Ubuntu – Linux Useful Commands

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Ubuntu – Linux Useful Commands

  1. 1. Ubuntu – Linux Useful commands Editor: Nguyen Duc Minh Khoi Email: ducminhkhoi@gmail.com Website: http://nguyenducminhkhoi.blogspot.com HCMC University of Technology @ Summer 2013 Main reference: Ubuntu Linux Toolbox by Christopher Negus François Caen
  2. 2. Forward • This presentation just give you some basic commands to work with Ubuntu – Linux environment, specially for non-developer users. • If you want to look more information, search on the Internet with the keyword: “Ubuntu x command” or “Ubuntu + function” • Please refer to the main reference as much as possible you can • If you have opportunity, you should buy the main reference book because it explains clearly for you to understand. • I just give you some examples taken from that book for you to easily lookup as a reference book :D 8/2/2013 Ubuntu - Linux Commands 2
  3. 3. Contents Starting Using Ubuntu Working as a User Working as an Administrator 8/2/2013 Ubuntu - Linux Commands 3
  4. 4. STARTING USING UBUNTU Section 1 8/2/2013 Ubuntu - Linux Commands 4
  5. 5. Basic Linux Commands • Every Linux Command have this format: NameOfCommand (Options)* (Argument)* – Options usually start with – or -- character • Using help message: 8/2/2013 Ubuntu - Linux Commands 5
  6. 6. man Command • To find information about a command 8/2/2013 Ubuntu - Linux Commands 6
  7. 7. Other useful commands • Print main page descriptions that match keyword • Using info documents 8/2/2013 Ubuntu - Linux Commands 7
  8. 8. Managing Software with APT 8/2/2013 Ubuntu - Linux Commands 8
  9. 9. Managing Software with APT (cont.) 8/2/2013 Ubuntu - Linux Commands 9
  10. 10. Managing Software with aptitude 8/2/2013 Ubuntu - Linux Commands 10
  11. 11. Managing Software with aptitude (cont.) 8/2/2013 Ubuntu - Linux Commands 11
  12. 12. Important shortcuts with Shell • Open shell on the new tab: Ctrl + Shift + t • Open new terminal window: Ctrl + Shift + n • Close tab with: Ctrl + Shift + w • Highlight text and copy: Ctrl + Shift + c • Paste it in shame or different window: Ctrl + Shift + v or click center button on the mouse • Full screen mode: F11 • Zoom in: Ctrl + Shift + +, zoom out: Ctrl + - • Switch among tabs: Alt + 1, Alt + 2, Alt + 3 and so on • Exit the shell: Ctrl + d • Switch to another virtual console: Ctrl + Alt + F1, Ctrl + Alt + F2 8/2/2013 Ubuntu - Linux Commands 12
  13. 13. History commands • List entire history: • Search for a string in history: 8/2/2013 Ubuntu - Linux Commands 13
  14. 14. Redirect stdin and stdout 8/2/2013 Ubuntu - Linux Commands 14
  15. 15. Redirect stdin and stdout (cont.) • To append a file instead of overwrite it: • Direct output stream to a special bucket file: • Pipe with ls commands • Pipe and redirection combine: 8/2/2013 Ubuntu - Linux Commands 15
  16. 16. Using Alias • List Alias that are currently set: • Define your own alias for the current bash section: • Remove an alias: • Remember: Use tab key for suggestions 8/2/2013 Ubuntu - Linux Commands 16
  17. 17. Other Useful Commands • Acquiring Super User Power • Using Environment Variable: – Display all environment Variable: – Set or reset variable yourself: – Concatenate a string with existing variable: 8/2/2013 Ubuntu - Linux Commands 17
  18. 18. Using regular files • Regular files consist of data files (documents, music, images, archives, and so on) and commands (binaries and scripts) • Use the file commands to see some file types: 8/2/2013 Ubuntu - Linux Commands 18
  19. 19. Using regular files (cont.) • Using directories 8/2/2013 Ubuntu - Linux Commands 19
  20. 20. Setting File/Directory Permissions • Changing permission with chmod 8/2/2013 Ubuntu - Linux Commands 20
  21. 21. Setting File/Directory Permissions (cont.) 8/2/2013 Ubuntu - Linux Commands 21
  22. 22. Other useful commands • Changing ownership • The traversing the File System 8/2/2013 Ubuntu - Linux Commands 22
  23. 23. Other useful commands (cont.) • Copying files: – -a: copying all files, retaining ownership and permission settings • Finding files with locate 8/2/2013 Ubuntu - Linux Commands 23
  24. 24. WORKING AS A USER Section 2 8/2/2013 Ubuntu - Linux Commands 24
  25. 25. Matching using regular expression 8/2/2013 Ubuntu - Linux Commands 25
  26. 26. Editing text files with nano Editors • Control keys for nano 8/2/2013 Ubuntu - Linux Commands 26
  27. 27. Nano Editors (cont.) 8/2/2013 Ubuntu - Linux Commands 27
  28. 28. Listing text file • Output top 10 lines of a file • View ends of a file 8/2/2013 Ubuntu - Linux Commands 28
  29. 29. Searching for Text with grep – $ grep francois myfile.txt #Show lines containing francois • Recursive search – $ grep -R VirtualHost /etc/httpd/conf* • Find the exact lines – $ grep -Rn VirtualHost /etc/httpd/conf* • Ignore the case – $ grep -i selinux /var/log/messages #Search file for selinux (any case) • Checking word count with wc – $ wc /var/log/dmesg #List counts for a single file 436 3847 27984 /var/log/dmesg 8/2/2013 Ubuntu - Linux Commands 29
  30. 30. Other useful commands • Sort output with sort – $ dpkg-query -l | grep kernel | sort #Sort in alphanumeric order – $ dpkg-query -l | grep kernel | sort -r #Sort in reverse alphanumeric order • Replacing text with sed – $ cat myfile.txt | sed s/francois/chris/ – $ sed s/francois/chris/g < myfile.txt > mynewfile.txt • Checking different between 2 files: – $ diff config config.old 8/2/2013 Ubuntu - Linux Commands 30
  31. 31. Working with audio • Install sox: • Using play command: 8/2/2013 Ubuntu - Linux Commands 31
  32. 32. Working with audio (cont.) • Using ogg123 to play ogg file (install ogg123 package first) • Using mpg321 to play mp3 file (install mpg321 package first) 8/2/2013 Ubuntu - Linux Commands 32
  33. 33. Working with audio (cont.) • Convert audio files • Display info about a file • Delete seconds of sound 8/2/2013 Ubuntu - Linux Commands 33
  34. 34. Working with Images • Install ImageMagick package: $ apt-get install imagemagick • Getting info about images: • Converting images: • Resize image: 8/2/2013 Ubuntu - Linux Commands 34
  35. 35. Working with Images (cont.) • Rotate images: • Add text to images: • Creating thumbnails: • Making image fun and weird: 8/2/2013 Ubuntu - Linux Commands 35
  36. 36. Browse the Web • Use elinks package to view 8/2/2013 Ubuntu - Linux Commands 36
  37. 37. Transferring files • Download file with wget: • FTP server requires login and password: • Download a single webpage 8/2/2013 Ubuntu - Linux Commands 37
  38. 38. Transferring files (cont.) • Connect to a FTP server with lftp: 8/2/2013 Ubuntu - Linux Commands 38
  39. 39. Copying remote files with scp 8/2/2013 Ubuntu - Linux Commands 39
  40. 40. Chatting with friends in IRC • Install IRC package: • Connect to freenode server: • Joining the centos IRC channel: 8/2/2013 Ubuntu - Linux Commands 40
  41. 41. Configuring SSH • Install OpenSSH: • Logging remote with ssh: • Accessing ssh on different port: 8/2/2013 Ubuntu - Linux Commands 41
  42. 42. Mastering time • Your computer running Linux keeps time in two different ways: – a system clock (which Linux uses to keep track of time) – a hardware clock (that sets the system time when Linux boots up). • Change current time zone: • Change system date and time 8/2/2013 Ubuntu - Linux Commands 42
  43. 43. Mastering time (cont.) • Displaying and Setting on your system clock 8/2/2013 Ubuntu - Linux Commands 43
  44. 44. Mastering time (cont.) • Display dates by month 8/2/2013 Ubuntu - Linux Commands 44
  45. 45. Mastering time (cont.) • View the current time from hardware clock: • Reset your system clock: • Set hardware clock from system clock: • Using network time: 8/2/2013 Ubuntu - Linux Commands 45
  46. 46. WORKING AS AN ADMINISTRATOR Section 3 8/2/2013 Ubuntu - Linux Commands 46
  47. 47. File system basics • The ext3 file system type is based on the ext2 file system type, adding a feature called journaling to its predecessor. • Journaling can improve data integrity and recovery, especially after unclean system shutdowns. • Time-consuming file system checks are avoided during the next reboot after an unclean shutdown, because the changes that occurred since the most recent write to disk are saved and ready to be restored. 8/2/2013 Ubuntu - Linux Commands 47
  48. 48. Work with partitions • Work with specific disk: • Copying partition tables with sfdisk: • Creating and using swap partition: 8/2/2013 Ubuntu - Linux Commands 48
  49. 49. Listing Active Process • Use ps and top commands 8/2/2013 Ubuntu - Linux Commands 49
  50. 50. Listing Active Process (cont.) • Custom view Processes: 8/2/2013 Ubuntu - Linux Commands 50
  51. 51. Watching active Process with top 8/2/2013 Ubuntu - Linux Commands 51
  52. 52. Finding and Controlling Processes • Using grep: • Using fuser 8/2/2013 Ubuntu - Linux Commands 52
  53. 53. Changing Running Process • Adjust process priority with nice – nice value that can be used to tell the Linux process scheduler what priority should be given to that process. – The default nice value is 0. You can use the nice command to run a process at a higher or lower priority than the default. The priority number can range from –20 (most favorable scheduling priority) to 19 (least favorable scheduling priority). – Although the root user can raise or lower any user’s nice value, a regular user can only lower the priorities of a process (setting a higher nice value). – See current nice value – Changing nice value: 8/2/2013 Ubuntu - Linux Commands 53
  54. 54. Changing Running Process (cont.) • Changing process nice value: • Running process in background and foreground 8/2/2013 Ubuntu - Linux Commands 54
  55. 55. Changing Running Process (cont.) • Manage background jobs: • Kill process: 8/2/2013 Ubuntu - Linux Commands 55
  56. 56. Monitoring Resources • First install sysstat package: • See how much memory is being used 8/2/2013 Ubuntu - Linux Commands 56
  57. 57. Monitoring Resources (cont.) • View memory used over a give period: • View info about processor itself 8/2/2013 Ubuntu - Linux Commands 57
  58. 58. Monitoring Resources (cont.) • List info about disk reads and writes 8/2/2013 Ubuntu - Linux Commands 58
  59. 59. Managing network interface card • Use ethtool command: 8/2/2013 Ubuntu - Linux Commands 59
  60. 60. Managing network interface card (cont.) 8/2/2013 Ubuntu - Linux Commands 60
  61. 61. Ethernet connection • Show address info and status of eth0 Ethernet interface: • Get information both active and inactive NICs 8/2/2013 Ubuntu - Linux Commands 61
  62. 62. Ethernet connection (cont.) • See info on all interfaces: 8/2/2013 Ubuntu - Linux Commands 62
  63. 63. Troubleshooting network problems • Make sure there is IP - connectivity to that gateway 8/2/2013 Ubuntu - Linux Commands 63
  64. 64. Troubleshooting network problems (cont.) • Check your default gateway: • Tracing route to host: 8/2/2013 Ubuntu - Linux Commands 64
  65. 65. Display netstat connections 8/2/2013 Ubuntu - Linux Commands 65
  66. 66. Working with user and groups • Adding user accounts: • Create new users with home directory: /home/willz • Add password: 8/2/2013 Ubuntu - Linux Commands 66
  67. 67. Working with user and groups (cont.) 8/2/2013 Ubuntu - Linux Commands 67
  68. 68. Modifying User account 8/2/2013 Ubuntu - Linux Commands 68
  69. 69. Modifying User account (cont.) 8/2/2013 Ubuntu - Linux Commands 69
  70. 70. Managing passwords 8/2/2013 Ubuntu - Linux Commands 70
  71. 71. Working with groups • Getting info about user log on system: 8/2/2013 Ubuntu - Linux Commands 71
  72. 72. Checking on Users 8/2/2013 Ubuntu - Linux Commands 72
  73. 73. THANKS FOR WATCHING Khoi Nguyen (ducminhkhoi@gmail.com) @ HCMUT 2013 8/2/2013 Ubuntu - Linux Commands 73

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