IGP equal cost multipath) – Also needs to be enabled 86 Source (S) Receiver (D) IP Packet R1 R2 R3 ? PIM Join e.g. (S,G) RPF Selection
  86. 86. © 2014 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.BRKIPM-2008 Cisco Public Cisco IOS IPv4 Per (S,G) Improvements for ECMP 87  Added two per (S,G) ECMP alternatives to IPv4 IP multicast ‒ ip multicast multipath [ s-g-hash [ basic | next-hop-based]]  Basic: polarizing/predictable—but per (S,G): ‒ (S XOR G % Nlinks)  Next-hop-based: stable/non-polarizing ‒ Hash(S,G, Nbr-i) = bsr_hash(bsr_hash(S,G), Nbr-i )) ‒ Select Nbr-i | max({ Hash(S,G,Nbr-i) | NBr-i }) ‒ Nbr-i is the IP address of the next-hop of a path; Bsr_hash is the hash function also used in the BSR protocol in PIM (creates random number out of its two parameters) ‒ Algorithm select the one neighbor for which the Hash(S,G,Nbr-i) is highest
  87. 87. © 2014 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.BRKIPM-2008 Cisco Public Next-Hop Load-Split Algorithm  Needed to have non-polarizing algorithm and non-assert-causing! – Router-local hash to cause non-polarization would cause assert issue!  Also would like stability under re-convergence: – Re-convergence causes interruption! More in multicast than unicast; when loosing/adding an ECMP path, traffic on unaffected paths should not need to re-converge! – Polarizing algorithm is not-stable: change in number of ECMP path changes “modulo” of algorithm, reshuffling large percentage of flows unnecessarily!  Hash algorithm taken from BSR/RFC, better than XOR for this purpose 88 R4 R1 R2 R3 If Link to R1 fails, R4 Re-Converges Both Red Trees toward R2 and R3 without Affecting the Orange and Blue Trees that Already Used those Two Next Hops
  88. 88. Multicast in 802.11
  89. 89. © 2014 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.BRKIPM-2008 Cisco Public Background on Video and Wi-Fi Multicast 90  Streaming video requirements • Video codecs such as MPEG-2 are intolerant of packet loss • Loss of one packet impacts multiple video frames • Since many frames are “incremental” • MPEG-2 requires a PLR of < 0.5%  Native Wi-Fi multicast is not a reliable service • Wi-Fi => Packet Error Rate 1 - 2% • Corrected by ACKs for unicast • For multicast there are no ACKs
  90. 90. © 2014 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.BRKIPM-2008 Cisco Public MAC Layer Enhancement: MC2UC 91 Multicast source Wired network Multicast converted to unicast WLC  Application: ‒ Broadcast video over Wi-Fi at Hotspots  Issue: ‒ Broadcast video is multicast on IP network ‒ But multicast over Wi-Fi is not reliable ‒ Leads to poor video quality  Multicast to Unicast Solution: ‒ Snoop IGMP request for video ‒ Convert video to unicast on Wi-Fi last hop ‒ Transparent to the client
  91. 91. © 2014 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.BRKIPM-2008 Cisco Public Video Stream Multicast Delivery Solution 92 1 2 5.5 6 9 11 12 18 24 36 48 54 M0 M1 ... M14 M15 802.11 Data Rates B/G N Video Server AP 1140 • IGMP state monitored for each client. Only send video to clients requesting • Multicast packets replicated at AP and sent to individual clients at their data-rate • Resource Reservation Control (RRC) used to prevent channel oversubscription. Works in conjunction with Voice CAC • Stream Prioritization ensures important videos take precedence over others • SAP/SNMP error message created when Channel Subscription violated Technical Solution Smooth, Reliable Video • Video delivered reliably at 802.11n data rates • Quality of Video protected in varying channel load conditions • Prevents video flooding • Prioritizes Business Video over other video Video Impact Default 802.11B/G mandatory data rates Intelligence in the AP QoS Marked on CAPWAP From WLC
  92. 92. © 2014 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.BRKIPM-2008 Cisco Public Video Stream Delivery Solution 93 Stream Prioritization • Identify specific Video Streams for preferential QoS treatment Resource Reservation Control (RRC) • Quality of Video Enforcement by denying client when channel busy • Video Bandwidth protection to prevent video from consuming Wi-Fi channel Multicast Direct • Sends multicast video stream as unicast directly to client • Video QoS promotion • Enables use of 11n data rates and standards packet error correction Monitoring • Client alert for insufficient bandwidth • SNMP trap for QoS/bandwidth problem Roaming Support (existing) • Roaming with pre-built multicast flows • Proxy IGMP join (cross controller roam) IGMP snooping (existing) • Prevents video flooding Feature Overview
  93. 93. © 2014 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.BRKIPM-2008 Cisco Public 94 Network Layer Enhancement  Improved multicast performance over wireless networks  Multicast packet replication occurs only at points in the network where it is required, saving wired network bandwidth One Multicast Packet In CAPWAP Tunnels One Multicast Packet In CAPWAP Multicast Group One CAPWAP Multicast Packet Out Three CAPWAP Unicast Packets Out Unicast Mechanism Multicast Mechanism Network Replicates Packet as Needed
  94. 94. © 2014 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.BRKIPM-2008 Cisco Public Multicast Mode Selection 95  Multicast mode and multicast group configured on WLC general interface
  95. 95. © 2014 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.BRKIPM-2008 Cisco Public Agenda 96  Multicast Market Overview  PIM Configuration notes  Interconnecting PIM domains  Label Switched Multicast  High Availability  Multicast in 802.11
  96. 96. © 2014 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.BRKIPM-2008 Cisco Public Questions? 97
  97. 97. © 2014 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.BRKIPM-2008 Cisco Public Call to Action… Visit the World of Solutions:-  Cisco Campus  Walk-in Labs  Technical Solutions Clinics  Meet the Engineer  Lunch Time Table Topics, held in the main Catering Hall  Recommended Reading: For reading material and further resources for this session, please visit www.pearson-books.com/CLMilan2014 98
  98. 98. © 2014 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.BRKIPM-2008 Cisco Public  Complete your online session evaluation  Complete four session evaluations and the overall conference evaluation to receive your Cisco Live T-shirt Complete Your Online Session Evaluation 99
  99. 99. © 2014 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.BRKIPM-2008 Cisco Public Final Thoughts  Get hands-on experience with the Walk-in Labs located in World of Solutions, booth 1042  Come see demos of many key solutions and products in the main Cisco booth 2924  Visit www.ciscoLive365.com after the event for updated PDFs, on-demand session videos, networking, and more!  Follow Cisco Live! using social media: – Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/ciscoliveus – Twitter: https://twitter.com/#!/CiscoLive – LinkedIn Group: http://linkd.in/CiscoLI 100

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