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# Inside the Atom~Notes

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### Inside the Atom~Notes

1. 1. Inside The Atom
2. 2. Structure of the Atom <ul><li>There are two regions </li></ul><ul><li>The nucleus </li></ul><ul><li>With protons and neutrons </li></ul><ul><li>Positive charge </li></ul><ul><li>Almost all the mass </li></ul><ul><li>Electron cloud- Most of the volume of an atom </li></ul><ul><li>The region where the electron can be found </li></ul>
3. 3. Subatomic particles Electron Proton Neutron Name Symbol Charge Relative mass Actual mass (g) e - p + n 0 -1 +1 0 1/1840 1 1 9.11 x 10 -28 1.67 x 10 -24 1.67 x 10 -24
4. 4. Size of an atom <ul><li>Atoms are small. </li></ul><ul><li>Measured in picometers, 10 -12 meters </li></ul><ul><li>Hydrogen atom, 32 pm radius </li></ul><ul><li>Nucleus tiny compared to atom </li></ul><ul><li>IF the atom was the size of a stadium, the nucleus would be the size of a marble. </li></ul><ul><li>Radius of the nucleus near 10 -15 m. </li></ul><ul><li>Density near 10 14 g/cm </li></ul>
5. 5. Counting the Pieces <ul><li>Atomic Number = number of protons </li></ul><ul><li># of protons determines kind of atom </li></ul><ul><li>the same as the number of electrons in the neutral atom </li></ul><ul><li>Mass Number = the number of protons + neutrons </li></ul><ul><li>All the things with mass </li></ul>
6. 7. Symbols <ul><li>Contain the symbol of the element, the mass number and the atomic number </li></ul><ul><li>THIS IS NOT THE SAME AS WHAT IS IN THE PERIODIC TABLE! </li></ul>X Mass number Atomic number
7. 8. Symbols <ul><li>Find the </li></ul><ul><ul><li>number of protons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>number of neutrons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>number of electrons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Atomic number </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mass Number </li></ul></ul>F 19 9
8. 9. Symbols <ul><li>Find the </li></ul><ul><ul><li>number of protons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>number of neutrons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>number of electrons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Atomic number </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mass Number </li></ul></ul>Br 80 35
9. 10. Symbols <ul><li>if an element has an atomic number of 34 and a mass number of 78 what is the </li></ul><ul><ul><li>number of protons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>number of neutrons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>number of electrons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Complete symbol </li></ul></ul>
10. 11. Symbols <ul><li>if an element has 91 protons and 140 neutrons what is the </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Atomic number </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mass number </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>number of electrons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Complete symbol </li></ul></ul>
11. 12. Ions <ul><li>Under normal conditions, atoms have the same number of electrons as protons </li></ul><ul><li>When atoms react chemically, they can gain or loose electrons </li></ul><ul><li>When an atom has </li></ul><ul><li>gained or lost an electron </li></ul><ul><li>it is now considered an ion </li></ul>
12. 13. A neutral atom of sodium has 11 protons and 11 electrons When sodium reacts chemically, it typically looses one electron; giving it 11 protons and 10 electrons Remember: each proton has a positive charge + each electron has a negative charge - Sodium ION with 11 protons (11 +) and 10 electrons (10-) Now has a NET charge of (1+)
13. 14. A neutral atom of chlorine has 17 protons and 17 electrons When chlorine reacts chemically, it typically gains one electron; giving it 17 protons and 18 electrons Remember: each proton has a positive charge + each electron has a negative charge - Chlorine ION with 17 protons (17 +) and 18 electrons (18-) Now has a NET charge of (1-)
14. 15. A neutral atom of lithium has 3 protons and 3 electrons When lithium reacts chemically, it typically looses one electron; giving it 3 protons and 2 electrons Remember: each proton has a positive charge + each electron has a negative charge - Lithium ION with 3 protons (3 +) and 2 electrons (2-) Now has a NET charge of (1+) 1 + Li 3 6 Li 3 6
15. 16. 1 + If no charge here: ATOM NEUTRAL (same number of protons as electrons) If charge here: ION Pos charge = more protons than electrons Neg charge = more electrons than protons Li 3 6 Li 3 6
16. 17. Isotopes <ul><li>Dalton was wrong. </li></ul><ul><li>Atoms of the same element can have different numbers of neutrons </li></ul><ul><li>different mass numbers </li></ul><ul><li>called isotopes </li></ul>3 protons; 3 neutrons Mass # 6 3 protons; 4 neutrons Mass # 7 BOTH Li
17. 18. Naming Isotopes <ul><li>Put the mass number after the name of the element </li></ul><ul><li>carbon- 12 </li></ul><ul><li>carbon -14 </li></ul><ul><li>uranium-235 </li></ul>
18. 19. Atomic Mass <ul><li>How heavy is an atom of oxygen? </li></ul><ul><li>There are different kinds of oxygen atoms. </li></ul><ul><li>More concerned with average atomic mass. </li></ul><ul><li>Based on abundance of each element in nature. </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t use grams because the numbers would be too small </li></ul>
19. 20. Measuring Atomic Mass <ul><li>Unit is the Atomic Mass Unit (amu) </li></ul><ul><li>One twelfth the mass of a carbon-12 atom. </li></ul><ul><li>Each isotope has its own atomic mass we need the average from percent abundance. </li></ul>
20. 21. Atomic Mass <ul><li>Calculate the atomic mass of copper if copper has two isotopes. 69.1% has a mass of 62.93 amu and the res has a mass of 64.93 amu. </li></ul>
21. 22. Atomic Mass <ul><li>Magnesium has three isotopes. 78.99% magnesium 24 with a mass of 23.9850 amu, 10.00% magnesium 25 with a mass of 24.9858 amu, and the rest magnesium 25 with a mass of 25.9826 amu. What is the atomic mass of magnesium? </li></ul><ul><li>If not told otherwise, the mass of the isotope is the mass number in amu </li></ul>
22. 23. Atomic Mass <ul><li>Is not a whole number because it is an average. </li></ul><ul><li>are the decimal numbers on the periodic table. </li></ul>6 C 12.01
23. 24. 11 protons; 10 electrons 16 protons; 18 electrons 13 protons; 10 electrons Na 11 23 + S 16 32 2- Al 13 27 3+
24. 25. How Many Protons, Neutrons, and Electrons???? N 7 14 3- Ca 20 41 2+ Cl 17 33 1-