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IOT Summit_2015 Duncan McDonald

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Architectural Approaches to Integrating Sensors in IOT Solutions

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IOT Summit_2015 Duncan McDonald

  1. 1. Solid-Motion Duncan McDonald Founder Solid-Motion 3/6/2015 Architectural Approaches to Integrating Sensors in IOT Solutions
  2. 2. Todays Discussion • Standards Can Substantially Reduce Development Time and Cost for Mid-Market IoT Solutions • Open source is best, but low cost or free “proprietary standards” are OK too • Not considering high level messaging and communication protocols – DDS, JMS, MQTT, CoAP, XMPP, AMQP, REST, LwM2M, etc. Solid-Motion IoT Summit 2015 2
  3. 3. IoT ≠ Introduction Remember, circa 2004 IoT was all about telemetry and control of manufactured goods and distributed assets. IoT still evolving! Solid-Motion IoT Summit 2015 3
  4. 4. One More Time: What is IoT? • All objects have an IP address • In the context of current IoT solutions, the direction is to have an internet device with at least one smart sensor • Typical architecture is a microcontroller for the sensor interface and a microprocessor for data processing and the internet interface Solid-Motion IoT Summit 2015 4
  5. 5. Three Cost Scenarios *Everything else (mid-market) • Sensor/processor within one order of magnitude • Automotive • Medical /Healthcare • Industrial • Scientific Processor Cost SensorCost X Sensor cost << processor cost; consumer products X Sensor cost >> processor cost; large system X X X X X Sensor cost  processor cost; everything else* Cost breakdowns vary • Sensor cost • Processor cost (including software) • Packaging cost (fixed) Target for this discussion Solid-Motion IoT Summit 2015 5
  6. 6. Development Cost vs Manufacturing Cost Lots of optimization and customization required for low cost manufacturing Duncan’s Law DevelopmentCost Manufacturing Cost Manufacturing Volume DevelopmentCost First Corollary Consumer Large Systems Everything else (mid-market) 6Solid-Motion IoT Summit 2015
  7. 7. Standards Reduce Development Cost • Standards Can Substantially Reduce Development Time and Cost for Mid-Market Solutions • Standards are important for consumer products, but more about the ecosystem than about development cost Solid-Motion IoT Summit 2015 7
  8. 8. Typical HW Architecture • Smart sensor – Sensor; could be detached sensor – Sensor memory • Microcontroller – No operating system; “code on bare metal” • Processor – Operating system – Radio – Cell phones, tablets, or laptops are good candidates Microcontroller Wired interface Wired or wireless interface Processor Wireless interface Internet Sensor Memory Sensor Memory Solid-Motion IoT Summit 2015 8
  9. 9. Data and Layers Rough analogy to OSI model I’ll use this model Data Data Segments Packets Frames Bits Data Presentation Session Transport Network Data Link Physical Application OSI Model Data Layer Data structures Messages Data Packets Frames Bits Connector Application Communication Solid-Motion IoT Summit 2015 9
  10. 10. Microcontroller Wired interface Wired or wireless interface Processor Wireless interface Internet Sensor Memory Sensor Memory No connector standards! Sensor Connectors Packets Frames Bits Connector    Solid-Motion IoT Summit 2015 10
  11. 11. Microcontroller Wired interface Wired or wireless interface Processor Wireless interface Internet Sensor Memory Sensor Memory • 1-Wire (proprietary) • SPI Memory Connection Frames Bits Connector    Data structures IEEE standard 1451.4 (TEDS) available for high-level sensor interface • Template based • Or XML Solid-Motion IoT Summit 2015 11
  12. 12. Microcontroller Wired interface Wired interface Processor Wireless interface Internet Sensor Memory Sensor Memory USB USB Class Microcontroller to Processor (M2P) Wired - USB Data structures Messages Data Packets Frames Bits   Solid-Motion IoT Summit 2015 12
  13. 13. USB & USB Classes • Insanely wide platform support – no additional hw required • If you can use a USB Class that has wide OS support, you won’t have to write a driver. – HID, mass storage, image, audio, video, etc. – Personal Healthcare not natively supported yet • Big time/cost savings! • No open source USB.org compliant software stack Solid-Motion IoT Summit 2015 13
  14. 14. Microcontroller Processor Wireless interface Internet Sensor Memory Sensor Memory Microcontroller to Processor (M2P) Wireless - Zigbee Data structures Messages Data Packets Frames Bits Application   Zigbee Pro/IP (proprietary) Zigbee/Xbee (proprietary) IEEE 802.15.4 Zigbee receiver Wireless interface Solid-Motion IoT Summit 2015 14
  15. 15. 6LoWPAN Data structures Messages Data Packets Frames Bits Application   IEEE 802.15.4 Microcontroller to Processor (M2P) Wireless – 6LoWPAN IPv6 TCP/IP Has anyone implemented 6LoWPAN without using an OS? Microcontroller Processor Wireless interface Internet Sensor Memory Sensor Memory Wireless interface Solid-Motion IoT Summit 2015 15
  16. 16. Microcontroller Processor Wireless interface Internet Sensor Memory Sensor Memory Data structures Messages Data Packets Frames Bits Application   Microcontroller to Processor (M2P) Wireless – BlueTooth Smart (BLE) Wireless interface Solid-Motion IoT Summit 2015 16 Bluetooth Smart profiles Blue Tooth Smart
  17. 17. BlueTooth Smart • Wide platform support – no additional hw required • Wide OS support – no driver needed for basic BT • Big cost/time savings! • Not nearly as many profiles (classes) natively supported as USB • BlueTooth health device profile (HDP) natively supported on Android Solid-Motion IoT Summit 2015 17
  18. 18. Summary • Few issues up to the M2P link – No connector standards for detached sensors – Smart sensor memory description • Templates very limited, no reference implementation • XML rarely used • Have two very well supported M2P links for mid-market IoT  USB (wired)  BlueTooth Smart (wireless)  (Zigbee/Xbee requires additional hw to support M2P link) • Still have bottlenecks though – OS support of existing classes/device profiles limited – More classes/profiles needed Solid-Motion IoT Summit 2015 18
  19. 19. The Goal is to support many IoT Solutions A lot more Classes and Profiles are needed • Environmental monitoring • Infrastructure management • Manufacturing • Energy management • Medical and healthcare systems • Building automation • Transportation Solid-Motion IoT Summit 2015 19
  20. 20. Thank You! Solid-Motion IoT Summit 2015 20 Comments, questions, complaints, corrections dmcdonald@solid-motion.com
  21. 21. Solid-Motion IoT Summit 2015 21 Back-up
  22. 22. USB Class Support in Win 7 USB-IF class code Device setup class Windows 7 support Audio Media  Communications and CDC Control Modem  Net - HID (Human Interface Device) HIDClass  Physical - - Image Image  Printer USB  Mass Storage USB  SCSIAdapter - Hub USB  USB-IF class code Device setup class Windows 7 support CDC-Data - - Smart Card SmartCard Reader  Content Security - - Video Image - Personal Healthcare - - Audio/Video Devices - - Diagnostic Device - - Wireless Bluetooth  Miscellaneous  Application Specific - - Vendor Specific - - Solid-Motion IoT Summit 2015 22
  23. 23. BLE Profile Support in Android Solid-Motion IoT Summit 2015 23 Profile Android Support A2DP Advanced Audio Distribution profile  EXTRA_PREVIOUS_STATE Extra for the connection state intents of the individual profiles  EXTRA_STATE Extra for the connection state intents of the individual profiles  GATT Generic Attribute Profile  HEADSET Headset and Handsfree profile  HEALTH Health Profile  List of Profiles supported by the standard is quite large

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