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Grading For Learning Final

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Grading For Learning Final

  1. 1. Based on the research, presentation, and book by Ken O’Connor Five Important Ideas Concerning Grading for Learning
  2. 2. Warm-up: How do you assess your students? Quickly jot down your “grading system” on a sheet of paper.
  3. 3. Who is Ken O’Connor? <ul><li>He was formerly the Curriculum Coordinator with the Toronto District School Board in Ontario, Canada. His responsibilities included student assessment, evaluation and geography. His teaching background includes over 30 years of experience from grades 7 to 12 in six schools in Ontario and Victoria, Australia. </li></ul>
  4. 4. 5 Areas of Interest from O’Connor <ul><li>#1 – Relate grading to the intended learning. </li></ul><ul><li>#2 – Limit the attributes included in grades to individual achievement </li></ul><ul><li>#3 – Students should be assessed on almost everything they do BUT everything that is assessed and/or checked does not need a score AND every score should not be included in the grade. </li></ul><ul><li>#4 – “Grade in pencil.” Provide multiple opportunities to assess. </li></ul><ul><li>#5 – Discuss and involve students in assessment, including grading throughout the teaching/learning process. </li></ul>
  5. 5. O’Connor’s Essential Question: How confident are you that the grades students get in your school are… <ul><li>consistent? </li></ul><ul><li>accurate? </li></ul><ul><li>meaningful? </li></ul><ul><li>supportive of learning? </li></ul>
  6. 6. Ken O’Connor’s Advice about Assessment for Learning (AFL): <ul><li>1. ADAPT DON’T ADOPT </li></ul><ul><li>2. START small </li></ul><ul><li>3. WORK TOGETHER </li></ul>
  7. 7. Is Grading Perfectly Precise?
  8. 8. Make Grading Meaningful <ul><li>“… the best thing you can do is make sure your grades convey meaningful, accurate information about student achievement . If grades give sound information to students, then their perceptions (and) conclusions about themselves as learners, and decisions about future activity will be the best they can be.” </li></ul><ul><li>Brookhart, S., Grading, Pearson Merrill Prentice Hall, Columbus, OH, 2004, 34 </li></ul>
  9. 9. The Five Minute University What do students need?
  10. 10. Click: Father Guido Sarducci’s 5 Min. U. <ul><li>It’s actually… </li></ul><ul><li>3 minutes 55 seconds long. </li></ul><ul><li>What do you want students to learn in your class? </li></ul>
  11. 11. Creating a Culture of Learning O’Connor’s Keys to Creating a Learning Community: P – Am I sending… POSITIVE messages? C – Am I offering… CHOICES ? R – Am I encouraging… REFLECTION ?
  12. 12. #1 – Relate grading to the intended learning.
  13. 13. Purpose of Grades <ul><li>“ the primary purpose of… grades… (is) to communicate student achievement to students, parents, school administrators, post-secondary institutions and employers.” </li></ul><ul><li>Bailey, J. and McTighe, J., “Reporting Achievement at the Secondary School Level: What and How?”, in Thomas R. Guskey, (Ed.) Communicating Student Learning: ASCD Yearbook 1986, ASCD, Alexandria, VA, 1996, 120 </li></ul>
  14. 14. Learning “Targets” or Power Standards
  15. 15. How can we help them hit the target? 1961 – Norman Rockwell
  16. 16. Case Study #1 – “Rick’s Mysterious Falling Grade” <ul><li>The report card mathematics grade that Rick received in December in grade 9 was about 25% lower than the grade he received in June at the end of grade 8. His parents were very concerned because Rick had always enjoyed mathematics and achieved at a high level. They went to the parent-teacher conference wondering whether he needed a math tutor. When they put this question to the teacher, she said that this was not necessary. She went on to say that his mathematics results were excellent; all his test scores were more than 90%, but that he had received low marks for participation, effort, group work, notebook, homework, and so forth. Rick’s parents felt the grade was very misleading because it did not indicate clearly Rick’s level of mathematics achievement. </li></ul>
  17. 17. O’Connor – Grades are Broken When They: <ul><li>Include ingredients that distort achievement </li></ul><ul><li>Arise from low quality or poorly organized evidence </li></ul><ul><li>Are derived from inappropriate number crunching, and when they </li></ul><ul><li>Do not support the learning process </li></ul>
  18. 18. O’Connor – How Can We Relate Grading to the Intended Learning? <ul><li>Don’t assign grades using inappropriate or unclear performance standards; provide clear descriptions of achievement expectations. </li></ul>
  19. 19. #2 – Limit the attributes included in grades to individual achievement
  20. 20. A Tale of Two Students Eddy and Norm
  21. 21. One student is Eddy, and one student is Norm. Here are their grades in science class:
  22. 22. First Period Science Class   80 B 100 100 66 68 64 100 100 100 100 Norm   69 F 0 0 98 99 98 50 (late) 80 0 85 Eddy Participation Attitude Final Grade Miscellaneous (20%) Tests (60%) Lab Grades (20%) Name
  23. 23. Do you see any problems with these grades?   80 B 100 100 66 68 64 100 100 100 100 Norm   69 F 0 0 98 99 98 50 (late) 80 0 85 Eddy Participation Attitude Final Grade Miscellaneous (20%) Tests (60%) Lab Grades (20%) Name
  24. 24. Does each student’s grade reflect his mastery of the material?   80 B 100 100 66 68 64 100 100 100 100 Norm   69 F 0 0 98 99 98 50 (late) 80 0 85 Eddy Participation Attitude Final Grade Miscellaneous (20%) Tests (60%) Lab Grades (20%) Name
  25. 25. Norm is a “teacher pleaser.” He works hard, tries hard. But did he master the material?   80 B 100 100 66 68 64 100 100 100 100 Norm   69 F 0 0 98 99 98 50 (late) 80 0 85 Eddy Participation Attitude Final Grade Miscellaneous (20%) Tests (60%) Lab Grades (20%) Name
  26. 26. Eddy is less of a pleasure to have in class. But did he master the material? Should he have to repeat the semester?   80 B 100 100 66 68 64 100 100 100 100 Norm   69 F 0 0 98 99 98 50 (late) 80 0 85 Eddy Participation Attitude Final Grade Miscellaneous (20%) Tests (60%) Lab Grades (20%) Name
  27. 27. Bonus & Extra Credit
  28. 28. O’Connor: Bonus & Extra Credit Don’t give points for extra credit or use bonus points; seek evidence that more work has resulted in a higher level of achievement.
  29. 29. 100 for “Dress Like a Pirate Day?”
  30. 30. Celebrate! But, grade???
  31. 31. Enjoy! But, grade?
  32. 32. Have fun with it… but, don’t grade it.
  33. 33. Bonus or Extra Credit Work Exceptions? <ul><li>Is it for only a certain individual? </li></ul><ul><li>Parent Letter? </li></ul><ul><li>Box of Kleenex? </li></ul><ul><li>Outside of classroom learning that is offered to all students that will further or deepen the learning goals. </li></ul>
  34. 34. Presidential Debates Students watch at home, take Cornell Notes, turn them in the next morning before the first bell.
  35. 35. Group Grades? <ul><li>“ No student’s grade should depend on the achievement (or behavior) of other students.” </li></ul><ul><li>-- William Glasser </li></ul>
  36. 36. “ Group Grades are so blatantly unfair that on this basis alone they should never be used.” - Kagan, S.
  37. 37. Surely we should not stop the process of cooperative learning?
  38. 38. The Habit of Collaboration: Daily practice making appropriate provisions for accepting and giving assistance. Working well in groups to accomplish goals. Understanding and appreciating individual’s differences as their varying talents benefit the groups’ efforts.
  39. 39. <ul><li>Kagan’s 7 Rules for opposing group grades: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Not Fair </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Debase report cards </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Undermine motivation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Convey the wrong message </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Violate individual accountability </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Are responsible for resistance to cooperative learning </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>May be challenged in court </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Kagan, S. “Group Grades Miss the Mark,” Educational Leadership , May, 1995, 68-71 </li></ul>
  40. 40. How do you assess group work fairly?
  41. 41. Clear expectations - rubric
  42. 42. Learning Log for each group member
  43. 43. Reflection for each group member
  44. 44. Policy on Assessment and Evaluation, Scarborough Board of Education, Ontario, Canada, 1997 <ul><li>“ Whether an independent or cooperative learning strategy is used, assessment is based on individual achievement . </li></ul><ul><li>In some situations, when the merit of the final product must be considered in its entirety, a group mark may be assigned, providing that the rationale and expectations for this approach to assessment are clearly communicated to students in advance .” </li></ul>
  45. 45. #3 – Students should be assessed or checked on everything (or almost everything) they do BUT everything that is assessed and/or checked does not need a score AND every score should not be included in the grade.
  46. 46. Case Study #2 – “Heather’s Grim Grade” <ul><li>Heather is a very bright girl who generally achieves at a high level. She has always liked and done well in English. On her first report card in grade 11 English, she gets a C; both her parents and heather are shocked and upset by the low (for her) grade. They express their concern to her teacher, who provides them with a computer printout showing how Heather’s C was calculated. What is revealed is that the marks for virtually every piece of work that was done were included in her grade. First drafts, experimental pieces, quizzes on spelling and grammar-marks for all of these were included. Heather did not do well on any of them, but her unit tests, final drafts, and a major project all received marks of 85% or better. Heather likes to experiment and to take risks on creative tasks; she also needs a lot of practice to understand concepts and detail. By including all the scores from the formative assessments in her grade, her teacher had emphasized Heather’s weakness as a learner. </li></ul>
  47. 47. What is practice? <ul><li>Video courtesy of Allen Iverson… </li></ul><ul><li>Are we talkin ’ ‘bout practice? </li></ul><ul><li>(click on the link above) </li></ul>
  48. 48. Do Students Care to Practice? <ul><li>How do you answer the question… </li></ul><ul><li>“ Is this for a grade?” </li></ul>
  49. 49. Who is this?
  50. 50. To get here…
  51. 51. There were millions of these… Our students need practice.* *some more than others!
  52. 52. <ul><li>“ The ongoing interplay between assessment and instruction, so common in the arts and athletics, is also evident in the classrooms using practices such as nongraded quizzes and practice tests, the writing process, formative performance tasks, review of drafts and peer response groups . The teachers in such classrooms recognize that ongoing assessments provide feedback that enhances instruction and guides student revision.” </li></ul><ul><li>Jay McTighe, “What Happens Between Assessments,” Educational Leadership , Dec. ’96-Jan. ’97, 11 </li></ul>
  53. 53. Purposes of Homework <ul><li>PRACTICE – reinforce learning and help students master specific skills. </li></ul><ul><li>PREPARATION – introduces material presented in future lessons. These assignments aim to help students learn new material when it is covered in class. </li></ul><ul><li>EXTENSION – asks students to apply skills they already have in new situations. </li></ul><ul><li>INTEGRATION – requires students to apply many different skills to a large task, such as book reports, projects, creative writing. </li></ul><ul><li>Source: NCLB website – Homework Tips for Parents </li></ul>
  54. 54. Should “practice” be weighted heavily? Should “practice” even count as a grade? Regardless, isn’t feedback essential? Otherwise, did the student learn? Does the student understand what they need to learn? Questions for discussion:
  55. 55. According to Ken O’Connor <ul><li>Don’t use information from formative assessments and practice to determine grades; use only summative evidence. </li></ul><ul><li>Is that possible with a 60/40 split? …and here no grade can be more than 25%? </li></ul>
  56. 56. How can you practice in class? <ul><li>Practice homework </li></ul><ul><li>Practice quizzes </li></ul><ul><li>Practice tests (or sections of the test) </li></ul><ul><li>At the end – go over in class w/answers </li></ul><ul><li>Exit Tickets > Connect to next class </li></ul><ul><li>Compose the 40% of “formative” grade this way: 30% for quizzes and only 10% for homework? (Something Josie D. and I have discussed) </li></ul>
  57. 57. #4 – “Grade in pencil.” Provide multiple opportunities to assess.
  58. 58. Case Study #3 – “Anil’s Amazing Improvement” <ul><li>Anil enrolled in a grade 9 keyboarding course for one semester. He had never had a computer or a typewriter at home and has had very limited keyboarding opportunities in the schools he attended previously. He chose to take keyboarding because he realized that, in senior high school courses and in college, he would be required to write essays and term papers that teachers would prefer (or require) to be typed. He was, therefore, highly motivated to succeed. He was fortunate also that he had been assigned to Mr. Smith’s class. Mr. Smith was an excellent teacher who had great ability in identifying student strengths and weaknesses in keyboarding and in providing appropriate activities to maximize student progress. </li></ul><ul><li>As would be expected, Anil did not do very well in the first few weeks. His technique was poor, his speed was slow, and he made many errors—especially as compared with the other students, most of whom had considerable experience with computers, both at home and in their previous schools. Most of Anil’s marks in the first six-week grading period were between 40% and 60%, so on the first report he had a grade of 50%. In the second grading period, Anil improved significantly and most of his marks were between 60% and 80%; his grade for this period was a 70%. In the third grading period, it all came together for Anil—the combination of Mr. Smith’s excellent teaching and Anil’s motivation resulted in marks of 90% to 100% on every project and skill. However, the night before the final exam, Anil’s parents told him that they were going to separate. Not surprisingly, he did not do very well on the final exam, receiving a mark of only 60%. When combined with his term work for the third grading period, his grade was an 81%! </li></ul><ul><li>School policy, however, required that the grades for the three grading periods be averaged; thus, Anil’s final grade was only a 68%. Anil had clearly mastered keyboarding but, because marks for his early work were included and another assessment opportunity was not provided for the final exam (on which he scored lower than his demonstrated skill) his final grade did not reflect fairly his achievement in keyboarding. </li></ul>
  59. 59. Professional Judgment & Subjectivity <ul><li>Should teachers use their “professional judgment” to see that the grades students are earning matches their learning? </li></ul><ul><li>Can you be a subjective grader? Or does every assessment need to be absolutely objective? </li></ul>
  60. 60. Reeves, D., “Standards are not Enough: Essential Transformations for School Success,” NASSP Bulletin, Dec. 2000, 11 <ul><li>“ In effective schools one of the most consistent practices of successful teachers is the provision of multiple opportunities to learn. </li></ul><ul><li>… The consequences for a student who fails to meet a standard is not a low grade but rather the opportunity, indeed the requirement – to resubmit his or her work.” </li></ul><ul><li>-- Reeves, D. </li></ul>
  61. 62. 1. 3. 2. 4.
  62. 63. Mistakes Happen...
  63. 65. An Assessment Plan should start with <ul><li>desired results (learning targets), then the </li></ul><ul><li>summative assessments that are going to be used to determine whether the student ‘knows and can do,’ next should be the </li></ul><ul><li>diagnostic assessment(s) that are going to help determine the what and how for teaching and learning, then should come the </li></ul><ul><li>formative assessments that are going to help students achieve the learning goals and that are going to cause the teacher to adjust teaching and learning activities. </li></ul>
  64. 66. 85% Reassessment Rule <ul><li>Last year many based it on this… </li></ul><ul><li>NOT for dual credit or AP classes. </li></ul><ul><li>Prereqs – “Earn the right to reassess.” </li></ul><ul><li>Only one opportunity </li></ul><ul><li>Students can score up to 85%... </li></ul><ul><li>meaning if they rescore from 85 to 100 – they get an 85. </li></ul>
  65. 67. Multiple opportunities are all enhanced by feedback and direction.
  66. 68. Feedback can be done through reviewing word documents for essays/papers through email. Both by teacher and student collaborators.
  67. 69. <ul><li>“ There are no good writers. </li></ul><ul><li>There are only good re-writers.” </li></ul>
  68. 70. The stopwatch is for track, not for writers.” -Elaine Kaufman Elaine Kaufman, author-friendly owner of New York nightspot Elaine’s, quoted in Parade, August 8, 2004, 2
  69. 71. Students need to re-write, as we all do. <ul><li>“ &quot;The difference between the right word and the almost right word is the difference between lightning and a lightning bug.&quot; -- Mark Twain </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;The most valuable of all talents is that of never using two words when one will do.&quot; -- Thomas Jefferson </li></ul>
  70. 73. “ Testing the Limits of Late-Night Cramming Review Blitzes Are Helpful for Rote Information, but Not for Long-Term Retention, Experts Say” By Jay Mathews Washington Post, Tuesday, May 27, 2003 }Cramming Doesn’t Work{
  71. 74. #5 – Discuss and involve students in assessment, including grading throughout the teaching/learning process.
  72. 75. <ul><li>“ Why are we doing this?” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Why do we have to do this project, lab, paper?” </li></ul><ul><li>“ What is the what?”  Learning Target is clear to the students </li></ul><ul><li>Power standards can help </li></ul><ul><li>“ I can statements” </li></ul>
  73. 76. <ul><li>Ask the students about the homework policy. A great chance to reinforce the reasons for having it in the first place. </li></ul><ul><li>Have students assess ‘practice’ – quizzes, homework, peer editing essays. </li></ul><ul><li>Have students write questions that they believe should be assessed on the test. </li></ul><ul><li>Have students track their progress with portfolios, target sheets, or simply writing down their grades. </li></ul>
  74. 78. How Can We Motivate Students To Learn? House Linebackers???
  75. 79. “Office Motivation” w/Terry Tate <ul><li>Click the link above for the video. </li></ul><ul><li>(one minute) </li></ul><ul><li>Would “House Linebackers” motivate our kids to do their work? (possibly) </li></ul>
  76. 81. Confidence is the Key <ul><li>“ Those who experience… success gain the confidence needed to risk trying … Students who experience failure lose confidence in themselves, stop trying, and… fail even more frequently. As it turns out, confidence is the key to student success in all learning situations.” </li></ul><ul><li>Stiggins, R. “Student-Involved Classroom Assessment,” Merrill Prentice Hall, 2001, 43. </li></ul>
  77. 82. Can we create a culture of learning?
  78. 83. Reviewing the 5 Important Ideas
  79. 84. 5 Areas of Interest from O’Connor <ul><li>#1 – Relate grading to the intended learning. </li></ul><ul><li>#2 – Limit the attributes included in grades to individual achievement </li></ul><ul><li>#3 – Students should be assessed on almost everything they do BUT everything that is assessed and/or checked does not need a score AND every score should not be included in the grade. </li></ul><ul><li>#4 – “Grade in pencil.” Provide multiple opportunities to assess. </li></ul><ul><li>#5 – Discuss and involve students in assessment, including grading throughout the teaching/learning process. </li></ul>
  80. 85. Reflection: How do you think you’ll change or adjust assessing your students?
  81. 86. If Time Remains… 2 Discussion Starters Regarding Assessment
  82. 87. Discussion Starter “A” <ul><li>What are your beliefs about learning? </li></ul><ul><li>Does your classroom reflect your beliefs? </li></ul><ul><li>What are the ‘obstacles to learning’ in your classroom? How can they be cleared away? </li></ul><ul><li>How do you use formative assessment in your classroom? </li></ul><ul><li>How can you improve the use of formative assessment in your classroom? </li></ul>
  83. 88. Discussion Starter “B” <ul><li>Consider your practice and discuss how questioning occurs in your classroom and discuss. </li></ul><ul><li>Give and find examples of how good questioning can be used and to what effect. </li></ul><ul><li>In what ways can you improve the questioning in your classroom from tomorrow? </li></ul>

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