Agile Software Development Overview

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Agile Software Development Overview

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  • A research and reflection of SomeBody:We are living in chaos: eco crisis, tech boom, changes …
  • How to create a software from scratch?
  • Parties:UsersHas problems to be solvedUsually disorganized, chaotic, groupCustomersProvides requirements and validationShould speak with “one voice”Developers Actually builds the stuff Lots of different roles hereBusiness Owner Manages resources and money Often ignored in Development Process…Tech concernsRequirementsDetermine What the Software has to do…Challenge: Satisfy the UsersProduction Actually Build the Software Challenge: Deliver Quality ProductMaintenance Modify Software to satisfy new requirements Challenge: Maintain Quality
  • For reference and printing if needed, not for presenting
  • cross-functional = there is no strict role for individualsCode are collectively developed
  • The importance of planning, not plan documentThe importance of responsibility -> select itemsThe importance of prioritizing -> reduce risksMake things clear
  • Image , point to position
  • Architectural spike():very simple program to explore potential solutions, Most spikes are not good enough to keepMetaphor(an du): common vision of how the program works
  • Courage(kien quyet)
  • What does it mean?
  • Agile Software Development Overview

    1. 1. Session 1 <br />The cooperative game<br />AgileDev Tour<br />Duong Trong Tan<br />Hanoi, December 2010<br />1<br />TurboBoost your development performance<br />
    2. 2. Objectives<br />Software Engineering trends<br />What is agile development?<br />The agile manifesto<br />The diversity of adoptions<br />Scrum<br />XP<br />TDD<br />Crystal<br />Kanban<br />Agile mashup<br />The cooperative game<br />2<br />TurboBoost your development performance<br />
    3. 3. “Agile projects succeed when the team gets the spirit of agility.” – Ron Jeffries<br />TurboBoost your development performance<br />3<br />AgileDev Basics<br />Image courtesy to Pollyanna Pixton<br />
    4. 4. TurboBoost your development performance<br />4<br />Continuous improvement<br />Hyper productive<br />Kaizen<br />Agile<br />Small teams<br />Incremental<br />Lean<br />Changes<br />Earned Value Based<br />Iterative<br />Rapid<br />Adaptive<br />
    5. 5. About Trends<br />TurboBoost your development performance<br />5<br />Agile techniques were in use since the beginning.<br />Agile techniques did not show competitive advantage in the 1970s / 1980s,<br /> but did during the 1990s and do now.<br />Trial runs of current agile methodologies, 1993 - 1995<br /> RAD Crystal <br /> XP Crystal <br /> Scrum Kanban<br />In chaos, there are special kinds of controlled pattern => agile methods.<br />
    6. 6. TurboBoost your development performance<br />6<br />So, what are software projects?<br />
    7. 7. Partiesand Concerns<br />Users?<br />Customers?<br />BO?<br />Developers?<br />7<br />TurboBoost your development performance<br />
    8. 8. TurboBoost your development performance<br />8<br />What is agile development?<br />
    9. 9. The Agile Manifesto <br />We are uncovering better ways of developing software by doing it and helping others do it. Through this work we have come to value:<br />Individuals and interactions over processes and tools<br />Working software over comprehensive documentation<br />Customer collaboration over contract negotiation<br />Responding to change over following a plan<br />9<br />TurboBoost your development performance<br />That is, while there is value in the items on the right, we value the items on the left more.<br />AgileAlliance.org<br />
    10. 10. The Twelve Principles of Agile Software <br />TurboBoost your development performance<br />10<br />Our highest priority is to satisfy the customer through early and continuous delivery of valuable software.<br />Welcome changing requirements, even late in development. Agile processes harness change for the customer's competitive advantage.<br />Deliver working software frequently, from a couple of weeks to a couple of months, with a preference to the shorter timescale.<br />Business people and developers must work together daily throughout the project.<br />Build projects around motivated individuals. Give them the environment and support they need, and trust them to get the job done.<br />The most efficient and effective method of conveying information to and within a development team is face-to-face conversation.<br />Working software is the primary measure of progress.<br />Agile processes promote sustainable development. The sponsors, developers, and users should be able to maintain a constant pace indefinitely.<br />Continuous attention to technical excellence and good design enhances agility.<br />Simplicity--the art of maximizing the amount of work not done--is essential.<br />The best architectures, requirements, and designs emerge from self-organizing teams.<br />At regular intervals, the team reflects on how to become more effective, then tunes and adjusts its behavior accordingly.<br />AgileAlliance.org<br />
    11. 11. AgileDev<br />Plan-driven<br />TurboBoost your development performance<br />Low criticality<br />Senior developers<br />Objectives change very often<br />Small number of developers<br />Culture that thrives on chaos<br />High criticality<br />Junior developers<br />Low objectives change<br />Large number of developers<br />Culture that demands order<br />11<br />Home ground comparison<br />
    12. 12. The diversity of methods<br />TurboBoost your development performance<br />12<br />
    13. 13. A hyper-productive development model<br />TurboBoost your development performance<br />13<br />Scrum<br />
    14. 14. Scrum<br />TurboBoost your development performance<br />14<br />One of the most successful agile methods because of its hyper-productivity<br />It is management – oriented<br />Somewhat CMM Level 3 equivalence<br />Widely used in various types of projects<br />Google AdWorlds project<br />3M<br />Universities RnD projects<br />In VN: LogiGear, KPM, FSOFT, FAT, etc.<br />
    15. 15. TurboBoost your development performance<br />15<br />Image courtesy to ScrumAlliance<br />
    16. 16. Scrum Roles<br />ScrumMaster<br />ProductOwner<br />Scrum Team<br />Other parties (all kinds of chicken)<br />16<br />TurboBoost your development performance<br />
    17. 17. Scrum Team<br />Team is cross-functional and consists of 5-9 people<br />There are no set project roles within the team<br />Team defines tasks and assignments<br />Team is self-organizing and self-managing<br />Maintains the Sprint Backlog<br />Conducts the Sprint Review<br />17<br />TurboBoost your development performance<br />
    18. 18. ScrumMaster<br />Holds daily 15 minute team meeting (Daily Scrum)<br />Assures every people related to the project follow the rules<br />Removes obstacles<br />Shields the team from external interference: “Keep Chickens away from Pigs”<br />Maintains the Sprint Burndown Chart<br />Conducts Sprint Retrospective at the end of a Sprint<br />Is a facilitator, not a manager<br />18<br />TurboBoost your development performance<br />
    19. 19. Product Owner (PO)<br />Accountable for product success<br />Defines all product features<br />Responsible for prioritizing product features<br />Maintains the Product Backlog<br />Insures team working on highest valued features<br />19<br />TurboBoost your development performance<br />
    20. 20. The Product Backlog<br />List of all desired product features<br />List can contain bugs, and non-functional items<br />Product Owner responsible for prioritizing<br />Items can be added by anyone at anytime<br />Each item should have a business value assigned<br />Maintained by the Product Owner<br />20<br />TurboBoost your development performance<br />
    21. 21. A Sprint<br />Time box: 2-4 weeks (why?)<br />An iteration for building a piece of increment (potentially shippable) of the whole system<br />It’s the working time, not planning or asking what to do.<br />The team manages itself during a Sprint<br />The team commits to Product Backlog during the Sprint planning meeting<br />The Sprint Backlog is updated during a Sprint<br />21<br />TurboBoost your development performance<br />
    22. 22. The Sprint Backlog<br />Each item is prioritized and estimated<br />22<br />TurboBoost your development performance<br />
    23. 23. 23<br />The Scrum Skeleton<br />2.Daily Scrum Meeting<br /><ul><li> What have you done?
    24. 24. What will you do?
    25. 25. What is impeding you?</li></ul>3. A Sprint (2-4 weeks)<br />4. Sprint Review Meeting<br />1. Sprint Planning Meeting<br />5. Sprint Retrospective Meeting<br />TurboBoost your development performance<br />
    26. 26. Sprint Planning Meeting<br />Time box: 8 hours<br />Product backlog prepared prior to meeting<br />First Half<br />Team selects items committing to complete<br />Additional discussion of Product Backlog occurs during actual Sprint<br />Second Half<br />Occurs after first half done – PO available for questions<br />Team solely responsible for deciding how to build<br />Tasks created / assigned – Sprint Backlog produced<br />24<br />TurboBoost your development performance<br />
    27. 27. Scrum Daily Meeting<br />Held every day during a Sprint<br />Timebox:15 minutes<br />Team members report to each other not Scrum Master<br />Asks 3 questions during meeting<br />“What have you done since last daily scrum?”<br />“What will you do before the next daily scrum?”<br />“What obstacles are impeding your work?”<br />Opportunity for team members to synchronize their work<br />It helps removing burdens between members<br />25<br />TurboBoost your development performance<br />
    28. 28. Sprint Review<br />Time box: 4 hours<br />Team presents “done” code to PO and stakeholders<br />Functionality not “done” is not shown<br />Feedback generated – Product Backlog maybe reprioritized<br />ScrumMaster sets next Sprint Review<br />26<br />TurboBoost your development performance<br />
    29. 29. Sprint Retrospective<br />Time box: 3 hours<br />Participants<br />ScrumMaster<br /> Scrum Team. <br />Product Owner is optional<br />Questions<br />What went well and what can be improved?<br />ScurmMaster helps the team in discovery – not provide answers<br />27<br />TurboBoost your development performance<br />
    30. 30. The Sprint Backlog<br />A kind o f To-do list for a Sprint<br />Created by the Scrum Team (can be originated by one member, responsibility belongs to another)<br />Product Owner has defined as highest priority<br />Used for synchronizing works between team members<br />28<br />TurboBoost your development performance<br />
    31. 31. The Burn-down Chart<br />Burndown Chart shows the Sprint trend,<br /> the performancevelocity of the team through Sprints<br />29<br />TurboBoost your development performance<br />
    32. 32. Potentially Shippable Product<br />Selected items are fully implemented, tested and ready for use<br />Small but complete, “it will be bigger”<br />Scrum Team needs to define what does “done” mean, in what aspects and contexts.<br />“DONE” may be executable, “passed all tests”, “approved by senior engineers”, “reviewed by peers” or just nothing to do more with the item.<br />30<br />TurboBoost your development performance<br />
    33. 33. Distributed Scrum<br />Isolated Scrums - Teams are isolated across geographies. <br />Distributed Scrum of Scrums –Scrum teams are isolated across geographies and integrated by a Scrum of<br />Totally Integrated Scrums – Scrum teams are cross-functional with members distributed across geographies.<br />Sutherland et al. <br />31<br />TurboBoost your development performance<br />
    34. 34. Top Distributed Scrum Issues<br />Difficult leveraging available resources, best practices are often deemed proprietary, are time consuming and difficult to maintain<br />Difficulty synchronizing work between distributed sites<br />Lack of effective communication mechanisms<br />Conflicting behaviors, processes, and technologies<br />Incompatible data formats, schemas, and standards<br />Ensuring electronic transmission confidentiality and privacy<br />Sutherland et al. <br />32<br />TurboBoost your development performance<br />
    35. 35. From hacking code to a real process<br />TurboBoost your development performance<br />33<br />eXtreme Programming<br />
    36. 36. eXtreme Programming Project<br />TurboBoost your development performance<br />34<br />
    37. 37. XP Values<br />TurboBoost your development performance<br />35<br />Simplicity <br />encourages starting with the simplest solution<br />Communication<br />favors simple designs, common metaphors, collaboration of users and programmers, frequent verbal communication, and feedback<br />Feedback<br />From the system, customer and from the team, to avoid optimism<br />Courage<br />design and code for today and not for tomorrow<br />Respect<br />respect for others as well as self-respect<br />
    38. 38. TurboBoost your development performance<br />36<br />
    39. 39. XP Roles<br />The Customer<br />Sets project goals and makes business decisions<br />The Developer<br />Turn customer stories into working code<br />The Tracker<br />Keeps track of any metrics used by team<br />The Coach<br />Guides and mentors the team<br />37<br />TurboBoost your development performance<br />
    40. 40. TurboBoost your development performance<br />38<br />Test Driven Development<br />This is not a complete dev strategy. It is ‘embedded’ into methods.<br />Tests created before coding<br />This strategy focused on quality<br />Derived version: Behaviors Driven Development<br />
    41. 41. “A human-Powered methodology for small team”<br />TurboBoost your development performance<br />39<br />Crystal Clear<br />
    42. 42. Crystal Clear Practices<br />Frequent Delivery<br />Reflective Improvement<br />Osmotic Communication<br />Personal Safety<br />Focus<br />Easy Access to Expert Users<br />Automated Tests<br />Configuration Management<br />Frequent Integration<br />40<br />TurboBoost your development performance<br />
    43. 43. Crystal Clear<br />“The team can reduce intermediate work products as it produces running code more frequently, as it uses richer communication channels between people.”<br /> - Alistair Cockburn<br />41<br />TurboBoost your development performance<br />
    44. 44. Crystal Clear<br />Every product is slightly different and evolves over time, so the methodology, the set of conventions the team adopts, must be tuned and evolve.<br /> - Alistair Cockburn<br />42<br />TurboBoost your development performance<br />
    45. 45. Crystal Clear Roles<br />Sponsor<br />Allocates money for the project<br />Expert User<br />Lead Designer<br />Lead Technical person, mentors less experienced team members<br />Designer-Programmer<br />Each person designs and programs<br />43<br />TurboBoost your development performance<br />
    46. 46. Kanban<br />TurboBoost your development performance<br />44<br />Kanban literally means “visual card,” “signboard,” or “billboard.” <br />Toyota originally used Kanban cards to limit the amount of inventory tied up in “Work In Progress” on a manufacturing floor<br />…<br />Step 1<br />Done<br />Step 2<br />Step n<br />In<br />Process<br />In<br />Process<br />In<br />Process<br />Queue<br />Queue<br />Queue<br />…<br />Work Items<br />
    47. 47. TurboBoost your development performance<br />45<br />Why use Kanban in Software Development?<br />
    48. 48. Time-boxed iterative development has challenges <br />46<br /><ul><li>Short time-boxes give more frequent opportunity to measure progress and inspect software but force development items to be smaller
    49. 49. Smaller development items are often too small to be valuable and difficult to identify
    50. 50. Quality of requirements suffers as analysts rush to prepare for upcoming cycles
    51. 51. Quality of current development suffers when busy analysts are unable to inspect software or answer questions during development
    52. 52. Quality often suffers as testers race to complete work late in the development time-box </li></ul>TurboBoost your development performance<br />
    53. 53. The time-boxed iteration drama<br />TurboBoost your development performance<br />47<br />
    54. 54. TurboBoost your development performance<br />48<br />Using a Kanban approach in software drops time-boxed iterations in favor of focusing on continuous flow.<br />
    55. 55. Kanban queue<br />TurboBoost your development performance<br />49<br />…<br />Done<br />Step 2<br />Step n<br />Work Items<br />Step 1<br />In<br />Process<br />In<br />Process<br />In<br />Process<br />Queue<br />Queue<br />Queue<br />…<br />
    56. 56. Kanban queues (cont’d) <br />TurboBoost your development performance<br />50<br />Large enough to keep the team busy<br />Small enough to avoid premature prioritisation<br />Ideally should be FIFO<br />
    57. 57. Kanban - Work In Progress<br />TurboBoost your development performance<br />51<br />Reduce multi-tasking<br />Maximize throughput<br />Enhances teamwork<br />
    58. 58. The multitasking issues<br />TurboBoost your development performance<br />52<br />Facts:<br />20% time lost to context switching per ‘task<br />Sequential yields results sooner<br />A<br />A<br />A<br />B<br />B<br />B<br />C<br />C<br />C<br />A<br />B<br />C<br />Chart courtesy to Yahoo!<br />
    59. 59. Throughput<br />TurboBoost your development performance<br />53<br />Organizational overhead goes up as work in progress increases<br />Total Cycle Time = Number of Things in Process<br /> Average Completion Rate<br />to improve cycle time<br />Improve Average Completion Rate<br />Reduce Number of Things in Process<br />
    60. 60. Enhances Teamwork<br />TurboBoost your development performance<br />54<br /><ul><li>Team focus on goals that add value not individual tasks</li></li></ul><li>Kanban Example 1<br />TurboBoost your development performance<br />55<br />Image courtesy to Jeff Patton<br />
    61. 61. Kanban Example 2<br />TurboBoost your development performance<br />56<br />
    62. 62. Kanban Example 3<br />TurboBoost your development performance<br />57<br />
    63. 63. Agile Mashup<br />TurboBoost your development performance<br />58<br />It is so-called Yet Another Agile Development Method (YAAM)<br />It follows the Agile Manifesto and keeps the sprit of agility<br />It utilizes practices from several methods, for example:<br />Use sprint backlog and user stories with TDD and standup meeting with a kanban liked dashboard.<br />Use stand up meeting in daily Scrum<br />Use Burn down chart in Kanban<br />
    64. 64. TurboBoost your development performance<br />59<br />Agile Software Development, it is a cooperative game.<br />
    65. 65. Face-to-face communication is better<br />Paper<br />2 people at<br />whiteboard<br />2 people <br />on phone<br />Communication Effectiveness<br />Videotape<br />2 people<br />on email <br />Richness of communication channel<br />Slide courtesy to Cockburn. A.<br />60<br />TurboBoost your development performance<br />
    66. 66. References and Further Readings<br />TurboBoost your development performance<br />61<br />Agile Software Development: The Cooperative Game, 2ndEdn. By Alistair Cockburn.<br />Scrum Guide 2010 by Ken Schwaber and Jeff Sutherland<br />Agile Project Management with Scrum by Ken Schwaber <br />Agile Java Crafting Code with Test-Driven Development By Jeff Langr<br />Test-Driven Development in Microsoft .NET by James W. Newkirk and Alexei A. Vorontsov <br />Extreme Programming Explained by Kent Beck <br />XP introduction,<br />http://www.extremeprogramming.org/<br />http://xprogramming.com/<br />http://www.agilealliance.org/<br />Kanban Oversimplified<br />http://www.agileproductdesign.com/blog/2009/kanban_over_simplified.html<br />

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