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WORDNETReporter: Nguyen Duc Minh Khoi@ Ho Chi Minh City University of TechnologyThursday, November 01, 2012
11/1/2012                      WordNet Report   2Contents            Intro to WordNet              Nouns              Modi...
11/1/2012       WordNet Report   3   INTRODUCTION TO WORDNET
11/1/2012                                WordNet Report   4Overview• WordNet is lexical database for the English language ...
11/1/2012                               WordNet Report   5Contents of WordNet• WordNet distinguish between nouns, verbs, a...
11/1/2012                               WordNet Report            6Other information• Lexical database can be built by:   ...
11/1/2012   WordNet Report   7   NOUNS
11/1/2012                         WordNet Report       8Introduction to nouns in WordNet• WordNet is machine readable dict...
11/1/2012                               WordNet Report            9Lexical hierarchy• Tree graph: graph without circular l...
11/1/2012               WordNet Report   10Lexical hierarchy (cont.)• Examples:
11/1/2012                                 WordNet Report            11Noun relations• Hyponyms (~):  • A word of more spec...
11/1/2012                                WordNet Report           12Noun relations (cont.)• Antonyms (!):  • A word opposi...
11/1/2012      WordNet Report   13   MODIFIERS
11/1/2012                            WordNet Report   14Adjectives• Main functions: modifying nouns• Types:   • Descriptiv...
11/1/2012                             WordNet Report             15Adjectives Relations• Antonyms (!):  • Basic semantic r...
11/1/2012              WordNet Report   16Adjectives Relations (cont.)• Other relations  • Troponym (~):  • Hypernym (@): ...
11/1/2012                          WordNet Report         17Gradation• Contrary: one of propositions can be true or both a...
11/1/2012                                     WordNet Report    18Other stuffs• Markedness:  • Normal linguistic unit (unm...
11/1/2012                               WordNet Report   19Other types of descriptive adjectives• Color adjectives:   • Se...
11/1/2012                          WordNet Report   20Relational adjectives• Differ from descriptive adjectives by  • Do n...
11/1/2012                                   WordNet Report   21Adverbs• Derived from adjectives by suffixation:  • -ly:   ...
11/1/2012   WordNet Report   22   VERBS
11/1/2012                                     WordNet Report            23Organizations• Types of semantic verbs:   • moti...
11/1/2012                                 WordNet Report             24Verb Relations• Entailment (*):   • The verb Y is e...
11/1/2012                                  WordNet Report             25Verb relations• Troponym (~):   • The verb Y is a ...
11/1/2012      WordNet Report   26   WORDNET SYSTEM
11/1/2012        WordNet Report   27WordNet system
11/1/2012                                  WordNet Report              28Lexical files• WordNet store nouns, adjectives, a...
11/1/2012                        WordNet Report      29Sample Application use WordNet• NLTK is a platform for building Pyt...
11/1/2012            WordNet Report   30Sample Application use WordNet (cont.)• Work with verbs
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Wordnet Introduction

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Wordnet Introduction

  1. 1. WORDNETReporter: Nguyen Duc Minh Khoi@ Ho Chi Minh City University of TechnologyThursday, November 01, 2012
  2. 2. 11/1/2012 WordNet Report 2Contents Intro to WordNet Nouns Modifiers Verbs WordNet system
  3. 3. 11/1/2012 WordNet Report 3 INTRODUCTION TO WORDNET
  4. 4. 11/1/2012 WordNet Report 4Overview• WordNet is lexical database for the English language that groups English word into set of synonyms called synset• Authors: the Cognitive Science Laboratory of Princeton University under the direction of psychology professor George A. Miller• Used by: • Linguistics Scientist • Psychologist • Artificial intelligence Scientist • Natural Language Processing Scientist
  5. 5. 11/1/2012 WordNet Report 5Contents of WordNet• WordNet distinguish between nouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs – 4 major syntactic categories• WordNet contains basic units: • Compounds • Phrasal verbs • Collocations • Idiomatic phrases• WordNet as a dictionary: • Give definitions • Sample sentences • Contains synonym sets• WordNet as a thesaurus: • Conceptual level: semantic conceptual relations • Lexical level: lexical relation
  6. 6. 11/1/2012 WordNet Report 6Other information• Lexical database can be built by: • Automatic acquisition • Craft one dictionary by hand• Knowledge engineering: • Lexical level: contains information about synonyms, antonyms... • Domain level: refer to the topic of discourse • Application specific level: relates objects and events• Tennis problem: • Contains no relations that indicate the word’s shared membership in a topic of discourse • E.g. not link racquet, ball, net => court game
  7. 7. 11/1/2012 WordNet Report 7 NOUNS
  8. 8. 11/1/2012 WordNet Report 8Introduction to nouns in WordNet• WordNet is machine readable dictionary• Noun in WordNet doesn’t give: • pronunciation • Derivative morphology • Etymology • Usage notes • Pictorial illustration• WordNet try to make semantic relations by extract synonym from thesaurus manually• WordNet lexicalized concept by making synset relate to that concept
  9. 9. 11/1/2012 WordNet Report 9Lexical hierarchy• Tree graph: graph without circular loop• Assumptions: • Longer distance in hierarchy  longer traverse in thoughts • More lexical information must be stored in every lexicalized concepts than is required to establish in hierarchy.• Noun’s unique beginner:
  10. 10. 11/1/2012 WordNet Report 10Lexical hierarchy (cont.)• Examples:
  11. 11. 11/1/2012 WordNet Report 11Noun relations• Hyponyms (~): • A word of more specific meaning than a general or superordinate term applicable to it. • For example, {bowl} is a hyponym of {dish}: {bowl} ~-> {dish}• Hypernyms (@): • A word with a broad meaning that more specific words fall under; a superordinate. • For example, {color} is a hypernym of {red}: {color} @-> {red}• Meronyms (#): • The semantic relation that holds between a part and the whole. • For example, {beak} and {wing} are meronyms of {bird}: {beak, wing} #-> bird • Three kinds: component, member, made from• Holonyms (%): • The semantic relation that holds between a whole and its parts • For example, {building} is a holonym of {window}: {building} %-> {window}
  12. 12. 11/1/2012 WordNet Report 12Noun relations (cont.)• Antonyms (!): • A word opposite in meaning to another • For example, {man} !-> {woman}• Polysemous nouns: • Nous that have many meanings • For example, {mouse} living animal or computer device • Rules: two meanings of a word are similar then the meaning of their hyponyms should also be similar in the same way.• Attribute (=) and modifications: • Values of attribute are expressed by adjectives • Modification can also be nouns • For examples, chair -> small chair, big chair
  13. 13. 11/1/2012 WordNet Report 13 MODIFIERS
  14. 14. 11/1/2012 WordNet Report 14Adjectives• Main functions: modifying nouns• Types: • Descriptive adjectives • Participle adjectives • Relational adjectives• Format: • A(x) = adj • E.g.: WEIGHT(package) = heavy
  15. 15. 11/1/2012 WordNet Report 15Adjectives Relations• Antonyms (!): • Basic semantic relation among descriptive adjectives • Means “IS ANOYNYMOUS TO”, e.g. heavy is anonymous to light • Can be direct, e.g. heavy/light • Or can be indirect, e.g. heavy/airy
  16. 16. 11/1/2012 WordNet Report 16Adjectives Relations (cont.)• Other relations • Troponym (~): • Hypernym (@): • Entailment (*): • Cause (>): • Also see (^):
  17. 17. 11/1/2012 WordNet Report 17Gradation• Contrary: one of propositions can be true or both are false• Adjectives can be use to express different level of action• For example:
  18. 18. 11/1/2012 WordNet Report 18Other stuffs• Markedness: • Normal linguistic unit (unmarked term) compare to unit possible irregular forms (marked term) • E.g.: The pool is 5 feet deep, NOT: The pool is 5 feet shallow • So deep  marked term, shallow  unmarked term• Polysemy and selectional preferences: • E.g.: old can be not young  modify persons old can be not new  modify things • Some adjectives can modify almost any nouns • E.g.: good / bad, desirable / undesirable • Some adjectives can strictly restricted to some nouns • E.g.: editable / ineditable
  19. 19. 11/1/2012 WordNet Report 19Other types of descriptive adjectives• Color adjectives: • Server as nouns and adjectives• Quantifiers: • E.g.: all, some, many, few…• Participle adjectives: • Means “PRINCIPLE PART OF” • E.g.: breaking is principle part of break • Can be –ing/-ed: running water, elapsed time
  20. 20. 11/1/2012 WordNet Report 20Relational adjectives• Differ from descriptive adjectives by • Do not relate to attribute of nouns • Can not be gradable • Occur only attribute position • Lack of direct antonym• E.g.: criminal behavior
  21. 21. 11/1/2012 WordNet Report 21Adverbs• Derived from adjectives by suffixation: • -ly: • Specify manner: e.g.: beautifully • Specify degree: e.g.: extremely • Other suffix: • -wise, -way, -ward • E.g.: northward, forward• Inherit their adjectives about: • Antonym • Gradation
  22. 22. 11/1/2012 WordNet Report 22 VERBS
  23. 23. 11/1/2012 WordNet Report 23Organizations• Types of semantic verbs: • motion, perception, communication, competition, change, cognitive, consumption, creation, emotion, possession, body care, functions, social behavior, interaction.• Stative verb: • Collaborate with be: resemble, belong, suffice • Control verb: want, fail, prevent, succeed, begin• Cannot group all verbs in unique beginner like nouns• English has fewer verb than nouns BUT approximate twice as polysemous as noun• Verb synset: • Synonym and near synonym: e.g.: pass away vs. die vs. kick the bucket • Idiom and metaphors: • Kick the bucket include synset • Die include synonym: break, break down (for car and computer)
  24. 24. 11/1/2012 WordNet Report 24Verb Relations• Entailment (*): • The verb Y is entailed by X if by doing X you must be doing Y • E.g.: to snore entails to sleep • Not mutual: V1 * V2 NOT V2  V1
  25. 25. 11/1/2012 WordNet Report 25Verb relations• Troponym (~): • The verb Y is a troponym of the verb X if the activity Y is doing X in some manner • E.g.: to lisp is a troponym of to talk • Special case of entailment • Most frequently coded in WordNet• Antonym (!): • E.g.: give/take, buy/sell, lend/borrow, teach/learn • Can also be troponym: fail/succeed entails try, forget entails know• Hypernym (@): • The verb Y is a hypernym of the verb X if the activity X is a (kind of) Y • E.g.: to perceive is an hypernym of to listen
  26. 26. 11/1/2012 WordNet Report 26 WORDNET SYSTEM
  27. 27. 11/1/2012 WordNet Report 27WordNet system
  28. 28. 11/1/2012 WordNet Report 28Lexical files• WordNet store nouns, adjectives, adverbs and nouns into synset  lexical source files by syntactic categories • Nouns and verbs: grouped according to semantic fields • Adjectives are divided among three files (adj.all, adj.ppl, adj.pert) • Adverb are store in single file• Relation pointers store in WordNet
  29. 29. 11/1/2012 WordNet Report 29Sample Application use WordNet• NLTK is a platform for building Python programs to work with human language data• Sample commands: • Work with nouns:
  30. 30. 11/1/2012 WordNet Report 30Sample Application use WordNet (cont.)• Work with verbs

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