Chapter 1


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Chapter 1

  1. 1. Physical Science Unit 1 Science Skills
  2. 2. Scientific Inquiry <ul><li>Scientists use a generalized approach that is common to all disciplines. </li></ul><ul><li>This approach is called the Scientific Method. It is a generalized approach due to the fact that each person alters it to fit the needs of each situation. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Scientific Method <ul><li>Make an observation of something that can not be immediately explained. </li></ul><ul><li>Define the question to be investigated. </li></ul><ul><li>Form a hypothesis to answer the question. This included conducting research of current knowledge relating to the question. </li></ul><ul><li>Develop a test to check your hypothesis using principles of good experimental design. Then conduct the testing. </li></ul><ul><li>Analyze the results that you have gathered and form a conclusion. If the results contradict your hypothesis, go back and revise it. If the results support the hypothesis, conduct further testing and eventually publish so that others can repeat the testing. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Scientific Notation <ul><li>This is a system for expressing very large or very small numbers in a form that is much easier to handle. </li></ul><ul><li>It involves moving the decimal and then multiplying the number by some whole number power of ten. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Converting Regular Numbers into Scientific Notation <ul><li>Move the decimal so that there is only one non-zero digit to the left of the decimal. </li></ul><ul><li>Multiply that value by ten to a certain power. </li></ul><ul><li>The power of ten is the number of places that the decimal needed to be moved in step 1. </li></ul><ul><li>If the original number was between 1 and -1, then the exponent is negative. If the original number was >1 or <-1, then the exponent is positive. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Multiplying and Dividing Numbers in Scientific Notation <ul><li>First take the values through the indicated operation (X or /). </li></ul><ul><li>If multiplying, add the exponents together for the exponent in the answer. </li></ul><ul><li>If dividing, subtract the numerator’s exponent by the divisor’s exponent for the answer’s exponent. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Adding and Subtracting Numbers in Scientific Notation <ul><li>First, move the decimal so that the powers of 10 are equal. </li></ul><ul><li>Carry out the indicated operation. </li></ul><ul><li>Convert the number back into correct scientific notation format (one digit in front of the decimal.) </li></ul>
  8. 8. Accuracy and Precision <ul><li>Accuracy refers to the closeness of a measurement or average of a set of measures to a given value. </li></ul><ul><li>Precision refers to the closeness of repeated measurements to one another. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Significant Figures <ul><li>Instruments of measure give varying degrees of precision in experiments. It is important to maintain that degree of precision as the measurements are entered into various calculations. </li></ul><ul><li>To accomplish this goal, we use a process of keeping track of significant figures. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Determining the Number of Significant Figures in a Number <ul><li>All non-zero digits are significant. </li></ul><ul><li>All zeros located between significant figures are significant. </li></ul><ul><li>A zero located at the end of the number and after the decimal is significant. </li></ul><ul><li>A zero located at the end of the number and before the decimal is not significant. </li></ul><ul><li>A zero located at the beginning of the number is not significant. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Multiplying and Dividing Using Significant Figures <ul><li>The answer may only express as many significant figures as the operator with the least number of significant figures. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Adding and Subtracting Using Significant Figures <ul><li>The answer may only be as precise as the least precise operator. (number of decimal places.) </li></ul>