Tailieu.vncty.com ngu phap-thuong_dung

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Tailieu.vncty.com ngu phap-thuong_dung

  1. 1. Ngữ Pháp Thông Dụng trong Tiếng Anh Sưu tầm: Mr. Denn MAO TU BAT DINH 1/ A ®øng tríc mét phô ©m hoÆc mét nguyªn ©m(o,y,e,u,a) cã ©m lµ phô ©m. VÝ dô: - a game (mét trß ch¬i); a boat (mét chiÕc tµu thñy) - a university (mét trêng ®¹i häc); a year (mét n¨m) - a European (mét ngêi ¢u); a one-legged man (mét ngêi thät ch©n) 2/ An ®øng tríc mét nguyªn ©m hoÆc mét h c©m. VÝ dô: - an egg (mét qu¶ trøng); an ant (mét con kiÕn) - an honour (mét niÒm vinh dù); an hour (mét giê ®ång hå) 3/ An còng ®øng tríc c¸c mÉu tù ®Æc biÖt ®äc nh mét nguyªn ©m. VÝ dô: - an SOS (mét tÝn hiÖu cÊp cøu); an MSc (mét th¹c sÜ khoa häc), an X-ray (mét tia X) 4/ A/An cã h×nh thøc gièng nhau ë tÊt c¶ c¸c gièng. VÝ dô: - a tiger (mét con cäp); a tigress (mét con cäp c¸i) - an uncle (mét «ng chó); an aunt (mét bµ d×) 1/ Tríc mét danh tõ sè Ýt ®Õm ®îc. VÝ dô: - We need a microcomputer (Chóng t«i cÇn mét m¸y vi tÝnh) - He eats an ice-cream (Anh ta ¨n mét c©y kem) 2/ Tríc mét danh tõ lµm bæ tóc tõ (kÓ c¶ danh tõ chØ nghÒ nghiÖp) VÝ dô: - It was a tempest (§ã lµ mét trËn b·o d÷ déi) - She'll be a musician (C« ta sÏ lµ mét nh¹c sÜ) - Peter is an actor (Peter lµ mét diÔn viªn) 3/Trong c¸c thµnh ng÷ chØ sè lîng nhÊt ®Þnh VÝ dô: - a lot (nhiÒu); a couple (mét cÆp/®«i); a third (mét phÇn ba) - a dozen (mét t¸); a hundred (mét tr¨m); a quarter (mét phÇn t) Lu ý a còng ®îc dïng tríc half (nöa, rìi), khi half theo sau mét sè nguyªn vÑn. Ch¼ng h¹n, 2 1/2 kilos = two and half kilos hoÆc two kilos and a half (hai kÝ rìi), nhng 1/2 Kg = half a kilo (nöa kÝ) [kh«ng cã a tríc half ]. §«i khi ngêi ta vÉn dïng a + half + danh tõ, ch¼ng h¹n nh a half- dozen (nöa t¸), a half-length (bøc ¶nh chôp nöa ngêi); a half-hour (nöa giê). 4/ Trong c¸c thµnh ng÷ chØ gi¸ c¶, tèc ®é, tØ lÖ ... VÝ dô: - 90 kilometres an hour (chÝn m¬i kÝ l« mÐt/giê) - 4 times a day (bèn lÇn mçi ngµy) - 2 dollars a litre (hai ®« la mét lÝt)
  2. 2. Ngữ Pháp Thông Dụng trong Tiếng Anh Sưu tầm: Mr. Denn - a/an = per (mçi) 5/ Trong c¸c thµnh ng÷ chØ sù c¶m th¸n VÝ dô: - What a pity! (thËt ®¸ng tiÕc!) - Such a picturesque hill! (mét ngän ®åi thËt th¬ méng!) - What a beautiful painting! (mét bøc tranh tuyÖt vêi!) nhng: - Such picturesque hills! (nh÷ng ngän ®åi thËt th¬ méng!) - What beautiful paintings! (nh÷ng bøc tranh tuyÖt vêi !) 6/ a cã thÓ ®øng tríc Mr/Mrs/Miss + hä VÝ dô: - a Mr Smith, a Mrs Smith, a Miss Smith - a Mr Smith nghÜa lµ "mét ngêi ®µn «ng mang tªn Smith" vµ ngêi nãi kh«ng biÕt «ng nµy, trong khi Mr Smith (kh«ng cã a) nghÜa lµ "«ng Smith" mµ ngêi nãi cã biÕt. KHONG DUNG MAO TU NHAT DINH 1/ Tríc danh tõ sè nhiÒu A/An kh«ng cã h×nh thøc sè nhiÒu. V× vËy, sè nhiÒu cña a cat lµ cats vµ cña an apple lµ apples . 2/ Tríc danh tõ kh«ng ®Õm ®îc VÝ dô: - He gave us good advice (¤ng ta cho chóng t«i nh÷ng lêi khuyªn hay) - I write on paper (T«i ghi trªn giÊy) 3/ Tríc tªn gäi c¸c b÷a ¨n, trõ phi cã tÝnh tõ ®øng tríc c¸c tªn gäi ®ã VÝ dô: - They have lunch at eleven (hä dïng c¬m tra lóc 11 giê) - You gave me an appetizing dinner (b¹n ®· cho t«i mét b÷a ¨n tèi thËt ngon miÖng). Tuy nhiªn, nÕu lµ b÷a ¨n ®Æc biÖt nh©n dÞp nµo ®ã, ngêi ta vÉn dïng m¹o tõ bÊt ®Þnh. VÝ dô: - I was invited to breakfast (b÷a ®iÓm t©m b×nh thêng) (T«i ®îc mêi ¨n ®iÓm t©m). - We were invited to a dinner given to welcome the new director. (Chóng t«i ®îc mêi dù b÷a ¨n tèi chµo mõng vÞ gi¸m ®èc míi). Nãi riªng vÒOne • One (tÝnh tõ/®¹i tõ) dïng víi another/others. VÝ dô: - One day they drink wine, another day they drink beer. (Cã ngµy hä uèng rîu, cã ngµy hä uèng bia). - One (student) wanted to watch TV, another/others wanted to play chess
  3. 3. Ngữ Pháp Thông Dụng trong Tiếng Anh Sưu tầm: Mr. Denn (Cã ngêi (sinh viªn) muèn xem TV, ngêi kh¸c l¹i muèn ®¸nh cê) • Cã thÓ dïng One tríc day (ngµy) /week (tuÇn) /month (th¸ng)/ year (n¨m)/summer (mïa hÌ)/winter (mïa ®«ng) …... ®Ó chØ mét thêi gian ®Æc biÖt nµo ®ã. VÝ dô: - One night there was a persistent rain. (Mét ®ªm nä, trêi ma dai d¼ng) - One day you'll be sorry you spoke highly of your neighbours. (Mét ngµy nµo ®ã, b¹n sÏ ©n hËn lµ ®· ca ngîi nh÷ng ngêi l¸ng giÒng cña m×nh) • One còng lµ mét ®¹i tõ t¬ng ®¬ng cña A/An. VÝ dô: - Did you get a seat? - Yes, I managed to get one. (B¹n ®· t×m ®îc mét chç ngåi cha? - V©ng, t«i ®· xoay së ®îc mét chç ngåi) Sè nhiÒu cña One theo c¸ch nµy lµ Some (vµi, mét Ýt). VÝ dô: - Did you get a refrigerator? - Yes, we managed to get some. (C¸c b¹n ®· mua ®îc tñ l¹nh cha? - V©ng, chóng t«i ®· xoay së ®îc vµi c¸i). §Æc biÖt lµ trong The rent is £400 a month (tiÒn thuª nhµ lµ 400 b¶ng mét th¸ng), kh«ng thÓ thay a b»ng one. HINH THUC CUA MAO TU XAC DINH The dïng cho c¶ danh tõ ®Õm ®îc (sè Ýt lÉn sè nhiÒu) vµ danh tõ kh«ng ®Õm ®îc. VÝ dô: - The truth (sù thËt) - The time (thêi gian) - The bicycle (mét chiÕc xe ®¹p) - The bicycles (nh÷ng chiÕc xe ®¹p) DUNG MAO TU XAC DINH The dïng cho c¶ danh tõ ®Õm ®îc (sè Ýt lÉn sè nhiÒu) vµ danh tõ kh«ng ®Õm ®îc. VÝ dô: - The truth (sù thËt) - The time (thêi gian) - The bicycle (mét chiÕc xe ®¹p) - The bicycles (nh÷ng chiÕc xe ®¹p) KHONG DUNG MAO TU XAC DINH 1/ Tríc tªn quèc gia, tªn ch©u lôc, tªn nói, tªn hå, tªn ®êng. VÝ dô: Europe (Ch©u ¢u), South America (Nam Mü), France (Ph¸p quèc), Downing Street (Phè Downing) 2/ Khi danh tõ kh«ng ®Õm ®îc hoÆc danh tõ sè nhiÒu dïng theo nghÜa chung nhÊt, chø kh«ng chØ riªng trêng hîp nµo. VÝ dô: - I don't like French beer (T«i ch¼ng thÝch bia cña Ph¸p) - I don't like Mondays (T«i ch¼ng thÝch ngµy thø hai)
  4. 4. Ngữ Pháp Thông Dụng trong Tiếng Anh Sưu tầm: Mr. Denn 3/ Tríc danh tõ trõu tîng, trõ phi danh tõ ®ã chØ mét trêng hîp c¸ biÖt. VÝ dô: - Men fear death (Con ngêi sî c¸i chÕt) Nhng: - The death of the President made his country acephalous (c¸i chÕt cña vÞ tæng thèng ®· khiÕn cho ®Êt níc «ng kh«ng cã ngêi l·nh ®¹o). 4/ Sausë h÷u tÝnh tõ (possessive adjective) hoÆc sau danh tõ ë së h÷u c¸ch (possessive case) . VÝ dô: - My friend, chø kh«ng nãi My the friend - The girl's mother = the mother of the girl (MÑ cña c« g¸i) 5/ Tríc tªn gäi c¸c b÷a ¨n. VÝ dô: -They invited some friends to dinner. (Hä mêi vµi ngêi b¹n ®Õn ¨n tèi) Nhng: - The wedding breakfast was held in a beautiful garden (B÷a tiÖc cíi ®îc tæ chøc trong mét khu vên xinh ®Ñp) 6/ Tríc c¸c tíc hiÖu. VÝ dô: - President Roosevelt (Tæng thèng Roosevelt) - King Louis XIV of France (Vua Louis XIV cña Ph¸p) 7/ Trong c¸c trêng hîp sau ®©y: - Women are always fond of music (Phô n÷ lu«n thÝch ©m nh¹c) - Come by car/by bus (§Õn b»ng xe «t«/xe bóyt) - In spring/in autumn (Vµo mïa xu©n/mïa thu), last night (®ªm qua), next year (n¨m tíi), from beginning to end (tõ ®Çu tíi cuèi), from left to right (tõ tr¸i sang ph¶i). - To play golf/chess/cards (ch¬i g«n/ ®¸nh cê/®¸nh bµi) Lu ý • Nature mang nghÜa "Tù nhiªn , thiªn nhiªn " th× kh«ng dïng the. VÝ dô: - According to the laws of nature (Theo quy luËt tù nhiªn) - They couldn't tolerate city life anymore and went back to nature (Hä kh«ng chÞu næi ®êi sèng thµnh thÞ n÷a vµ trë vÒ víi thiªn nhiªn) • He listened to the radio (Anh ta nghe ra®i«), nhng He watched television (Anh ta xem TV) ; hoÆc He heard it on the radio (Anh ta nghe ®îc viÖc ®ã trªn ra®i«), nhng He saw it on TV (Anh ta thÊy viÖc ®ã trªn TV). • Go home/get home (§i vÒ nhµ), be at home (™ nhµ), nhng They returned to the bridegroom's home (Hä trë l¹i nhµ chó rÓ). Go to bed/hospital/church/school/ work/prison (§i ngñ/®i n»m
  5. 5. Ngữ Pháp Thông Dụng trong Tiếng Anh Sưu tầm: Mr. Denn bÖnh viÖn/®i lÔ/®i häc/®i lµm/ ®i tï), nhng They went to the school to see their children's teacher (Hä ®Õn trêng ®Ó gÆp thÇy cña con hä) & The priest goes to the jail to pray for the two dying prisoners (Linh môc ®Õn nhµ tï ®Ó cÇu nguyÖn cho hai ngêi tï ®ang hÊp hèi) & She will get a bus at the church (C« ta sÏ ®ãn xe bóyt ë chç nhµ thê). Nãi chung, kh«ng thÓ thiÕu The nÕu ®Õn trêng kh«ng ph¶i ®Ó häc, ®Õn nhµ tï kh«ng ph¶i ®Ó ë tï hoÆc ®Õn nhµ thê kh«ng ph¶i ®Ó dù lÔ. DANH TU 1/ TiÕng Anh cã 4 lo¹i danh tõ : • Danh tõ chung (Common nouns) : Bird (chim), Policeman (c¶nh s¸t viªn), Pen (bót). • Danh tõ riªng (Proper nouns) : Vietnam (ViÖt Nam), London (Lu©n §«n), Mrs Hoa (Bµ Hoa), Peter (Peter). • Danh tõ trõu tîng (Abstract nouns) : Talent (tµi n¨ng), Mercy (lßng nh©n ¸i), Joy (niÒm vui), Sadness (nçi buån). • Danh tõ tËp hîp (Collective nouns) : Crowd (®¸m ®«ng), Flock (®µn, bÇy), Group (nhãm), Swarm (bÇy, ®µn), Team (®éi) ... 2/ Chøc n¨ng cña danh tõ: • Chñ tõ cña mét ®éng tõ : Peter arrived (Tom ®· ®Õn) • Bæ tóc tõ (complement) cña ®éng tõ Be , Become (trë nªn), Seem (dêng nh): Peter becomes a soldier (Peter trë thµnh ngêi lÝnh) • Tóc tõ (object) cña mét ®éng tõ : Last week, I saw Peter in this street (TuÇn råi, t«i gÆp Peter trªn con ®êng nµy) • Tóc tõ cña mét giíi tõ (preposition) : I spoke to his parents (T«i ®· nãi chuyÖn víi bè mÑ anh ta) Lu ý Danh tõ còng cã thÓ ë trong së h÷u c¸ch : Peter's wallet (C¸i vÝ cña Peter) GIONG CUA DANH TU 1/ C¸c gièng: • Gièng ®ùc chØ ®µn «ng, con trai vµ nh÷ng con thó ®ùc (®¹i tõ nh©n xng t¬ng øng lµ He/They) • Gièng c¸i chØ phô n÷, c¸c c« g¸i vµ nh÷ng con thó c¸i (®¹i tõ nh©n xng t¬ng øng lµ She/They) • Trung tÝnh chØ nh÷ng vËt v« sinh, nh÷ng ®éng vËt mµ ta kh«ng biÕt gièng, kÓ c¶ nh÷ng ®øa trÎ mµ ta cha râ trai hay g¸i (®¹i tõ It/They) 2/ Sau ®©y lµ nh÷ng danh tõ cã h×nh thøc gièng ®ùc vµ gièng c¸i nh nhau: Artist (nghÖ sÜ), cook (®Çu bÕp), driver (tµi xÕ), guide (híng dÉn viªn), catholic (tÝn ®å Thiªn chóa), scientist (nhµ khoa häc), tourist (du kh¸ch), passenger (hµnh kh¸ch)... 3/ Sau ®©y lµ nh÷ng danh tõ cã h×nh thøc gièng ®ùc vµ gièng c¸i kh¸c nhau: 3.1 Boy (con trai), girl (con g¸i) Bachelor (ngêi cha vî), spinster (ngêi cha chång) Bridegroom (chó rÓ), bride (c« d©u)
  6. 6. Ngữ Pháp Thông Dụng trong Tiếng Anh Sưu tầm: Mr. Denn Father (cha), mother (mÑ) Gentleman (quý «ng), lady (quý bµ) Husband (chång), wife (vî) Uncle (chó, b¸c, cËu), aunt (d×, c«, mî) Nephew (ch¸u trai), niece (ch¸u g¸i) Widower (ngêi go¸ vî), widow (ngêi go¸ chång) Son (con trai), daughter (con g¸i) Man (®µn «ng), woman (®µn bµ) Salesman,saleswoman (nam, n÷ b¸n hµng) ... 3.2 Duke (c«ng tíc), duchess (n÷ c«ng tíc) Prince (hoµng tö), princess (c«ng chóa) Actor, actress (nam, n÷ diÔn viªn) Host, hostess (nam, n÷ chñ nh©n) Conductor, conductress (nam, n÷ so¸t vÐ) Hero, heroine (anh hïng/anh th) Steward, stewardess (nam, n÷ tiÕp viªn) Waiter, waitress (nam, n÷ phôc vô) Heir, heiress (nam, n÷ thõa kÕ) Manager, manageress (nam, n÷ gi¸m ®èc) King (vua), queen (hoµng hËu) Earl (b¸ tíc), countess (n÷ b¸ tíc) Lord (l·nh chóa), lady (n÷ l·nh chóa) ... 4/ Trêng hîp ®Æc biÖt Bull,cow (bß ®ùc, bß c¸i) Duck, drake (vÞt trèng, vÞt m¸i) Cock, hen (gµ trèng, gµ m¸i) Gander, goose (ngçng ®ùc, ngçng c¸i) Stag, doe (h¬u ®ùc, h¬u c¸i) Tiger, tigress (cäp ®ùc, cäp c¸i) Lion, lioness (s tö ®ùc, s tö c¸i) Dog, bitch (chã ®ùc, chã c¸i) SO NHIEU CUA DT A Sè nhiÒu cña danh tõ 1/ ChØ riªng danh tõ ®Õm ®îc míi cã sè nhiÒu. 2/ Thêng th× sè nhiÒu cña danh tõ h×nh thµnh b»ng c¸ch thªm S vµo sè Ýt. VÝ dô: Hilltop, hilltops (®Ønh ®åi) Book, books (s¸ch) Seat, seats (ghÕ) Roof, roofs (m¸i nhµ) Rose, roses (hoa hång) Image, images (h×nh ¶nh) Armed forces (lùc lîng vò trang) Window, windows (cöa sæ) ....
  7. 7. Ngữ Pháp Thông Dụng trong Tiếng Anh Sưu tầm: Mr. Denn - S ®äc lµ /s/ sau ©m p, k, f, t. Sau nh÷ng ©m kh¸c th× s ®äc lµ /z/. - S theo sau ce, ge, se hoÆc ze th× ®äc thªm mét vÇn phô lµ /iz/ 3/ Sè nhiÒu cña danh tõ tËn cïng b»ng s, ss, sh, ss, ch hoÆc x vµ mét vµi danh tõ tËn cïng b»ng o h×nh thµnh b»ng c¸ch thªm es (es theo sau s, ch, sh, ss hoÆc x sÏ ®äc lµ /iz/ ) VÝ dô: Tomato, tomatoes (cµ chua) Bus, buses (xe bóyt) Brush, brushes (bµn ch¶i) Kiss, kisses (nô h«n) Box, boxes (hép) Church, churches (nhµ thê). - Tuy nhiªn, danh tõ gèc níc ngoµi hoÆc danh tõ tãm lîc tËn cïng b»ng o th× chØ thªm s: VÝ dô: Dynamo, dynamos (m¸y ph¸t ®iÖn) Piano, pianos (®µn pian«) Kilo, kilos (kÝ l«) Photo, photos (tÊm ¶nh) Radio, radios (ra®i«).... 4/ Danh tõ tËn cïng b»ng phô ©m + y th× bá y vµ thªm ies VÝ dô: Baby, babies (®øa bÐ) Country, countries (quèc gia) Fly, flies (con ruåi) Lady, ladies (quý bµ) Entry, entries (môc tõ trong tù ®iÓn) 5/ Danh tõ tËn cïng b»ngnguyªn ©m + y th× thªm S nh b×nh thêng. VÝ dô: Boy, boys (con trai) Day, days (ngµy) Donkey, donkeys (con lõa) Monkey, monkeys (con khØ) Valley, valleys (thung lòng) 6/ Mêi hai danh tõ tËn cïng b»ng f hoÆc fe th× bá f hoÆc fe råi thªm ves Calf (con bª), half (nöa, rìi), knife (con dao), leaf (l¸), life (cuéc ®êi), loaf (æ b¸nh m×), self (c¸i t«i), sheaf (bã, thÕp), shelf (c¸i kÖ), thief (kÎ c¾p), wife (vî), wolf (con c¸o). Lu ý - Sè nhiÒu cña hoof (mãng guèc), scarf (kh¨n quµng) vµ wharf (bÕn tµu) h×nh thµnh b»ng c¶ hai c¸ch (thªm s hoÆc ves). - Ngoµi ra, c¸c danh tõ kh¸c tËn cïng lµ f hay fe chØ thªm s nh b×nh thêng. Ch¼ng h¹n, Cliff - cliffs (v¸ch ®¸), Handkerchief - handkerchiefs (kh¨n tay), Safe, safes (kÐt s¾t), Still life (Bøc tranh tÜnh vËt) - still lifes ...
  8. 8. Ngữ Pháp Thông Dụng trong Tiếng Anh Sưu tầm: Mr. Denn 7/ Mét sè danh tõ cã sè nhiÒu b»ng c¸ch thay ®æi nguyªn ©m VÝ dô: Foot, feet (bµn ch©n) Tooth, teeth (r¨ng) Goose, geese (con ngçng) Man, men (®µn «ng) Woman, women (phô n÷) Louse, lice (con rËn) Mouse, mice (con chuét) - Sè nhiÒu cña Child (®øa trÎ) vµ Ox (con bß ®ùc) lµ Children vµ Oxen 8/ C¸c danh tõ sau ®©y lu«n lµ sè nhiÒu vµ dïng víi ®éng tõ ë sè nhiÒu: - Clothes (quÇn ¸o), police (c¶nh s¸t), outskirts (vïng ngo¹i «), cattle (gia sóc), spectacles (m¾t kÝnh), glasses (m¾t kÝnh), binoculars (èng nhßm), scissors (c¸i kÐo), pliers (c¸i kÒm), shears (kÐo c¾t c©y), arms (vò khÝ), goods/wares (cña c¶i), damages (tiÒn båi thêng), greens (rau qu¶), earnings (tiÒn kiÕm ®îc), grounds (®Êt ®ai, vên tîc), particulars (b¶n chi tiÕt), premises/quarters (nhµ cöa,vên tîc), riches (sù giµu cã), savings (tiÒn tiÕt kiÖm); spirits (rîu m¹nh), stairs (cÇu thang); surroundings (vïng phô cËn), valuables (®å quý gi¸). - Mét vµi danh tõ tËn cïng b»ng ics nh Acoustics (©m häc), athletics (®iÒn kinh), ethics (®¹o ®øc), hysterics (c¬n kÝch ®éng), mathematics (to¸n häc), physics (vËt lý), linguistics (ng«n ng÷ häc), phonetics (ng÷ ©m häc), logistics (ngµnh hËu cÇn), technics (thuËt ng÷ kü thuËt), politics (chÝnh trÞ) .... lu«n cã h×nh thøc sè nhiÒu vµ dïng víi ®éng tõ sè nhiÒu. Tuy nhiªn, ®«i khi tªn gäi cña c¸c m«n khoa häc ®îc xem nh sè Ýt. Ch¼ng h¹n, Mathematics is the science of pure quantity (To¸n häc lµ khoa häc vÒ lîng thuÇn tóy). 9/ C¸c danh tõ sau ®©y cã h×nh thøc sè nhiÒu, nhng l¹i mang nghÜa sè Ýt: News (tin tøc), mumps (bÖnh quai bÞ), measles (bÖnh sëi), rickets (bÖnh cßi x¬ng), shingles (bÖnh zona), billiards (bi-da), darts (m«n nÐm phi tiªu), draughts (m«n cê vua), bowls (m«n nÐm bãng gç), dominoes (®«min«), the United States (HiÖp chñng quèc Hoa Kú). Ch¼ng h¹n, The news is bad (Tin tøc ch¼ng lµnh) hoÆc The United States is a very big country (HiÖp chñng quèc Hoa Kú lµ mét níc rÊt lín). 10/ C¸c danh tõ sau ®©y kh«ng thay ®æi khi ë sè nhiÒu: Fish (c¸), sheep (cõu), deer (nai), salmon (c¸ håi), cod (c¸ thu), carp (c¸ chÐp), plaice (c¸ b¬n sao), squid (c¸ mùc), turbot (c¸ b¬n), aircraft (m¸y bay), series (chuçi, d·y), species (loµi), offspring (con c¸i). 11/ C¸c danh tõ tËp hîp nh Group (nhãm), team (®éi), gang (b¨ng ®¶ng), band (to¸n, tèp), pack (bÇy), staff (tËp thÓ nh©n viªn), community (céng ®ång), committee (ñy ban), crowd (®¸m ®«ng), crew (thñy thñ ®oµn), family (gia ®×nh) .... cã thÓ dïng ®éng tõ ë sè Ýt hay sè nhiÒu. Ch¼ng h¹n, The government has made up its mind / have made up their minds (ChÝnh phñ ®· quyÕt ®Þnh døt kho¸t), hoÆc Do / does your family still live there? (Gia ®×nh b¹n vÉn sèng ë ®ã chø?) 12/ Mét vµi danh tõ gèc Hy L¹p hoÆc La Tinh vÉn cã sè nhiÒu theo quy luËt cña tiÕng Hy L¹p hay La Tinh, ch¼ng h¹n nh Crisis, crises (sù khñng ho¶ng); analysis, analyses (sù ph©n tÝch); thesis,
  9. 9. Ngữ Pháp Thông Dụng trong Tiếng Anh Sưu tầm: Mr. Denn theses (luËn c¬ng); oasis, oases (èc ®¶o); basis, bases (nÒn t¶ng); axis, axes (trôc); appendix, appendices (phÇn phô lôc); genesis, geneses (céi nguån); erratum, errata (lçi in); memorandum, memoranda (b¶n ghi nhí); phenomenon, phenomena (hiÖn tîng); radius, radii (b¸n kÝnh); terminus, termini (ga cuèi). Nhng còng cã trêng hîp theo quy luËt tiÕng Anh, ch¼ng h¹n nh Dogma, dogmas (gi¸o ®iÒu); gymnasium, gymnasiums (phßng tËp thÓ dôc); formula, formulas (thÓ thøc) (còng cã thÓ dïngformulae ). §Æc biÖt, sè nhiÒu cña Maximum cã thÓ lµ Maximums hoÆc Maxima, cña Minimum cã thÓ lµ Minimums hoÆc Minima, cña Medium cã thÓ lµ Mediums hoÆc Media. Lu ý Khi danh tõ chØ thêi kho¶ng, sè tiÒn vµ kho¶ng c¸ch theo sau mét sè ®Õm, ®éng tõ sÏ ë ng«i thø ba sè Ýt. Ch¼ng h¹n, Three weeks is a long time for a holiday (Ba tuÇn lµ mét thêi gian dµi ®èi víi mét kú nghØ), Five miles is too far to walk (N¨m dÆm th× qu¸ xa nÕu ®i bé) hoÆc Three quarters of the theatre was full (Ba phÇn t r¹p ®· ®Çy kh¸ch). B Sè nhiÒu cña danh tõ kÐp 1/ CÊu t¹o cña danh tõ kÐp • Danh tõ + danh tõ VÝ dô: Balance sheet (B¶ng quyÕt to¸n) Business card (Danh thiÕp) Street market (Chî trêi) Winter clothes (quÇn ¸o mïa ®«ng) Police station (§ån c«ng an) Notice board (B¶ng th«ng b¸o) Football ground (s©n ®¸ bãng) • Danh tõ + danh ®éng tõ (gerund) VÝ dô: Weight-lifting (Cö t¹) Baby-sitting (C«ng viÖc gi÷ trÎ) Coal-mining (Sù khai má than) Surf-riding (M«n lít v¸n) Horse-trading (Sù nh¹y bÐn s¾c s¶o) • Danh ®éng tõ + danh tõ VÝ dô: Living-room (Phßng kh¸ch) Waiting-woman (Ngêi hÇu g¸i) Diving-rod (Que dß m¹ch níc) Landing craft (Xuång ®æ bé) Driving-test (cuéc thi lÊy b»ng l¸i xe) Swimming-match (cuéc b¬i thi) Ph©n biÖt A coffee cup (T¸ch dïng ®Ó ®ùng cµ phª) vµ a cup of coffee (t¸ch cµ phª, t¸ch ®ang ®ùng cµ phª) 2/ Thêng th× sè nhiÒu cña danh tõ kÐp h×nh thµnh b»ng c¸ch thªm s vµo tõ sau cïng: Boy-friends (b¹n trai); grown-ups (ngêi ®· trëng thµnh); Easter eggs (trøng Phôc sinh); express trains (tµu ho¶ tèc hµnh). §Æc biÖt,
  10. 10. Ngữ Pháp Thông Dụng trong Tiếng Anh Sưu tầm: Mr. Denn Men drivers (tµi xÕ nam); women drivers (tµi xÕ n÷); women doctors (n÷ b¸c sÜ); menservants (®Çy tí trai). 3/ NÕu cÊu t¹o cña danh tõ kÐp lµ danh tõ + phã tõ, danh tõ + giíi tõ + danh tõ, chóng ta sÏ thªm s vµo tõ ®øng ®Çu, ch¼ng h¹n nh hangers-on (kÎ bî ®Ýt), lookers-on (kh¸n gi¶), runners-up (ngêi ®o¹t h¹ng nh×), passers-by (kh¸ch qua ®êng), ladies-in-waiting (t× n÷), fathers-in-law (bè vî, bè chång), sisters-in-law (chÞ em d©u, chÞ em vî, chÞ em chång), commanders-in-chief (tæng t lÖnh), ambassadors-at-large (®¹i sø lu ®éng). • Sè nhiÒu cña ch÷ viÕt t¾t: OAPs (Old Age Pensioners) (ngêi giµ hu trÝ) MPs (Members of Parliament) (nghÞ sÜ) VIPs (Very Important Persons) (yÕu nh©n) UFOs (Unidentified Flying Objects) (vËt thÓ bay kh«ng x¸c ®Þnh) DT DEM DUOC VA KHONG DEM DUOC Tæng quan: 1/ §Æc ®iÓm cña danh tõ ®Õm ®îc: • ChØ nh÷ng g× ®Õm ®îc, ch¼ng h¹n nh a sandwich (mét c¸i b¸nh x¨ng- uych), two sandwiches (hai c¸i b¸nh x¨ng-uych), a dog (mét con chã), three dogs (ba con chã), a friend (mét ngêi b¹n), ten friends (mêi ngêi b¹n), a cup of tea (mét t¸ch trµ), four cups of tea (bèn t¸ch trµ). • Cã thÓ ë sè nhiÒu, ch¼ng h¹n nh a day, many days. • Cã thÓ theo sau mét sè ®Õm, a/an hoÆc some (mét vµi). 2/ §Æc ®iÓm cña danh tõ kh«ng ®Õm ®îc: • ChØ nh÷ng g× kh«ng ®Õm ®îc hoÆc nh÷ng g× cã tÝnh c¸ch trõu tîng, ch¼ng h¹n nh Money (tiÒn b¹c), weather (thêi tiÕt), nature (thiªn nhiªn)...... • Kh«ng thÓ ë sè nhiÒu. • Cã thÓ theo sau some (nµo ®ã), chø kh«ng thÓ theo sau a/an hoÆc mét sè ®Õm. Nãi thªm vÒ danh tõ kh«ng ®Õm ®îc: 1/ Danh tõ kh«ng ®Õm ®îc thêng gÆp: Bread (b¸nh m×), cream (kem), gold (vµng), paper (giÊy), tea (trµ), beer (bia), dust (bôi), ice (níc ®¸), sand (c¸t), water (níc), cloth (v¶i), gin (rîu gin), jam (møt), soap (xµ b«ng), wine (rîu nho), coffee (cµ phª), glass (thñy tinh), oil (dÇu löa), stone (®¸), wood (gç), baggage (hµnh lý), damage (sù thiÖt h¹i), luggage (hµnh lý), camping (sù c¾m tr¹i), furniture (®å ®¹c), parking (sù ®Ëu xe), shopping (viÖc mua s¾m), weather (thêi tiÕt)... 2/ Danh tõ trõu tîng VÝ dô: Advice (lêi khuyªn), experience (kinh nghiÖm), horror (khñng khiÕp), beauty (®Ñp), fear (sî h·i), information (th«ng tin), courage (lßng can ®¶m), help (sù gióp ®ì), knowledge (kiÕn thøc), death (c¸i chÕt), hope (niÒm hy väng), mercy (lßng nh©n tõ), pity (sù téi nghiÖp), relief (sù gå lªn), suspicion (sù hå nghi), work (c«ng viÖc) ...
  11. 11. Ngữ Pháp Thông Dụng trong Tiếng Anh Sưu tầm: Mr. Denn 3/ Danh tõ kh«ng ®Õm ®îc lu«n ë sè Ýt vµ kh«ng theo sau a/an VÝ dô: Those students don't want (any) help. They only want (some) knowledge. (C¸c sinh viªn Êy kh«ng cÇn sù gióp ®ì. Hä cÇn kiÕn thøc mµ th«i) I have no experience in this field. (T«i ch¼ng cã kinh nghiÖm vÒ lÜnh vùc nµy) 4/ Danh tõ kh«ng ®Õm ®îc thêng theo sau some, any, no, a little .. .., hoÆc theo sau bit, piece, slice, gallon... VÝ dô: A bit of news (mét mÈu tin), a grain of sand (mét h¹t c¸t), a pot of jam (mét hñ møt), a slice of bread (mét l¸t b¸nh m×), a bowl of soup (mét b¸t sóp), a cake of soap (mét b¸nh xµ b«ng), a gallon of petrol (mét galon x¨ng), a pane of glass (mét « kÝnh), a sheet of paper (mét tê giÊy), a glass of beer (mét ly bia), a drop of oil (mét giät dÇu), a group of people (mét nhãm ngêi), a piece of advice (mét lêi khuyªn)... 5/ Mét vµi danh tõ trõu tîng còng theo sau a/an, nhng víi ý nghÜa ®Æc biÖt vµ ë sè Ýt mµ th«i. - To have a wide knowledge of literature, we need read much(§Ó cã mét kiÕn thøc réng r·i vÒ v¨n häc, chóng ta ph¶i ®äc s¸ch nhiÒu). - This micro-computer is a great help to our study (C¸i m¸y vi tÝnh nµy rÊt cã Ých cho viÖc häc cña chóng t«i) - Do you think these prisoners have a love of music/a hatred of dishonesty? (B¹n cã nghÜ r»ng c¸c tï nh©n nµy yªu ©m nh¹c/c¨m ghÐt sù bÊt l¬ng hay kh«ng?) - It's a pity you forgot to do it (TiÕc lµ b¹n quªn lµm ®iÒu ®ã) - It's a shame he offended against my teacher (ThËt lµ hæ thÑn khi anh ta xóc ph¹m ®Õn thÇy t«i) Lu ý • He raises chickens in his garden (Anh ta nu«i gµ trong vên nhµ m×nh), nhng I like to eat chicken (T«i thÝch ¨n thÞt gµ). • My house has six rooms (Nhµ t«i cã s¸u phßng), nhng There's no room in the car for the dog (Xe « t« kh«ng cã chç nµo cho chã ngåi). • We've been to France five times (Chóng t«i ®· sang Ph¸p n¨m lÇn), nhngTime is a great healer 1(thêi gian lµ thuèc ch÷a lµnh mäi vÕt th¬ng). SO HUU CACH Së hòu c¸ch • 's dïng cho danh tõ sè Ýt, danh tõ sè nhiÒu kh«ng tËn cïng b»ng 's, tõ sau cïng trong danh tõ kÐp, hoÆc sau tõ viÕt t¾t: VÝ dô: The chemist's (shop) (cöa hµng dîc phÈm) Children's toys (®å ch¬i cña trÎ em) My sister's friend (b¹n cña chÞ t«i) Peter's suitcase (va li cña Peter) Her father-in-law's house (nhµ cña bè chång c« ta) The PM's bodyguards (vÖ sÜ cña thñ tíng) The VIP's briefcase (cÆp tµi liÖu cña yÕu nh©n)
  12. 12. Ngữ Pháp Thông Dụng trong Tiếng Anh Sưu tầm: Mr. Denn • ' dïng cho danh tõ sè nhiÒu tËn cïng b»ng s, kÓ c¶ danh tõ sè Ýt tËn cïng b»ng s VÝ dô: My sisters' friend (b¹n cña c¸c chÞ t«i) The workers' wages (l¬ng cña c¸c c«ng nh©n) Socrates' philosophy (triÕt lý cña Socrates) Lu ý Khi sö dông së h÷u c¸ch, ph¶i bá m¹o tõ ®øng tríc ngêi hoÆc vËt së h÷u. VÝ dô: - The villa of the senator = The senator's villa (BiÖt thù cña thîng nghÞ sÜ) - The wife of the shoemaker = The shoemaker's wife (Vî cña ngêi thî giµy) - The toys of Jack = Jack's toys Khi nµo dïng së hòu c¸ch? Së h÷u c¸ch (possessive case) chñ yÕu dïng cho ngêi, quèc gia hoÆc ®éng vËt. §«i khi ngêi ta còng dïng së h÷u c¸ch trong c¸c trêng hîp sau ®©y: The tree's branches (c¸c cµnh c©y) = The branches of the tree The yacht's mast (cét thuyÒn buåm) = The mast of the yacht The company's profits (Lîi nhuËn cña c«ng ty) = The profits of the company A week's holiday (kú nghØ mét tuÇn) Today's paper (b¸o ra ngµy h«m nay) Twenty minutes' break (nghØ gi¶i lao 20 phót) = a twenty-minute break Yesterday's news (tin tøc h«m qua) Two days' delay (chËm trÔ hai ngµy) = a two-day delay For heaven's sake (v× Thîng §Õ) The baker's (tiÖm b¸nh m×) The butcher's (tiÖm b¸n thÞt) The dentist's (phßng kh¸m cña nha sÜ) Tomorrow, we'll have a birthday party at Hoa's (Ngµy mai, chóng ta sÏ ¨n mõng sinh nhËt t¹i nhµ Hoa) Khi nµo dïng Of + danh tõ ®Ó diÔn ®¹t sù së h÷u? • Khi cã mét côm tõ (phrase) hoÆc mÖnh ®Ò (clause) theo sau "së h÷u chñ". VÝ dô: - I want to know the house of the girl in uniform (T«i muèn biÕt nhµ cña c« g¸i mÆc ®ång phôc) - They are speaking to the father of the young man they met at the airport (Hä ®ang nãi chuyÖn víi cha cña ngêi thanh niªn mµ hä ®· gÆp ë s©n bay) • Khuynh híng chung lµ dïng Of + danh tõ, khi "së h÷u chñ" lµ vËt chø kh«ng ph¶i ngêi. VÝ dô: - The gate of the villa (cæng cña biÖt thù) - The front of the house (mÆt tiÒn cña c¨n nhµ) - The legs of the chair (ch©n cña c¸i ghÕ)
  13. 13. Ngữ Pháp Thông Dụng trong Tiếng Anh Sưu tầm: Mr. Denn Ph©n biÖt: My aunt's paintings (Nh÷ng bøc tranh thuéc quyÒn së h÷u cña d× t«i hoÆc do d× t«i vÏ) vµ The paintings of my aunt (Nh÷ng bøc tranh t¶ d× t«i) TINH TU CHI PHAM CHAT 1/ TÝnh tõ chØ phÈm chÊt kh«ng thay ®æi theo gièng vµ sè cña danh tõ. VÝ dô: - An old woman (Mét bµ l·o) & Old women (C¸c bµ l·o) - An old man (Mét «ng l·o) & Old men (C¸c «ng l·o) 2/ VÞ trÝ cña tÝnh tõ chØ phÈm chÊt • Tríc danh tõ. VÝ dô: - A poor family (Mét gia ®×nh nghÌo) - An unhappy teacher (Mét ngêi thÇy bÊt h¹nh) - Difficult problems (Nh÷ng bµi to¸n khã) - Sau danh tõ, nÕu tÝnh tõ cã bæ ng÷ kÌm theo. VÝ dô: - Burgundy is a region famous for its wines (Burgundy lµ mét vïng næi tiÕng vÒ c¸c lo¹i rîu vang) - A shelf full of crockery (Mét ng¨n chøa ®Çy ®å sµnh sø) • Sau c¸c ®éng tõ Be, Become, Seem, Appear, Feel, Get/Grow, Keep, Look, Make, Smell, Sound, Taste, Turn. VÝ dô: - He looks world-weary (Anh ta cã vÎ ch¸n ®êi) - This event made them more optimistic (Sù kiÖn nµy khiÕn hä l¹c quan h¬n) - After a persistent rain, everyone felt cold (Sau mét c¬n ma dai d¼ng, mäi ngêi ®Òu c¶m thÊy l¹nh) - That music sounds beautiful (Khóc nh¹c Êy nghe thËt hay) - The weather will keep fine (Thêi tiÕt sÏ vÉn cø ®Ñp) - This milk smells sour (S÷a nµy cã mïi chua) Ph©n biÖt - This waiter looks very curious (Ngêi hÇu bµn nµy tr«ng rÊt tß mß) vµ He looks curiously at his boss (Anh ta nh×n chñ m×nh víi vÎ tß mß) 3/ TÝnh tõ dïng nh danh tõ - C¸c tÝnh tõ Old (giµ), Young (trÎ), Elderly (cao tuæi), Aged (cao tuæi), Blind (mï), Deaf (®iÕc), Disabled (tµn tËt), Handicapped (tµn tËt), Healthy (m¹nh khoÎ), Sick (®au èm), Living (sèng), Dead (chÕt), Wounded (bÞ th¬ng), Injured (bÞ th¬ng), Rich (giµu), Poor (nghÌo), Needy (tóng thiÕu), Unemployed (thÊt nghiÖp), Jobless (thÊt nghiÖp), Wicked (xÊu xa) cã thÓ theo sau The ®Ó chØ lo¹i ngêi cã mét trong nh÷ng ®Æc trng võa nãi. BÊy giê, c¸c tÝnh tõ nµy trë thµnh danh tõ vµ nªn nhí lµ ®éng tõ theo sau chóng ph¶i ë ng«i thø ba sè nhiÒu. VÝ dô:
  14. 14. Ngữ Pháp Thông Dụng trong Tiếng Anh Sưu tầm: Mr. Denn - The handicapped deserve our help (Nh÷ng kÎ tËt nguyÒn rÊt ®¸ng cho chóng ta gióp ®ì) - Special recreational programs for the elderly (C¸c ch¬ng tr×nh gi¶i trÝ ®Æc biÖt dµnh cho ngêi cao tuæi) C¸c tÝnh tõ chØ quèc gia còng do c¸ch nµy mµ trë thµnh danh tõ. Ch¼ng h¹n, The Scotch (Ngêi Xcèt-len), the Dutch (Ngêi Hµ Lan), the French (Ngêi Ph¸p), the British (Ngêi Anh), the Swiss (Ng- êi Thôy SÜ), the Taiwanese (Ngêi §µi Loan), the Vietnamese (Ngêi ViÖt Nam)... 4/ Ph©n tõ dïng nh tÝnh tõ • HiÖn t¹i ph©n tõ (...ING) vµ qu¸ khø ph©n tõ (...ED) còng cã thÓ dïng nh tÝnh tõ. BÊy giê, hiÖn t¹i ph©n tõ mang ý nghÜa chñ ®éng, cßn qu¸ khø ph©n tõ mang ý nghÜa thô ®éng. VÝ dô: - A confusing question (Mét c©u hái khiÕn ngêi nghe bèi rèi) & The boy looks confused when he sees his parents at the door of his classroom (CËu bÐ cã vÎ bèi rèi khi thÊy bè mÑ ë cöa líp). - A touching story (Mét c©u chuyÖn khiÕn ngêi nghe xóc ®éng) & I was very touched to hear from my bosom friends (T«i rÊt xóc ®éng khi nhËn ®îc tin nh÷ng ngêi b¹n chÝ cèt cña t«i). 5/ Thø tù s¾p xÕp c¸c tÝnh tõ chØ phÈm chÊt Th«ng thêng, khi nhiÒu tÝnh tõ cïng ®Þnh tÝnh cho mét danh tõ, chóng sÏ ®îc s¾p xÕp theo thø tù sau ®©y: TÝnh tõ chØ kÝch thíc - TÝnh tõ chØ c¸ tÝnh vµ c¶m xóc - TÝnh tõ chØ tuæi t¸c - TÝnh tõ chØ h×nh d¹ng - TÝnh tõ chØ mµu s¾c - TÝnh tõ chØ chÊt liÖu - TÝnh tõ chØ nguån gèc - TÝnh tõ chØ c«ng dông [thêng lµ danh ®éng tõ trong danh tõ kÐp, ch¼ng h¹n nh Leading question (c©u hái kh«n ngoan ®Ó dÉn ®Õn c©u tr¶ lêi ®óng ý cña ngêi hái), Waiting room (phßng chê ®îi),Riding breeches (quÇn mÆc khi cìi ngùa)]. VÝ dô: - A long double-edged sword (Mét thanh g¬m hai lìi dµi) - A small square box (Mét c¸i hép vu«ng nhá) - Merciful black policemen (Nh÷ng viªn c¶nh s¸t da ®en nh©n tõ) - Red velvet gloves (Nh÷ng chiÕc g¨ng nhung ®á) - An elegant Italian restaurant (Mét nhµ hµng thanh lÞch) 6/ C¸c trêng hîp ®Æc biÖt cña tÝnh tõ chØ phÈm chÊt 6/1 TÝnh tõ chØ phÈm chÊt dïng víi c¸c ®¹i tõ one/ones, khi one/ones chØ mét danh tõ ®îc ®Ò cËp tríc ®ã. VÝ dô: - Gather ripe plums instead of the unripe ones. (H·y h¸i mËn chÝn thay v× mËn cßn xanh) - If you don't buy a voluminous book, two small ones will do (NÕu b¹n kh«ng mua mét quyÓn s¸ch to tíng th× hai quyÓn nhá còng ®ñ dïng råi) 6/2 TÝnh tõ chØ phÈm chÊt dïng nh ®¹i tõ. - First/Second (thø nhÊt/thø hai)... vÉn lµ tÝnh tõ nÕu dïng víi one/ones, nhng sÏ lµ ®¹i tõ nÕu kh«ng dïng víi one/ones.
  15. 15. Ngữ Pháp Thông Dụng trong Tiếng Anh Sưu tầm: Mr. Denn VÝ dô: - Which of these two do you prefer? - I prefer the second (one) (Trong hai c¸i nµy, b¹n thÝch c¸i nµo h¬n? - T«i thÝch c¸i thø hai h¬n) Lu ý - I find that it is impossible to tame this bear = I find it impossible to tame this bear (T«i thÊy lµ kh«ng thÓ thuÇn ho¸ con gÊu nµy) - It is very kind of you to help him (B¹n thËt lµ tö tÕ míi gióp h¾n) - It is ungracious of him not to acknowledge your help (H¾n thËt lµ khiÕm nh· míi kh«ng c¸m ¬n sù gióp ®ì cña b¹n) - It is boring to tell lies all day long (ThËt lµ ch¸n ng¾t khi ph¶i nãi dèi suèt ngµy) - It is necessary to seize this golden opportunity (§iÒu cÇn thiÕt lµ n¾m lÊy c¬ héi ngµn vµng nµy) - It is not necessary for you to be in such a hurry (B¹n kh«ng cÇn ph¶i hÊp tÊp nh vËy) - It is lucky that we have a correction pen (May lµ chóng t«i cã bót xo¸) - It is lucky for us that he has a correction pen (May cho chóng t«i lµ anh ta cã bót xo¸) - I am afraid of naughty words (T«i sî nh÷ng lêi lÏ tôc tÜu) - I am afraid of hearing naughty words (T«i sî nghe nh÷ng lêi lÏ tôc tÜu) - I am afraid to hear naughty words (T«i sî nghe nh÷ng lêi lÏ tôc tÜu) - I am afraid (that) they will be late for school (T«i e r»ng chóng sÏ ®i häc trÔ) - This lesson is easy to understand (Bµi häc nµy dÔ hiÓu) - It is strange that they haven't remembered the way to the airport (L¹ mét ®iÒu lµ hä quªn h¼n ®êng ra s©n bay) - Students are ready to accept task assignment after graduation (C¸c sinh viªn s½n sµng chÞu sù ph©n c«ng sau khi tèt nghiÖp) - I am very happy to see you again (T«i rÊt vui mõng gÆp l¹i c¸c b¹n) SO SANH 1/ Cã 3 cÊp so s¸nh: CÊp nguyªn So s¸nh h¬n Cùc cÊp Tall Taller Tallest Honest More honest Most honest 2/ Quy t¾c
  16. 16. Ngữ Pháp Thông Dụng trong Tiếng Anh Sưu tầm: Mr. Denn Cã hai c¸ch t¹o h×nh thøc so s¸nh h¬n vµ cùc cÊp cho tÝnh tõ. a) Thªm er (so s¸nh h¬n) vµ est (cùc cÊp) sau: • Mäi tÝnh tõ mét vÇn. Ch¼ng h¹n, Fast (nhanh) - Faster (nhanh h¬n) - Fastest (nhanh nhÊt); Strong (m¹nh) - Stronger (m¹nh h¬n) - Strongest (m¹nh nhÊt). • Mét vµi tÝnh tõ hai vÇn (chñ yÕu lµ tËn cïng b»ng y, le vµ ow). Ch¼ng h¹n, Quiet (yªn tÜnh) - Quieter (yªn tÜnh h¬n) - Quietest (yªn tÜnh nhÊt); Dirty (bÈn) - Dirtier (bÈn h¬n) - Dirtiest (bÈn nhÊt); Simple (®¬n gi¶n) - Simpler (®¬n gi¶n h¬n) - Simplest (®¬n gi¶n nhÊt); Narrow (hÑp) - Narrower (hÑp h¬n) - Narrowest (hÑp nhÊt). • TÝnh tõ b¾t ®Çu b»ng Un vµ theo sau lµ hai vÇn. Ch¼ng h¹n, Unhappy (khèn khæ) - Unhappier (khèn khæ h¬n) - Unhappiest (khèn khæ nhÊt). Lu ý - Big (lín) - Bigger (lín h¬n) - Biggest (lín nhÊt); Fat (bÐo) - Fatter (bÐo h¬n) - Fattest (bÐo nhÊt). - Silly (d¹i dét) - Sillier (d¹i dét h¬n) - Silliest (d¹i dét nhÊt); Floppy (mÒm) - Floppier (mÒm h¬n) - Floppiest (mÒm nhÊt). - Little (nhá) - Littler (nhá h¬n) - Littlest (nhá nhÊt); - Rude (khiÕm nh·) - Ruder (khiÕm nh· h¬n) - Rudest (khiÕm nh· nhÊt). b) Thªm More (so s¸nh h¬n) vµ Most (cùc cÊp) tríc: • Mäi tÝnh tõ ba vÇn (trõ trêng hîp ®· nãi trªn ®©y). Ch¼ng h¹n, Attractive (hÊp dÉn) - More attractive (hÊp dÉn h¬n) - Most attractive (hÊp dÉn nhÊt). • PhÇn lín c¸c tÝnh tõ hai vÇn (tËn cïng b»ng ful, less, al, ant, ent, ic, ive, ous, hoÆc b¾t ®Çu b»ng a). Ch¼ng h¹n, Distant (xa) - More distant (xa h¬n) - Most distant (xa nhÊt); Graceful (duyªn d¸ng) - More graceful (duyªn d¸ng h¬n) - Most graceful (duyªn d¸ng nhÊt). • Mäi ph©n tõ dïng nh tÝnh tõ. Ch¼ng h¹n, Boring (tÎ nh¹t) - More boring (tÎ nh¹t h¬n), Most boring (tÎ nh¹t nhÊt); Spoilt (h háng) - More spoilt (h háng h¬n) - Most spoilt (h háng nhÊt). Lu ý • Cã nh÷ng tÝnh tõ hai vÇn ¸p dông c¶ hai c¸ch nãi trªn. Ch¼ng h¹n, Common (phæ biÕn) - Commoner/More common( phæ biÕn h¬n) - Commonest/Most common (phæ biÕn nhÊt); Clever (kh«n ngoan) - Cleverer/More clever (kh«n ngoan h¬n) - Cleverest/Most clever (kh«n ngoan nhÊt). • NÕu nghi ngê th× nªn dïng More vµ Most. 3/ So s¸nh bÊt quy t¾c Good (tèt), better , best Bad (xÊu), worse , worst Far (xa), farther / further , furthest / farthest Little (Ýt), less , least Few (Ýt), fewer / less , fewest / least Many, Much (nhiÒu), more , most Old (giµ, cò), elder / older , eldest / oldest
  17. 17. Ngữ Pháp Thông Dụng trong Tiếng Anh Sưu tầm: Mr. Denn 4/ CÊu tróc 4/1 So s¸nh h¬n • Cã thÓ dïng Much, Far, A little, A bit tríc tÝnh tõ ë cÊp so s¸nh h¬n. VÝ dô: - Tom is much stronger than his rival (Tom khoÎ h¬n ®èi thñ cña m×nh nhiÒu) - Are you feeling a little (a bit) better today? (H«m nay b¹n thÊy trong ngêi khoÎ h¬n kh«ng?) • Sau than cã thÓ lµ mét danh tõ, ®¹i tõ hoÆc mÖnh ®Ò. VÝ dô: - London is bigger than Paris (Lu©n §«n to h¬n Pari). - Peter appeared more confused than his friends. (Peter cã vÎ lóng tóng h¬n c¸c b¹n anh ta) - My dad's older than yours (Bè t«i giµ h¬n bè b¹n) - The exam is easier than I thought (Cuéc thi dÔ h¬n t«i nghÜ). Lu ý • It's getting colder and colder (Trêi cµng lóc cµng l¹nh h¬n) • He became more and more anxious with every passing minute (Mçi phót tr«i qua, anh ta cµng thªm lo l¾ng) • The more I miss my family, the more I miss my children (Cµng nhí gia ®×nh, t«i cµng nhí c¸c con t«i) • The more he thought about it, the worse the situation seemed (Anh ta cµng nghÜ ®Õn ®iÒu ®ã, t×nh h×nh cµng cã vÎ tÖ h¬n) • The more interesting it is, the more attention they pay (§iÒu ®ã cµng lý thó, hä cµng thªm chó ý) • You are taller than I (am) , nhng ngêi ta thêng nãi You are taller than me . • He makes fewer spelling mistakes than you (do) , nhng ngêi ta thêng nãi He makes fewer spelling mistakes than you . • I have a faster car than he (does) , nhng ngêi ta thêng nãi I have a faster car than him. 4/2 Cùc cÊp VÝ dô: - Henry is the best child in his family (Henry lµ ®øa con tèt nhÊt trong gia ®×nh) - It was the happiest day of my life (§ã lµ ngµy vui nhÊt ®êi t«i) - Her worst subject is chemistry (M«n mµ c« ta dë nhÊt lµ ho¸ häc) - My parents have two sons. I am the eldest (Bè mÑ t«i cã hai ngêi con trai. T«i lµ con trai trëng)
  18. 18. Ngữ Pháp Thông Dụng trong Tiếng Anh Sưu tầm: Mr. Denn - All the boys are noisy, but Long is the noisiest (TÊt c¶ c¸c bÐ trai ®Òu lµm ån, nhng Long lµm ån nhiÒu nhÊt) - It is the strongest coffee (that) I have ever drunk (§©y lµ cµ phª ®Æc nhÊt mµ t«i ®· tõng uèng) - It was the unhappiest month (that) we had ever spent (§ã lµ th¸ng xui nhÊt mµ chóng t«i ®· tõng tr¶i qua) 5/ Nãi thªm vÒ h×nh thøc so s¸nh vµ cùc cÊp - She is as thin as a lath (C« ta gÇy nh c©y que) - You are as tall as my brother (B¹n cao b»ng anh t«i) - This schoolgirl is as white as a sheet (C« n÷ sinh nµy trong tr¾ng nh mét tê giÊy) - An elephant is not so big as a whale (Voi kh«ng to b»ng c¸ voi) Your tea is not so strong as mine (Trµ cña b¹n kh«ng ®Æc b»ng trµ cña t«i) - Mice are not as big as cats (Chuét kh«ng to b»ng mÌo) - The least worry we have is about the weather (§iÒu chóng t«i Ýt lo l¾ng nhÊt lµ thêi tiÕt) - His speech is less lengthy than I expected (Bµi diÔn v¨n cña «ng ta Ýt dµi dßng h¬n t«i mong) - This is the least interesting part of the dictionary (§©y lµ phÇn Ýt hÊp dÉn nhÊt trong quyÓn tù ®iÓn) - One of the least performed of Shakespeare's plays (mét trong nh÷ng vë kÞch Ýt ®îc tr×nh diÔn nhÊt cña Shakespeare) - She chose the least expensive of the hotels (Bµ ta chän kh¸ch s¹n Ýt ®¾t tiÒn nhÊt = Bµ ta chän kh¸ch s¹n rÎ tiÒn nhÊt) - She found the job less and less attractive (C« ta thÊy c«ng viÖc ngµy cµng bít hÊp dÉn) - They are less and less interested in sport (Hä ngµy cµng bít quan t©m ®Õn thÓ thao) - Less coffee than tea (t cµ phª h¬n trµ) - You should smoke fewer cigarettes and drink less beer (Anh nªn hót Ýt thuèc l¸ h¬n vµ uèng Ýt bia h¬n) - I received less money than the others did (T«i lÜnh Ýt tiÒn h¬n nh÷ng ngêi kh¸c) - It rains less in London than in Manchester (™ Lu©n §«n ma Ýt h¬n lµ ë Manchester) PHO TU TONG QUAT VE PHO TU Phã tõ lµ tõ bæ sung th«ng tin vÒ thêi gian, n¬i chèn, møc ®é, c¸ch thøc... cho mét ®éng tõ, mét tÝnh tõ, mét côm tõ hoÆc mét phã tõ kh¸c . • Phã tõ chØ c¸ch thøc (Adverbs of manner): Slowly (chËm ch¹p), quickly (mét c¸ch nhanh nhÑn), joyfully (mét c¸ch vui vÎ), sadly (mét c¸ch buån b·), well (tèt, giái), badly (tåi, dë) ... • Phã tõ chØ møc ®é (Adverbs of degree): Enough (®ñ), absolutely (tuyÖt ®èi), strictly (triÖt ®Ó), fairly (kh¸, hoµn toµn), completely (hoµn toµn), entirely (hoµn toµn), quite (hoµn toµn), just (võa), nearly (gÇn nh), almost (gÇn nh), only (chØ riªng), too (qu¸), very (rÊt), extremely (cùc ®é), really (thùc sù)...
  19. 19. Ngữ Pháp Thông Dụng trong Tiếng Anh Sưu tầm: Mr. Denn • Phã tõ chØ n¬i chèn (Adverbs of place): Here (®©y), there (®ã), near (gÇn), everywhere (mäi n¬i), nowhere (kh«ng n¬i nµo), northwards (vÒ phÝa b¾c), forwards (vÒ phÝa tríc), backwards (vÒ phÝa sau), clockwise (theo chiÒu kim ®ång hå) ... • Phã tõ chØ thêi gian (Adverbs of time): Now (b©y giê), today (h«m nay), tomorrow (ngµy mai), yesterday (h«m qua), soon (ngay), still (vÉn cßn), then (sau ®ã), yet (cßn, cßn n÷a), afterwards (sau nµy), before (tríc ®ã), at once (lËp tøc), lately (gÇn ®©y), recently (gÇn ®©y) ... • Phã tõ chØ sù thêng xuyªn (Adverbs of frequency): Frequently (thêng xuyªn), always (lu«n lu«n), never (kh«ng bao giê), occasionally (thØnh tho¶ng), usually (thêng), often (th- êng), regularly (®Òu ®Æn), seldom (Ýt khi, hiÕm khi), rarely (Ýt khi, hiÕm khi)... • Phã tõ nghi vÊn (Interrogative adverbs): When? (lóc nµo), where?(ë ®©u), why? (t¹i sao), how (nh thÕ nµo? b»ng c¸ch nµo?). Ch¼ng h¹n, When did he die? (Anh ta chÕt lóc nµo?), Where does she come from? (C« ta tõ ®©u ®Õn?), Why were you late? (T¹i sao anh ®Õn muén?), How is this word spelt? (Tõ nµy ®¸nh vÇn nh thÕ nµo?). • Phã tõ quan hÖ (Relative adverbs): When (khi mµ), where (n¬i mµ), why (v× sao, t¹i sao). Ch¼ng h¹n, Sunday is the day when very few people go to work (Chñ nhËt lµ ngµy mµ rÊt Ýt ngêi ®i lµm viÖc), One of the countries where people drive on the left (Mét trong nh÷ng n- íc n¬i ngêi ta l¸i xe vÒ bªn tr¸i), That is the reason why I come here (§ã lµ lý do v× sao t«i ®Õn ®©y). Ngoµi ra, cßn cã Phã tõ bæ nghÜa c©u (Sentence adverbs) nh Certainly (ch¾c ch¾n), Evidently (hiÓn nhiªn), Obviously (hiÓn nhiªn), Naturally (tÊt nhiªn), Clearly (râ rµng), Probably (cã lÏ), Undoubtedly (kh«ng nghi ngê g× n÷a), Fortunately (may thay), Unfortunately (rñi thay) ... Ch¼ng h¹n, Fortunately, everyone returned home safe and sound (May thay, mäi ngêi ®Òu trë vÒ nhµ b×nh an v« sù). SU THANH LAP PHO TU • Thêng th× phã tõ h×nh thµnh b»ng c¸ch thªm ly vµo tÝnh tõ t¬ng xøng. VÝ dô: Large (réng r·i) - Largely Extreme (cùc ®é) - Extremely Brief (ng¾n gän) - Briefly Boring (buån tÎ) - Boringly Repeated (lÆp ®i lÆp l¹i) - Repeatedly Quick (nhanh nhÑn) - Quickly Happy (sung síng) - Happily Greedy (tham lam) - Greedily Useful (h÷u Ých) - Usefully Beautiful (®Ñp) - Beautifully Normal (th«ng thêng) - normally Actual (thùc sù) - actually Reliable (x¸c thùc) - Reliably Pitiable (®¸ng th¬ng) - Pitiably Tangible (hiÓn nhiªn) - tangibly Credible (®¸ng tin cËy) - Credibly
  20. 20. Ngữ Pháp Thông Dụng trong Tiếng Anh Sưu tầm: Mr. Denn Ngo¹i lÖ True (thËt, ®óng), truly Due (®óng, ®¸ng), duly Whole (toµn bé), wholly Good (tèt, giái), well Other (kh¸c), otherwise • Còng cã trêng hîp tÝnh tõ vµ phã tõ gièng nhau vÒ h×nh thøc . Ch¼ng h¹n, Back seat (GhÕ sau) - It takes me an hour to walk there and back (T«i ph¶i mÊt mét tiÕng ®ång hå ®Ó ®i tõ ®©y ®Õn ®ã råi quay vÒ), A pretty girl (Mét c« g¸i xinh x¾n) - The situation seems pretty hopeless (T×nh thÕ cã vÎ kh¸ tuyÖt väng), In the near future (Trong t¬ng lai gÇn ®©y) - Sit near enough to see the screen (H·y ngåi ®ñ gÇn ®Ó nh×n thÊy mµn ¶nh), Still water (Níc ph¼ng lÆng) - She is still unconscious (C« ta vÉn cßn bÊt tØnh), A little garden (Mét khu vên nhá) - I slept very little last night (§ªm qua t«i ngñ rÊt Ýt), A late marriage (Mét cuéc h«n nh©n muén m»n) - She married late (C« ta lÊy chång muén), A nation-wide advertising campaign (Mét chiÕn dÞch qu¶ng c¸o trªn toµn quèc) - Police are looking for him nation-wide (C¶nh s¸t ®ang truy lïng h¾n trªn toµn quèc), Bodily organs (C¸c bé phËn cña c¬ thÓ) - The audience rose bodily to salute the colours (Toµn thÓ cö to¹ ®øng dËy chµo cê)... • Nh÷ng tÝnh tõ tËn cïng b»ng ly, ch¼ng h¹n nh Friendly (th©n thiÖn), Likely (cã thÓ, ch¾c), Lonely (c« ®¬n)..., kh«ng ®îc dïng nh phã tõ. §Ó diÔn t¶ chóng díi d¹ng phã tõ, ta ph¶i lËp nh÷ng côm tõ nh In a friendly manner/way (mét c¸ch th©n thiÖn) ch¼ng h¹n. PHO TU DUOI HINH THUC SO SANH 1/ §Ó ®Æt phã tõ cã hai vÇn trë lªn díi h×nh thøc so s¸nh vµ cùc cÊp , ta thªm more vµ most tríc phã tõ. Ch¼ng h¹n, Calmly (B×nh tÜnh) - More calmly (b×nh tÜnh h¬n) - Most calmly (b×nh tÜnh nhÊt), Luckily (may m¾n) - More luckily (may m¾n h¬n), Most luckily (may m¾n nhÊt). §Æc biÖt Well Better Best Badly Worse Worst Little Less Least Much More Most Far Farther Farthest Further Furthest Early Earlier Earliest Hard Harder Hardest Fast Faster Fastest Loud Louder Loudest 2/ VÝ dô minh ho¹ - He eats more quickly than I do/than me (Anh ta ¨n nhanh h¬n t«i) - He eats as quickly as I do/as me (Anh ta ¨n nhanh b»ng t«i)
  21. 21. Ngữ Pháp Thông Dụng trong Tiếng Anh Sưu tầm: Mr. Denn - He doesn't eat as quickly as I do/as me hoÆc He doesn't eat so quickly as I do/as me (Anh ta kh«ng ¨n nhanh b»ng t«i). - They arrived earlier than I expected (Hä ®· ®Õn sím h¬n t«i tëng) - The sooner you begin, the sooner you'll finish (B¹n b¾t ®Çu cµng sím, b¹n cµng sím xong viÖc) - The sooner the better (Cµng sím cµng tèt) - heir child screamed loudest of all (Con cña hä hÐt to nhÊt trong bän) - Who arrived the earliest? (Ai ®Õn sím nhÊt?) VI TRI PHO TU 1/ Phã tõ chØ c¸ch thøc (Adverbs of manner) • §øng sau ®éng tõ. Ch¼ng h¹n, This old man drinks heavily (¤ng l·o nµy nghiÖn rîu nÆng), She walked sluggishly (C« ta ®i mét c¸ch uÓ o¶i). • §øng sau tóc tõ nÕu c©u cã mét tóc tõ. Ch¼ng h¹n, He rendered me a service voluntarily (Anh ta tù nguyÖn gióp t«i), They speak French well (Hä nãi tiÕng Ph¸p giái). • §øng tríc giíi tõ hoÆc sau tóc tõ khi ®éng tõ + giíi tõ + tóc tõ (nhng ph¶i ®øng tríc giíi tõ nÕu tóc tõ dµi). Ch¼ng h¹n, She glances shyly at him hoÆc She glances at him shyly (C« ta e thÑn liÕc nh×n anh ta), nhng She glances shyly at everyone who attends her wedding ceremony (C« ta e thÑn nh×n nh÷ng ngêi ®Õn dù lÔ cíi cña c« ta). • §øng tríc ®éng tõ nÕu tóc tõ dµi. Ch¼ng h¹n, The teacher carefully marked all the incorrect sentences on the blackboard (ThÇy gi¸o cÈn thËn ®¸nh dÊu mäi c©u sai trªn b¶ng ®en), He furiously declares that any latecomer will be blacklisted (Anh ta ®iªn tiÕt tuyªn bè r»ng ai ®Õn trÔ sÏ bÞ ghi vµo sæ ®en). 2/ Phã tõ chØ møc ®é (Adverbs of degree) §øng tríc mét phã tõ hoÆc mét tÝnh tõ ®Ó bæ nghÜa cho phã tõ hoÆc tÝnh tõ Êy. Ch¼ng h¹n, It is absolutely impossible (§iÒu ®ã hoµn toµn kh«ng thÓ ®îc), She sings very well (C« ta ca rÊt hay). §Æc biÖt - They have only two children (Hä cã ván vÑn hai ®øa con) - Only five people were hurt in the accident (ChØ cã n¨m ngêi bÞ th¬ng trong vô tai n¹n) - For external use only (Dïng ngoµi da mµ th«i) - I only waited a few minutes, but it seemed like hours (T«i chØ ®îi vµi phót th«i, mµ cø nh mÊy giê ®ång hå) - I hardly know this telephone number (T«i võa míi biÕt sè ®iÖn tho¹i nµy mµ th«i) - I can hardly lift this bag (T«i khã mµ nhÊc næi c¸i bao nµy) - Hardly anybody came (HÇu nh ch¼ng ai ®Õn)
  22. 22. Ngữ Pháp Thông Dụng trong Tiếng Anh Sưu tầm: Mr. Denn -There's hardly any milk left (HÇu nh ch¼ng cßn chót s÷a nµo) -He has hardly any money (Anh ta hÇu nh ch¼ng cã tiÒn) - They hardly ever go to bed before midnight (HÇu nh hä ch¼ng bao giê ®i ngñ tríc nöa ®ªm) - He can scarcely have said so (Ch¾c lµ anh Êy ®· kh«ng nãi nh thÕ) - There were scarcely fifty strikers there (™ ®ã chØ cã ván vÑn n¨m m¬i ngêi ®×nh c«ng) - This river isn't deep enough for swimming (Dßng s«ng nµy cha ®ñ s©u ®Ó b¬i léi) - Write clearly enough for us to read it (H·y viÕt ®ñ râ cho chóng t«i ®äc ®îc) 3/ Phã tõ chØ sù thêng xuyªn (Adverbs of frequency) • §øng sau th× ®¬n gi¶n cña To be. Ch¼ng h¹n, Your hands are still dirty (Tay anh vÉn cßn bÈn), He is always modest about his achievements (Anh ta lu«n khiªm tèn vÒ nh÷ng thµnh tùu cña m×nh). • Tríc th× ®¬n gi¶n cña tÊt c¶ c¸c ®éng tõ kh¸c. Ch¼ng h¹n, I continually have to remind him of his family (T«i ph¶i liªn tôc nh¾c h¾n nhí ®Õn gia ®×nh h¾n), He sometimes writes to me (ThØnh tho¶ng anh ta cã viÕt th cho t«i), My father never eats meat (Cha t«i ch¼ng bao giê ¨n thÞt). • Sau trî ®éng tõ trong th× kÐp. Ch¼ng h¹n, I have never been abroad (T«i cha bao giê ra níc ngoµi), You should always check your oil before starting (B¹n nªn lu«n lu«n kiÓm tra dÇu nhít tr- íc khi khëi hµnh), We have often been there (Chóng t«i ®· tõng ®Õn ®ã lu«n). 4 Phã tõ chØ n¬i chèn (Adverbs of place) • §øng sau ®éng tõ. Ch¼ng h¹n, Her parents live abroad (Cha mÑ c« ta sèng ë níc ngoµi), They are waiting for us downstairs (Hä ®ang ®îi chóng t«i ë tÇng díi), Are you going anywhere? (Anh ®Þnh ®i bÊt cø n¬i nµo chø?). • Sau §éng tõ + tóc tõ hoÆc §éng tõ + giíi tõ + tóc tõ. Ch¼ng h¹n, I've seen that old women somewhere (T«i ®· gÆp bµ l·o ®ã ë n¬i nµo ®ã), We looked for it everywhere (Chóng t«i ®· t×m nã kh¾p n¬i). 5/ Phã tõ chØ thêi gian (Adverbs of time) • §øng ë ®Çu hoÆc cuèi mÖnh ®Ò. Ch¼ng h¹n, Eventually he won hoÆc He won eventually (Cuèi cïng anh ta ®· th¾ng), Then we walked home hoÆc We walked home then (Råi chóng t«i ®i bé vÒ nhµ). Tuy nhiªn, tèt nhÊt lµ tra tù ®iÓn tríc khi dïng phã tõ chØ thêi gian. DAI TU TINH TU NGHI VAN • Who (®¹i tõ) • Whom (®¹i tõ) • What (®¹i tõ vµ tÝnh tõ) • Which (®¹i tõ vµ tÝnh tõ)
  23. 23. Ngữ Pháp Thông Dụng trong Tiếng Anh Sưu tầm: Mr. Denn • Whose (®¹i tõ vµ tÝnh tõ) VÝ dô minh ho¹ a) Who - Who told him the news? (Ai b¸o tin cho anh ta?) - Do you know who damaged my car? (B¹n cã biÕt ai lµm háng xe t«i hay kh«ng?) - I wonder who phoned this morning (T«i ch¼ng biÕt ai ®· gäi ®iÖn tho¹i s¸ng nay) - Who ate my bread? (Ai ®· ¨n b¸nh m× cña t«i?) - Who is that bespectacled girl? (C« g¸i ®eo kÝnh lµ ai?) b) Whom - Thay v× Whom did they invite? (Hä mêi nh÷ng ai?), ngêi ta thêng nãi Who did they invite? - Thay v× Whom did you see at church? (B¹n ®· gÆp ai ë nhµ thê?), ngêi ta thêng nãi Who did you see at church? - Thay v× With whom did you go? (B¹n ®· ®i víi ai?), ngêi ta thêng nãi Who did you go with? - Thay v× To whom are you speaking? (B¹n ®ang nãi chuyÖn víi ai?), ngêi ta thêng nãi Who are you speaking to? c) Whose • Whose lµ tÝnh tõ. - Whose house was broken into? (Nhµ cña ai bÞ bän trém vµo?) - Whose book are they reading? (Hä ®ang ®äc s¸ch cña ai?) • Whose lµ ®¹i tõ. - Whose are these newspapers ? (Nh÷ng tê b¸o nµy lµ cña ai?) - Whose is that house? (Nhµ ®ã lµ cña ai?) d) Which • Which lµ tÝnh tõ. - Which hat is hers? (Mò nµo lµ cña c« ta?) - Which way is quicker - by taxi or by pedicab? (§êng nµo th× nhanh h¬n - b»ng taxi hay b»ng xe xÝch l«?) - Which languages did you study at school? (Anh ®· häc nh÷ng thø tiÕng g× ë trêng?) - Which journalist (of all journalists) do you admire most? (Nhµ b¸o nµo b¹n ngìng mé nhÊt?) - Thay v× To which address will you send this letter? (B¹n sÏ göi th nµy ®Õn ®Þa chØ nµo), ngêi ta thêng nãi Which address will you send this letter to?. T¬ng tù, thay v× In which region do you work? (B¹n lµm viÖc ë vïng nµo?), ngêi ta thêng nãi Which region do you work in? • Which lµ ®¹i tõ. - Which is her hat? (Mò cña c« ta lµ mò nµo?)
  24. 24. Ngữ Pháp Thông Dụng trong Tiếng Anh Sưu tầm: Mr. Denn - Which of them is the tallest? (Ngêi nµo trong sè hä lµ cao nhÊt?) - Which of these two photos do you like best? (B¹n thÝch bøc nµo nhÊt trong hai bøc ¶nh nµy?) e) What • What lµ ®¹i tõ. - What happens? (Cã chuyÖn g× x¶y ra vËy?) - What made him so furious? (§iÒu g× khiÕn h¾n ®iªn tiÕt lªn vËy?) - What are you thinking? (B¹n ®ang nghÜ g× vËy?) - What's the date? (H«m nay ngµy bao nhiªu?) - What does he say? (Anh ta nãi g× vËy?) - What did you do that for? = Why did you do that? (B¹n lµm ®iÒu ®ã nh»m môc ®Ých g×?) - What is this bag for? (C¸i bao nµy dïng ®Ó lµm g×?) - What does this word mean? (Tõ nµy nghÜa lµ g×?) - What does she do? = What is she? = What is her profession? (C« ta lµm nghÒ g×?) - What's your name? (Tªn b¹n lµ g×?) - What was the weather like? (Thêi tiÕt nh thÕ nµo?) - What does she look like? (C« ta tr«ng thÕ nµo?) • What lµ tÝnh tõ (nhng rÊt Ýt dïng cho ngêi). - What date is it? (H«m nay ngµy bao nhiªu?) - What experience have you had? (B¹n ®· cã kinh nghiÖm g×?) - What documents has he read? (H¾n ®· ®äc nh÷ng tµi liÖu nµo?) - At what depth does the wreck lie? (X¸c tµu ®¾m n»m ë ®é s©u bao nhiªu?) Lu ý - Thay v× What age are you?/What is your age?, ngêi ta thêng nãi How old are you? (B¹n bao nhiªu tuæi?) - Thay v× What height is he?/ What is his height?, ngêi ta thêng nãi How tall is he? (Anh ta cao bao nhiªu?) DAI TU NHAN XUNG 1/ H×nh thøc Chñ tõ Tóc tõ Sè Ýt Ng«i thø nhÊt I Me Ng«i thø hai You You Ng«i thø ba He/She/It Him/Her/It ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Sè nhiÒu Ng«i thø nhÊt We Us Ng«i thø hai You You Ng«i thø ba They Them
  25. 25. Ngữ Pháp Thông Dụng trong Tiếng Anh Sưu tầm: Mr. Denn • H×nh thøc cò cña ng«i thø hai sè Ýt lµ Thou (chñ tõ), Thee (tóc tõ) • He dïng cho nam giíi vµ ®éng vËt gièng ®ùc & She dïng cho n÷ giíi vµ ®éng vËt gièng c¸i & It dïng cho sù vËt. VÝ dô: - This is my father. He is a postman (§©y lµ cha t«i. ¤ng lµ nh©n viªn ph¸t th) - This is my mother. She is an actress (§©y lµ mÑ t«i. Bµ lµ diÔn viªn) - This is my car. It is very beautiful (§©y lµ xe «t« cña t«i. Nã th× rÊt ®Ñp) 2/ VÝ dô minh ho¹ - This is my grandmother. She is old. Do you know her? (§©y lµ bµ t«i. Bµ Êy th× giµ. B¹n cã biÕt bµ Êy hay kh«ng?) - Did you see the elephant? - Yes, I saw it and it saw me (B¹n thÊy voi cha? - V©ng, t«i ®· thÊy nã vµ nã ®· thÊy t«i) - My sister and I attend the same school (ChÞ t«i vµ t«i häc cïng mét trêng) - Where's Ba? - That's him over there (Ba ®©u råi? - Anh ta kia k×a) - They gave you dinner. Did you thank them for it? (Hä ®·i b¹n ¨n tèi. B¹n ®· c¸m ¬n hä vÒ viÖc ®ã cha?) - She will stay with us (C« Êy sÏ ë l¹i víi chóng ta) - You need to speak to someone like him (B¹n cÇn ph¶i nãi chuyÖn víi nh÷ng ngêi nh anh ta) Lu ý - Thay v× It is I (t«i ®©y), ngêi ta thêng nãi It's me. - Thay v× She is taller than I am (c« ta cao h¬n t«i), ngêi ta thêng nãi She is taller than me. -Thay v× He doesn't know as much as she does (anh ta kh«ng biÕt nhiÒu b»ng c« ta), ngêi ta thêng nãi He doesn't know as much as her . - Kh«ng nãi It was him who told me the news (chÝnh anh ta b¸o tin cho t«i), mµ ph¶i nãi It was he who told me the news . - Cã thÓ nãi Turn off the fan hoÆc Turn the fan off (H·y t¾t qu¹t !), nhng nÕu dïng ®¹i tõ nh©n xng th× ph¶i nãi Turn it off. - Víi vai trß chñ tõ, You vµ One cã thÓ ®îc dïng nh nhau. Ch¼ng h¹n, You cannot live on water (B¹n kh«ng thÓ sèng b»ng níc l·) hoÆc One cannot live on water (Ngêi ta kh«ng thÓ sèng b»ng níc l·) . Tuy nhiªn, You vÉn th©n mËt vµ th«ng dông h¬n One. - They còng cã nghÜa lµ Ngêi ta . Ch¼ng h¹n, They say (that) he behaves very badly towards his mother (Ngêi ta nãi r»ng h¾n ®èi xö víi mÑ h¾n rÊt tÖ). 3/ Nãi riªng vÒ It • It thêng dïng cho mét vËt, mét em bÐ, hoÆc mét con vËt mµ ta kh«ng biÕt thuéc gièng g×. VÝ dô:
  26. 26. Ngữ Pháp Thông Dụng trong Tiếng Anh Sưu tầm: Mr. Denn - Where's your gun? - It is in the drawer. (KhÈu sóng cña b¹n ®©u? - Nã ë trong ng¨n kÐo) - Do you see that bird? It is singing very happily. (B¹n cã thÊy con chim kia kh«ng? Nã ®ang hãt rÊt vui) - Her new baby is very chubby. It weighs more than four kilos. (§øa con míi sinh cña c« ta rÊt mòm mÜm. Nã nÆng h¬n bèn kÝ) • §«i khi It còng dïng cho ngêi. VÝ dô: - Who is that/Who is it? - It's me (Ai ®ã? - T«i ®©y) • It dïng trong c¸c thµnh ng÷ chØ thêi gian, kho¶ng c¸ch, thêi tiÕt, nhiÖt ®é, thñy triÒu VÝ dô: - What time is it? - It is six (MÊy giê råi? - S¸u giê råi) - How far is it to London? - It is about 100 miles. (§Õn Lu©n §«n bao xa? - Kho¶ng 100 dÆm) - It is raining/snowing (Trêi ®ang ma/®ang tuyÕt r¬i) - It's a fine night (Trêi ®ªm ®Ñp) - It is hot/cold/cool in this grotto (ThËt lµ nãng/l¹nh/m¸t trong hang nµy) • CÊu tróc It + is + tÝnh tõ + nguyªn mÉu VÝ dô: - It is easy to criticize (Phª ph¸n th× dÔ) thay v× To criticize is easy . - It is better to get up early (Nªn dËy sím th× tèt h¬n) thay v× To get up early is bettter . • Thay v× She finds (that) it is boring to stay at home (C« ta thÊy ngåi nhµ thËt lµ ch¸n), ta cã thÓ nãi She finds it boring to stay at home . • It thay cho mét côm tõ hay mÖnh ®Ò ®îc ®Ò cËp tríc ®ã. VÝ dô: - He smokes in bed, though his wife doesn't like it. (H¾n hót thuèc trªn giõ¬ng, mÆc dï vî h¾n ch¼ng thÝch ®iÒu ®ã) - Yes, I am always a late riser. What about it? (V©ng, t«i lu«n dËy muén. Anh nghÜ sao vÒ ®iÒu ®ã?) • It lµm chñ tõ cho c¸c ®éng tõ kh«ng ¸m chØ riªng ai VÝ dô: - It appears that there has been a mistake (Dêng nh ®· cã sù nhÇm lÉn) - It seems that he's resigned (Dêng nh «ng ta ®· tõ chøc) DAI TU PHAN THAN 1/ H×nh thøc
  27. 27. Ngữ Pháp Thông Dụng trong Tiếng Anh Sưu tầm: Mr. Denn Chñ tõ Tóc tõ Sè Ýt Ng«i thø nhÊt I Me Ng«i thø hai You You Ng«i thø ba He/She/It Him/Her/It ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Sè nhiÒu Ng«i thø nhÊt We Us Ng«i thø hai You You Ng«i thø ba They Them • H×nh thøc cò cña ng«i thø hai sè Ýt lµ Thou (chñ tõ), Thee (tóc tõ) • He dïng cho nam giíi vµ ®éng vËt gièng ®ùc & She dïng cho n÷ giíi vµ ®éng vËt gièng c¸i & It dïng cho sù vËt. VÝ dô: - This is my father. He is a postman (§©y lµ cha t«i. ¤ng lµ nh©n viªn ph¸t th) - This is my mother. She is an actress (§©y lµ mÑ t«i. Bµ lµ diÔn viªn) - This is my car. It is very beautiful (§©y lµ xe «t« cña t«i. Nã th× rÊt ®Ñp) 2/ VÝ dô minh ho¹ - This is my grandmother. She is old. Do you know her? (§©y lµ bµ t«i. Bµ Êy th× giµ. B¹n cã biÕt bµ Êy hay kh«ng?) - Did you see the elephant? - Yes, I saw it and it saw me (B¹n thÊy voi cha? - V©ng, t«i ®· thÊy nã vµ nã ®· thÊy t«i) - My sister and I attend the same school (ChÞ t«i vµ t«i häc cïng mét trêng) - Where's Ba? - That's him over there (Ba ®©u råi? - Anh ta kia k×a) - They gave you dinner. Did you thank them for it? (Hä ®·i b¹n ¨n tèi. B¹n ®· c¸m ¬n hä vÒ viÖc ®ã cha?) - She will stay with us (C« Êy sÏ ë l¹i víi chóng ta) - You need to speak to someone like him (B¹n cÇn ph¶i nãi chuyÖn víi nh÷ng ngêi nh anh ta) Lu ý - Thay v× It is I (t«i ®©y), ngêi ta thêng nãi It's me. - Thay v× She is taller than I am (c« ta cao h¬n t«i), ngêi ta thêng nãi She is taller than me. -Thay v× He doesn't know as much as she does (anh ta kh«ng biÕt nhiÒu b»ng c« ta), ngêi ta thêng nãi He doesn't know as much as her . - Kh«ng nãi It was him who told me the news (chÝnh anh ta b¸o tin cho t«i), mµ ph¶i nãi It was he who told me the news .
  28. 28. Ngữ Pháp Thông Dụng trong Tiếng Anh Sưu tầm: Mr. Denn - Cã thÓ nãi Turn off the fan hoÆc Turn the fan off (H·y t¾t qu¹t !), nhng nÕu dïng ®¹i tõ nh©n xng th× ph¶i nãi Turn it off. - Víi vai trß chñ tõ, You vµ One cã thÓ ®îc dïng nh nhau. Ch¼ng h¹n, You cannot live on water (B¹n kh«ng thÓ sèng b»ng níc l·) hoÆc One cannot live on water (Ngêi ta kh«ng thÓ sèng b»ng níc l·) . Tuy nhiªn, You vÉn th©n mËt vµ th«ng dông h¬n One. - They còng cã nghÜa lµ Ngêi ta . Ch¼ng h¹n, They say (that) he behaves very badly towards his mother (Ngêi ta nãi r»ng h¾n ®èi xö víi mÑ h¾n rÊt tÖ). 3/ Nãi riªng vÒ It • It thêng dïng cho mét vËt, mét em bÐ, hoÆc mét con vËt mµ ta kh«ng biÕt thuéc gièng g×. VÝ dô: - Where's your gun? - It is in the drawer. (KhÈu sóng cña b¹n ®©u? - Nã ë trong ng¨n kÐo) - Do you see that bird? It is singing very happily. (B¹n cã thÊy con chim kia kh«ng? Nã ®ang hãt rÊt vui) - Her new baby is very chubby. It weighs more than four kilos. (§øa con míi sinh cña c« ta rÊt mòm mÜm. Nã nÆng h¬n bèn kÝ) • §«i khi It còng dïng cho ngêi. VÝ dô: - Who is that/Who is it? - It's me (Ai ®ã? - T«i ®©y) • It dïng trong c¸c thµnh ng÷ chØ thêi gian, kho¶ng c¸ch, thêi tiÕt, nhiÖt ®é, thñy triÒu VÝ dô: - What time is it? - It is six (MÊy giê råi? - S¸u giê råi) - How far is it to London? - It is about 100 miles. (§Õn Lu©n §«n bao xa? - Kho¶ng 100 dÆm) - It is raining/snowing (Trêi ®ang ma/®ang tuyÕt r¬i) - It's a fine night (Trêi ®ªm ®Ñp) - It is hot/cold/cool in this grotto (ThËt lµ nãng/l¹nh/m¸t trong hang nµy) • CÊu tróc It + is + tÝnh tõ + nguyªn mÉu VÝ dô: - It is easy to criticize (Phª ph¸n th× dÔ) thay v× To criticize is easy . - It is better to get up early (Nªn dËy sím th× tèt h¬n) thay v× To get up early is bettter . • Thay v× She finds (that) it is boring to stay at home (C« ta thÊy ngåi nhµ thËt lµ ch¸n), ta cã thÓ nãi She finds it boring to stay at home . • It thay cho mét côm tõ hay mÖnh ®Ò ®îc ®Ò cËp tríc ®ã. VÝ dô: - He smokes in bed, though his wife doesn't like it. (H¾n hót thuèc trªn giõ¬ng, mÆc dï vî h¾n ch¼ng thÝch ®iÒu ®ã)
  29. 29. Ngữ Pháp Thông Dụng trong Tiếng Anh Sưu tầm: Mr. Denn - Yes, I am always a late riser. What about it? (V©ng, t«i lu«n dËy muén. Anh nghÜ sao vÒ ®iÒu ®ã?) • It lµm chñ tõ cho c¸c ®éng tõ kh«ng ¸m chØ riªng ai VÝ dô: - It appears that there has been a mistake (Dêng nh ®· cã sù nhÇm lÉn) - It seems that he's resigned (Dêng nh «ng ta ®· tõ chøc) DAI TU VA TINH TU SO HUU TÝnh tõ së h÷u §¹i tõ së h÷u My (cña t«i) Mine (cña t«i) Your (cña anh/chÞ) Yours (cña anh/chÞ) His/Her/Its His/Hers (cña anh ta/c« ta/nã) (cña anh Êy/c« Êy) Our (cña chóng ta/chóng t«i) Ours (cña chóng ta/chóng t«i) Your (cña c¸c anh chÞ) Yours (cña c¸c anh chÞ) Their (cña hä/chóng nã) Theirs (cña hä/chóng nã) VÝ dô: - This is his handkerchief. Where is ours? (§©y lµ kh¨n tay cña anh ta. C¸i cña chóng t«i ®©u?) - Your do your work and I do mine (B¹n lµm viÖc cña b¹n, t«i lµm viÖc cña t«i) Lu ý: §õng nhÇm tÝnh tõ së h÷u Its vµ côm tõ It's (viÕt t¾t cña It is) 1/ §Æc ®iÓm • TÝnh tõ së h÷u tïy thuéc së h÷u chñ, chø kh«ng tïy thuéc vËt së h÷u. Do vËy, nhµ cña anh ta lµ His house, nhµ cña c« ta lµ Her house. MÑ cña anh ta lµ His mother, mÑ cña c« ta lµ Her mother. • TÝnh tõ së h÷u kh«ng tïy thuéc sè cña vËt së h÷u. Ch¼ng h¹n, my friend (b¹n cña t«i), my friends (c¸c b¹n cu¶ t«i), their room (phßng cña hä), their rooms (c¸c phßng cña hä). • ... cña con vËt hoÆc sù vËt th× dïng Its. Ch¼ng h¹n, The dog wags its tail (con chã vÉy ®u«i), Depraved culture and its evils (v¨n ho¸ ®åi trôy vµ nh÷ng t¸c h¹i cña nã), The table and its legs (c¸i bµn vµ c¸c ch©n cña nã). • Own còng ®îc thªm vµo ®Ó nhÊn m¹nh sù së h÷u. Ch¼ng h¹n, Does that car belong to the company, or is it your own? (chiÕc xe «t« Êy cña c«ng ty, hay cña riªng anh?), Their own garden (m¶nh vên riªng cña hä). • TÝnh tõ së h÷u còng ®îc dïng tríc c¸c bé phËn c¬ thÓ. Ch¼ng h¹n, My legs hurt (t«i ®au ch©n), Her head is aching (c« ta ®ang nhøc ®Çu). 2/ §¹i tõ së h÷u thay cho tÝnh tõ së h÷u + danh tõ VÝ dô:
  30. 30. Ngữ Pháp Thông Dụng trong Tiếng Anh Sưu tầm: Mr. Denn - This is their apartment hoÆc This (apartment) is theirs (§©y lµ c¨n hé cña hä hoÆc C¨n hé nµy lµ cña hä ) - You're using my telephone. Where's yours ? (Anh ®ang dïng m¸y ®iÖn tho¹i cña t«i. C¸i cña anh ®©u?) • ... of mine nghÜa lµ One of my ... (mét... cña t«i). VÝ dô: - A friend of mine = one of my friends (mét ngêi b¹n cña t«i) - A teacher of hers = one of her teachers (mét ngêi thÇy cña c« Êy) DAI TU BAT DINH • TÝnh tõ bÊt ®Þnh: - There's only one piece of cake left (ChØ cßn l¹i mét mÈu b¸nh) - This mendicant is blind in both eyes (Ngêi ¨n xin nµy mï c¶ hai m¾t) - A ring on each finger (Mét c¸i nhÉn trªn mçi ngãn tay) - Take either half, they are exactly the same (H·y lÊy nöa nµy hoÆc nöa kia, c¶ hai ®Òu b»ng nhau) - Neither boy was present (C¶ hai ®øa bÐ ®Òu kh«ng cã mÆt) - I have read this book several times (T«i ®· ®äc quyÓn s¸ch nµy nhiÒu lÇn) - All dogs are animals, but not all animals are dogs (TÊt c¶ c¸c con chã ®Òu lµ ®éng vËt, nhng kh«ng ph¶i tÊt c¶ c¸c ®éng vËt ®Òu lµ chã) - The buses go every ten minutes (Cø mçi mêi phót l¹i cã chuyÕn xe bóyt) - I have a lot of bread, but I haven't much butter (T«i cã nhiÒu b¸nh m×, nhng t«i ch¼ng cã nhiÒu b¬) - There are many spelling mistakes in this newspaper (Tê b¸o nµy cã nhiÒu lçi chÝnh t¶) - There's some ice in the fridge (Cã mét Ýt ®¸ trong tñ l¹nh) - You may come here at any time (B¹n cã thÓ ®Õn ®ã bÊt cø lóc nµo) - I have little time for watching TV (T«i cã Ýt thêi gian ®Ó xem TV) - Give me a little sugar (H·y cho t«i mét Ýt ®êng) - There were few people at his funeral (Cã Ýt ngêi dù ®¸m tang «ng ta) - The jailer asked us a few questions (Viªn cai ngôc hái chóng t«i vµi c©u) - We have enough food for two weeks' holiday (Chóng t«i cã ®ñ thùc phÈm cho kú nghØ hai tuÇn) - No words can express my homesickness (Kh«ng lêi nµo diÔn t¶ ®îc nçi nhí nhµ cña t«i) - Would you like another cup of tea? (¤ng muèn dïng mét t¸ch trµ n÷a kh«ng?) - Where are the other students? (C¸c sinh viªn kh¸c ®ang ë ®©u?) • §¹i tõ bÊt ®Þnh - This problem is one of great difficulty (VÊn ®Ò nµy lµ vÊn ®Ò rÊt khã kh¨n) - We both want to go hunting (C¶ hai chóng t«i ®Òu muèn ®i s¨n) - He gave the boys five dollars each (¤ng ta cho mçi ®øa bÐ 5 ®« la) - I've bought two cakes - you can have either (T«i ®· mua hai c¸i b¸nh - anh cã thÓ lÊy mét trong hai c¸i ®ã) - I chose neither of them (T«i kh«ng chän c¸i nµo trong hai c¸i ®ã c¶)
  31. 31. Ngữ Pháp Thông Dụng trong Tiếng Anh Sưu tầm: Mr. Denn - Several of us decided to walk (NhiÒu ngêi trong chóng t«i quyÕt ®Þnh ®i bé) - We had several loaves left - All (of them) were crisp (Chóng t«i cßn nhiÒu æ b¸nh m× - TÊt c¶ (c¸c æ b¸nh m× ®ã) ®Òu gißn) - Everybody goes to church (Mäi ngêi ®Òu ®i nhµ thê) - I'll give you everything I have (T«i sÏ cho b¹n mäi thø mµ t«i cã) - Nobody came to see me (Kh«ng ai ®Õn th¨m t«i) - None of them wants to stay (Kh«ng ngêi nµo trong bän hä muèn ë l¹i) - I have nothing to eat (T«i ch¼ng cã g× ®Ó ¨n c¶) - Ask anyone in your room (H·y hái bÊt cø ai trong phßng b¹n) - Did you know many of them? (B¹n cã biÕt nhiÒu ngêi trong bän hä kh«ng?) - As a student, she has much to learn (Lµ sinh viªn, c« ta cã nhiÒu ®iÒu cÇn ph¶i häc hái) - How many loaves do you want? - A lot (B¹n cÇn bao nhiªu æ b¸nh m×? - NhiÒu l¾m) - Do you need more money? - No, there's plenty in the safe (¤ng cÇn thªm tiÒn n÷a kh«ng? - Kh«ng, vÉn cßn nhiÒu trong kÐt s¾t) - I agree to some of what you said (T«i ®ång ý víi phÇn nµo nh÷ng ®iÒu b¹n nãi) - He doesn't like any of these flowers (H¾n kh«ng thÝch bÊt cø hoa nµo trong nh÷ng hoa nµy) - I can understand little of what he said (T«i hiÓu ®îc chót Ýt nh÷ng ®iÒu h¾n nãi) - If you've got any spare sugar, could you give me a little? (NÕu b¹n cßn ®êng, b¹n cho t«i mét Ýt ®îc kh«ng?) - Is this sum of money enough for their business trip? (Sè tiÒn nµy ®ñ cho chuyÕn c«ng t¸c cña hä hay kh«ng?) - Many are called, but few are chosen (NhiÒu ngêi ®îc gäi ®Õn, nhng Ýt ngêi ®îc chän) - My father has written many historical novels, but I've only read a few (of them) (Bè t«i ®· viÕt nhiÒu tiÓu thuyÕt lÞch sö, nhng t«i chØ míi ®äc vµi quyÓn (trong sè ®ã)) - We must help others less fortunate than ourselves (Chóng ta ph¶i gióp ®ì nh÷ng ngêi kh¸c kÐm may m¾n h¬n chóng ta) - This shirt is too big; I'll try another (C¸i ¸o s¬ mi nµy to qu¸; t«i sÏ thö mét c¸i kh¸c) Lu ý • Much (tÝnh tõ) ®øng tríc danh tõ kh«ng ®Õm ®îc , Much (®¹i tõ) thay chodanh tõ kh«ng ®Õm ®îc . Much còng cã thÓ lµ phã tõ, ch¼ng h¹n nh I didn't enjoy that comedy (very) much (T«i kh«ng thÝch vë hµi nµy l¾m) hoÆc She's much better today (H«m nay c« ta kh¸ h¬n nhiÒu). • Much ph¶n nghÜa víi Little. • Many (tÝnh tõ) ®øng tríc danh tõ ®Õm ®îc , Many (®¹i tõ) thay cho danh tõ ®Õm ®îc . Many ph¶n nghÜa víi Few. • Little còng cã thÓ lµ phã tõ vµ tÝnh tõ chØ phÈm chÊt. Ch¼ng h¹n, I slept very little last night • (§ªm qua, t«i ngñ rÊt Ýt) [Phã tõ] vµLittle holes to let air in (Nh÷ng lç nhá ®Ó kh«ng khÝ vµo) (TÝnh tõ chØ phÈm chÊt). • A little còng cã thÓ lµ phã tõ, ch¼ng h¹n nh They are a little worried about the next entrance examination (Hä h¬i lo vÒ kú thi tuyÓn sinh s¾p tíi). • Enough còng cã thÓ lµ phã tõ, ch¼ng h¹n nh You aren't old enough to join the army (B¹n cha ®ñ tuæi ®Ó gia nhËp qu©n ®éi)
  32. 32. Ngữ Pháp Thông Dụng trong Tiếng Anh Sưu tầm: Mr. Denn DAI TU QUAN HE Chñ tõ Tóc tõ Së h÷u Cho ngêi Who Whom/Who Whose That That ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Cho ®å vËt Which Which Whose/Of which That That • Trong tiÕng Anh chÝnh thøc, Whom thay cho Who khi Who kh«ng ph¶i lµ chñ tõ cña mÖnh ®Ò quan hÖ. Ch¼ng h¹n, Are you the witness whom/that the police are looking for? (Anh cã ph¶i lµ nh©n chøng mµ c¶nh s¸t ®ang t×m hay kh«ng?) • Trong v¨n nãi, ngêi ta thêng lîc bá ®¹i tõ quan hÖ khi ®¹i tõ nµy lµ tóc tõ. Ch¼ng h¹n, Isn't that the shirt (which/that) you wore? (§ã kh«ng ph¶i c¸i ¸o s¬ mi mµ b¹n ®· mÆc chø?), That's the stone (that) he broke the window with (§ã chÝnh lµ hßn ®¸ mµ nhê ®ã h¾n ®Ëp vì cöa sæ). Tuy nhiªn, kh«ng thÓ lîc bá ®¹i tõ quan hÖ nÕu ®¹i tõ nµy lµ chñ tõ cña mÖnh ®Ò quan hÖ. Ch¼ng h¹n, The mason who stands with arms akimbo is closely related to my driver (Ngêi thî nÒ ®øng chèng n¹nh cã quan hÖ hä hµng gÇn víi tµi xÕ cña t«i), She's the girl who/that broke my heart (C« ta chÝnh lµ c« g¸i lµm t«i ®au khæ), That's the stone which/that broke the window (§ã chÝnh lµ hßn ®¸ lµm vì cöa sæ). • Whose lµ së h÷u c¸ch cña Who vµ ®«i khi cña c¶ Which. VÝ dô: - This is the girl. Her father is a policeman (§©y lµ c« g¸i. Cha c« ta lµ c¶nh s¸t viªn) --> This is the girl whose father is a policeman (§©y lµ c« g¸i mµ cha lµ c¶nh s¸t viªn). - This is the steel tube. Its inner walls are rusty (§©y lµ èng thÐp. C¸c v¸ch bªn trong nã bÞ rØ) --> This is the steel tube whose inner walls are rusty (§©y lµ èng thÐp mµ c¸c v¸ch bªn trong bÞ rØ). MÖnh ®Ò quan hÖ (Relative clauses) a) MÖnh ®Ò quan hÖ x¸c ®Þnh (Defining relative clauses) lµ mÖnh ®Ò x¸c ®Þnh ngêi hoÆc vËt võa ®îc nh¾c ®Õn tríc ®ã. Ch¼ng h¹n, ta cã c©u The man who told me the news refused my invitation to dinner (Ngêi ®µn «ng b¸o tin cho t«i ®· tõ chèi lêi mêi ¨n tèi cña t«i). Trong c©u nµy, who told me the news lµ mÖnh ®Ò quan hÖ. NÕu bá mÖnh ®Ò nµy, ngêi ®µn «ng mµ chóng ta ®ang nãi ®Õn sÏ kh«ng râ rµng. TuyÖt ®èi kh«ng ®Æt dÊu phÈy gi÷a danh tõ vµ mÖnh ®Ò quan hÖ x¸c ®Þnh. VÝ dô: - We're looking for someone (who) we can rely on (Chóng t«i ®ang t×m ngêi mµ chóng t«i cã thÓ tin cËy) - The novel is about a young man who falls in love with .. .. (TiÓu thuyÕt nãi vÒ mét chµng trai ph¶i lßng .. ..) - These are the children (that) I looked after last summer (§©y lµ nh÷ng ®øa trÎ mµ t«i ®· tr«ng nom mïa hÌ võa qua)
  33. 33. Ngữ Pháp Thông Dụng trong Tiếng Anh Sưu tầm: Mr. Denn - The clothes that are on the floor are dirty (QuÇn ¸o trªn sµn nhµ lµ quÇn ¸o bÈn) - Read the passage to which I referred in my talk (H·y ®äc ®o¹n mµ t«i nh¾c ®Õn trong cuéc nãi chuyÖn) - A house which overlooks the park will cost more (Nhµ nh×n ra c«ng viªn sÏ ®¾t tiÒn h¬n) - The roof on which I was standing collapsed suddenly (M¸i nhµ mµ t«i ®ang ®øng trªn ®ã bçng nhiªn ®æ sËp) = The roof which I was standing on collapsed suddenly = The roof I was standing on collapsed suddenly. §Æc biÖt • Thay v× The first scientist who discovers/discovered this principle (Nhµ khoa häc ®Çu tiªn t×m ra nguyªn lý nµy), ta cã thÓ nãi The first scientist to discover this principle. • Thay v× The only one who understands/understood this equation (Ngêi duy nhÊt hiÓu ®- îc ph¬ng tr×nh nµy), ta cã thÓ nãi The only one to understand this equation . • hay v× Employees who work overtime will be entitled to extra pay (Nh©n viªn lµm thªm ngoµi giê sÏ ®îc hëng tiÒn phô tréi), ta cã thÓ nãi Employees working overtime will be entitled to extra pay . • Thay v× A decision which enables investors to expand their business (Mét quyÕt ®Þnh • cho phÐp giíi ®Çu t khuÕch tr¬ng viÖc lµm ¨n cña hä), ta cã thÓ nãi A decision enabling • investors to expand their business. b) MÖnh ®Ò quan hÖ kh«ng x¸c ®Þnh (Non-defining relative clauses) nãi râ thªm vÒ ngêi hoÆc vËt ®· ®îc x¸c ®Þnh. Kh¸c víi mÖnh ®Ò quan hÖ x¸c ®Þnh, mÖnh ®Ò quan hÖ kh«ng x¸c ®Þnh ®îc ph©n c¸ch b»ng dÊu phÈy vµ kh«ng thÓ bá ®¹i tõ quan hÖ. Kh¸c víi mÖnh ®Ò quan hÖ x¸c ®Þnh, mÖnh ®Ò quan hÖ kh«ng x¸c ®Þnh kh«ng ph¶i lµ thµnh phÇn cèt yÕu cña c©u vµ cã thÓ lo¹i bá mµ ch¼ng ¶nh hëng g×. §Æc biÖt lµ kh«ng dïng That thay cho Which ®Ó më ®Çu mét mÖnh ®Ò quan hÖ kh«ng x¸c ®Þnh. MÖnh ®Ò quan hÖ kh«ng x¸c ®Þnh thêng dïng trong v¨n viÕt h¬n lµ v¨n nãi. VÝ dô: - My boss, who is very superstitious , always believes in ghosts (¤ng chñ cña t«i, ngêi rÊt mª tÝn dÞ ®oan, lu«n lu«n tin lµ cã ma) - This letter is from my father-in-law, whom you met last week at the airport (Bøc th nµy lµ cña bè vî t«i, ngêi mµ anh ®· gÆp tuÇn råi ë s©n bay). - Mrs Hoa, to whom we are speaking , owns a well-known supermarket in this city (Bµ Hoa, ngêi mµ chóng t«i ®ang nãi chuyÖn, lµ chñ mét siªu thÞ næi tiÕng ë thµnh phè nµy) - My sister gave me this shirt, which she had sewed herself (ChÞ t«i cho t«i c¸i ¸o s¬ mi nµy, c¸i ¸o mµ chÞ ®· tù tay may) - That house, which I bought ten years ago , is still solid. (C¨n nhµ Êy, c¨n nhµ mµ t«i mua c¸ch ®©y 10 n¨m, vÉn cßn v÷ng ch¾c) - Their hotel, whose staff are very helpful, is an example to all other hotels (Kh¸ch s¹n cña hä, n¬i nh©n viªn phôc vô rÊt ®¾c lùc, lµ mét tÊm g¬ng cho tÊt c¶ c¸c kh¸ch s¹n kh¸c
  34. 34. Ngữ Pháp Thông Dụng trong Tiếng Anh Sưu tầm: Mr. Denn noi theo) Nãi thªm vÒ What vµ Which • What còng cã nghÜa lµ "Nh÷ng ®iÒu mµ/Nh÷ng g× mµ". VÝ dô: - What you owned excited their envy (Nh÷ng g× b¹n cã ®· kÝch thÝch lßng ghen tÞ cña hä). - What he said was untrue (Nh÷ng g× h¾n nãi ®Òu tr¸i víi sù thËt). - We studywhat our teacher teaches us (Chóng ta häc nh÷ng ®iÒu mµ thÇy gi¸o d¹y chóng ta). • Which còng cã nghÜa lµ "§iÒu ®ã". VÝ dô: - He said he had no money to go home, which was really absurd (Anh ta nãi r»ng anh ta kh«ng cã tiÒn ®Ó vÒ nhµ, ®iÒu ®ã hÕt søc v« lý) - Our car broke down suddenly, which made our journey less exciting (Xe chóng t«i bÞ háng ®ét xuÊt, ®iÒu ®ã khiÕn cuéc hµnh tr×nh cña chóng t«i bít phÇn hµo høng) DAI TU VA TINH TU CHI DINH 1/ TÝnh tõ chØ ®Þnh (demonstrative adjectives) thay ®æi theo sè cña danh tõ. VÝ dô: - That boy is very agile (CËu bÐ Êy rÊt lanh lîi) - These tourists come from Japan (C¸c du kh¸ch nµy ®Õn tõ NhËt B¶n) - What does this word mean? (Tõ nµy nghÜa lµ g×?) - Those loaves are for the picnic (Nh÷ng æ b¸nh m× Êy dµnh cho b÷a ¨n ngoµi trêi) - At that time, she was singing her child to sleep (Lóc Êy, c« ta ®ang ru con ngñ) This/These/That/Those + danh tõ + of + yours/hers. .. ®«i khi dïng ®Ó nhÊn m¹nh thay cho your/her... These words of yours are not convincing = Your words are not convincing (Lêi lÏ nµy cña anh ch¼ng cã søc thuyÕt phôc) That shirt of Ba's is always dirty = Ba's shirt is always dirty. (C¸i ¸o s¬mi ®ã cña Ba lu«n lu«n bÈn) 2/ §¹i tõ chØ ®Þnh (demonstrative pronouns) VÝ dô: - This is my room. That's hers. (§©y lµ phßng cña t«i. Kia lµ cña c« ta) - These are the bright colours. Those are the dark ones. (§©y lµ nh÷ng mµu t¬i. Kia lµ nh÷ng mµu sÉm) - This is còng cã thÓ dïng ®Ó giíi thiÖu.
  35. 35. Ngữ Pháp Thông Dụng trong Tiếng Anh Sưu tầm: Mr. Denn VÝ dô: -Ba (to An): This is my sister Hoa. (Ba nãi víi An: §©y lµ Hoa, em g¸i t«i) - Ba (to Hoa): Hoa, this is An. (Ba nãi víi Hoa: Hoa, ®©y lµ An) • Those cã thÓ cã mét mÖnh ®Ò quan hÖ x¸c ®Þnh theo sau: VÝ dô: - Those who don't want to come there will stay at home. (Ai kh«ng muèn ®Õn ®ã th× ë nhµ) • This/That cã thÓ chØ mét danh tõ, côm tõ hay mét mÖnh ®Ò ®· ®îc ®Ò cËp tríc: VÝ dô: - We are binding books. We do this every day. (Chóng t«i ®ang ®ãng s¸ch. Ngµy nµo chóng t«i còng lµm viÖc nµy) - He avowed his faults. Wasn't that a praiseworthy behaviour? (Anh ta nhËn lçi cña m×nh. §ã kh«ng ph¶i lµ lèi xö sù ®¸ng khen sao?) 3/ This/These, That/Those dïng víi one/ones Kh«ng nhÊt thiÕt ph¶i cã one/ones theo sau c¸c tõ chØ ®Þnh nãi trªn, trõ phi sau This, that ... lµ mét tÝnh tõ. VÝ dô: - This shirt is too tight. I'll wear that (one ) (C¸i ¸o s¬mi nµy chËt qu¸. T«i sÏ mÆc c¸i kia) I like this red one /these red ones. (T«i thÝch c¸i mµu ®á nµy/nh÷ng c¸i mµu ®á nµy) The former & The latter • The former = Ngêi thø nhÊt, vËt thø nhÊt (trong hai ngêi, trong hai vËt) • The latter = Ngêi thø hai, vËt thø hai (trong hai ngêi, trong hai vËt) VÝ dô: - I have two French friends, the former is an engineer and the latter is a lawyer (T«i cã hai ngêi b¹n Ph¸p, ngêi thø nhÊt lµ kü s vµ ngêi thø hai lµ luËt s) - If I had to choose between wealth and peacefulness, I'd prefer the latter (NÕu ph¶i chän gi÷a sù giµu sang vµ sù thanh nhµn, t«i thÝch c¸i thø hai h¬n) GIOI TU TONG QUAT Giíi tõ lµ mét tõ (At, Between, In, On, Under...) hoÆc nhãm tõ (Apart from, In front of, Instead of, On account of...) ®øng tríc danh tõ hoÆc ®¹i tõ ®Ó chØ vÞ trÝ, thêi gian, c¸ch thøc... Còng cã tr- êng hîp hiÖn t¹i ph©n tõ ®îc dïng lµm giíi tõ (Considering, Following, Regarding, Concerning...). VÝ dô: - The murderer is to be shot at dawn (KÎ giÕt ngêi sÏ bÞ xö b¾n lóc b×nh minh)
  36. 36. Ngữ Pháp Thông Dụng trong Tiếng Anh Sưu tầm: Mr. Denn - B comes between A and C in the English alphabet (B ®øng gi÷a A vµ C trong b¶ng ch÷ c¸i tiÕng Anh) - A country in Europe (Mét níc ë ch©u ¢u) - Dirty marks on the ceiling (VÕt bÈn trªn trÇn nhµ) - The water flows under the bridge (Níc ch¶y díi cÇu) - We sometimes drink lemonade instead of coffee (§«i khi chóng t«i uèng níc chanh thay cho cµ phª) - Apart from her nose, this actress looks very glamorous (Ngoµi c¸i mòi ra, n÷ diÔn viªn nµy tr«ng rÊt quyÕn rò) - Decision concerning the export of timber (QuyÕt ®Þnh vÒ viÖc xuÊt khÈu gç) VI TRI CUA GIOI TU a) Tríc danh tõ. Ch¼ng h¹n, Our boat was rocked by the waves (ThuyÒn cña chóng t«i bÞ sãng ®¸nh l¾c l), The earth moves round the sun (Tr¸i ®Êt chuyÓn ®éng quanh mÆt trêi). b) Tríc ®¹i tõ. Ch¼ng h¹n, An obese man stood in front of her (Mét g· bÐo phÞ ®øng tríc mÆt c« ta), Your name comes after mine on the list (Tªn b¹n ®øng sau tªn t«i trªn danh s¸ch), The policeman to whom she was speaking (Viªn c¶nh s¸t mµ c« ta ®ang nãi chuyÖn), About whom are you thinking? (B¹n ®ang nghÜ ®Õn ai vËy?) . c) Tríc danh ®éng tõ. Ch¼ng h¹n, Why don't you help me instead of just standing there? (T¹i sao b¹n kh«ng gióp t«i thay v× ®øng ng©y ra ®ã?), He is always forward in helping others (Anh ta lu«n sèt s¾ng gióp ®ì ngêi kh¸c). d) Sau ®éng tõ. Ch¼ng h¹n, The boy asked for more money (CËu bÐ xin thªm tiÒn), I have thought about this very carefully (T«i ®· suy nghÜ rÊt kü vÒ viÖc nµy). e) Sau tÝnh tõ. Ch¼ng h¹n, He was very good to me when I was ill (Anh ta rÊt tèt víi t«i khi t«i bÖnh), New York is famous for its skyscrapers (New York næi tiÕng nhê nh÷ng toµ nhµ chäc trêi). f) Sau danh tõ. Ch¼ng h¹n, They attached very great importance to the program (Hä rÊt coi träng ch¬ng tr×nh nµy), My teacher is known for excellence in all forms of sport (ThÇy t«i næi tiÕng v× tµi nghÖ ®iÖu luyÖn trong mäi lo¹i h×nh thÓ thao). g) Cuèi c©u hái. Ch¼ng h¹n, Who are you thinking about? (B¹n ®ang nghÜ ®Õn ai vËy?), What are they talking about? (Hä ®ang nãi vÒ ®iÒu g× vËy?). h) Cuèi mÖnh ®Ò quan hÖ. Ch¼ng h¹n, The friend (who ) I went with (Ngêi b¹n mµ t«i ®i chung), The photographs (that ) you are looking at were taken by my father (Nh÷ng bøc ¶nh mµ b¹n ®ang xem lµ do cha t«i chôp). i) Cuèi mét c©u ë d¹ng thô ®éng. Ch¼ng h¹n, The matter has not yet been dealt with (Sù viÖc cha ®îc gi¶i quyÕt), Why is your daughter crying? - She has just been shouted at (T¹i sao con g¸i anh khãc? - Nã võa míi bÞ m¾ng). j) Cuèi nh÷ng c©u nh What a terrible state she was in! (C« ta ë trong mét t×nh tr¹ng kinh khñng thËt!), We have no merit to speak of (Chóng t«i ch¼ng cã c«ng tr¹ng g× ®¸ng nãi ®Õn c¶), An article hard to get rid of (Mãn hµng khã b¸n). Lu ý I relied on her being efficient (T«i tin vµo viÖc c« Êy cã n¨ng lùc), chø kh«ng nãi I relied on that she was efficient . He left early to catch the last bus (H¾n ra ®i sím ®Ó kÞp chuyÕn xe bóyt cuèi cïng), chø kh«ng nãi He left early for to catch the last bus .
  37. 37. Ngữ Pháp Thông Dụng trong Tiếng Anh Sưu tầm: Mr. Denn He moved towards me, chø kh«ng nãi He moved towards I . Ph©n biÖt giíi tõ vµ tr¹ng tõ a) Please do not write below this line (Xin ®õng viÕt díi dßng nµy) (giíi tõ) The passengers who felt seasick stayed below (Hµnh kh¸ch say sãng th× ë bªn díi) (tr¹ng tõ) b) We left school after that event (Chóng t«i rêi ghÕ nhµ trêng sau biÕn cè Êy) (giíi tõ) The day after, he apologized (Ngµy h«m sau, anh ta xin lçi) (tr¹ng tõ) c) They knelt before the throne (Hä quú tríc ngai vµng) (giíi tõ) You should have told me so before (LÏ ra b¹n ph¶i cho t«i biÕt tríc chuyÖn Êy) (tr¹ng tõ) d) Gold fish swimming round the bowl (C¸ vµng b¬i quanh chËu) (giíi tõ) Stop turning your head round to look at the girls (§õng quay l¹i nh×n c¸c c« g¸i n÷a) (tr¹ng tõ) DONG TU TONG QUAT • §éng tõ lµ tõ chØ mét hµnh ®éng, mét sù kiÖn hoÆc mét tr¹ng th¸i . Côm ®éng tõ (Phrasal verb) lµ ®éng tõ cã giíi tõ hoÆc phã tõ kÌm theo ®Ó mang mét nghÜa kh¸c víi nghÜa th«ng th- êng . VÝ dô : - He translates a contract from Vietnamese into English (Anh ta dÞch mét hîp ®ång tõ tiÕng ViÖt sang tiÕng Anh) - Many memorable events happened last year (N¨m ngo¸i ®· x¶y ra nhiÒu sù kiÖn ®¸ng nhí) - The situation became unfavourable to them (T×nh thÕ trë nªn bÊt lîi cho hä) - He takes after his father (Anh ta gièng bè anh ta) - Turn on the lights ! (BËt ®Ìn lªn!) - Please write back as soon as possible (Xin vui lßng viÕt th tr¶ lêi cµng sím cµng tèt) - Their plane took off later than usual (M¸y bay cña hä cÊt c¸nh muén h¬n thêng lÖ) • Néi ®éng tõ (Intransitive Verb) lµ ®éng tõ tù nã ®· ®ñ nghÜa vµ kh«ng cÇn tóc tõ theo sau. Ch¼ng h¹n, The birdflies (Con chim bay), They are swimming (Hä ®ang b¬i). Ngo¹i ®éng tõ (Transitive Verb) lµ ®éng tõ ®ßi hái cã tóc tõ (Object) theo sau th× míi ®ñ nghÜa. Ch¼ng h¹n, Ba opens the window (Ba më cöa sæ), The police took the suicides to the hospital (C¶nh s¸t ®- a nh÷ng ngêi tù tö ®Õn bÖnh viÖn). NÕu kh«ng cã the window vµ the suicides , ta ch¼ng biÕt Ba më c¸i g× vµ C¶nh s¸t ®a ai ®Õn bÖnh viÖn. Tuy nhiªn, còng cã ®éng tõ võa lµ Néi ®éng tõ võa lµ Ngo¹i ®éng tõ . Ch¼ng h¹n, Please speak slowly (Xin vui lßng nãi chËm l¹i) vµ Please speak English (Xin vui lßng nãi tiÕng Anh), hoÆc The number of traffic accidentsincreased from day to day (Sè vô tai n¹n giao th«ng gia t¨ng tõng ngµy mét) vµ She increased her speed to evade the robbers (C« ta t¨ng tèc ®é ®Ó tho¸t khái bän cíp).
  38. 38. Ngữ Pháp Thông Dụng trong Tiếng Anh Sưu tầm: Mr. Denn • Th× (Tense), ta x¸c ®Þnh ®îc thêi ®iÓm diÔn ra mét hµnh ®éng hoÆc mét sù kiÖn. T¬ng øng víi Qu¸ khø, HiÖn t¹i vµ T¬ng lai lµ Th× qu¸ khø , Th× hiÖn t¹i vµ Th× t¬ng lai . - Th× qu¸ khø gåm Qu¸ khø ®¬n gi¶n (Simple Past), Qu¸ khø liªn tiÕn (Past Continuous), Qu¸ khø hoµn thµnh (Past Perfect), Qu¸ khø liªn tiÕn hoµn thµnh (Past Perfect Continuous). - Th× hiÖn t¹i gåm HiÖn t¹i ®¬n gi¶n (Simple Present), HiÖn t¹i liªn tiÕn (Present Continuous), HiÖn t¹i hoµn thµnh (Present Perfect), HiÖn t¹i liªn tiÕn hoµn thµnh (Present Perfect Continuous). - Th× t¬ng lai gåmT¬ng lai ®¬n gi¶n (Simple future), T¬ng lai liªn tiÕn (Future Continuous), T¬ng lai hoµn thµnh (Future Perfect), T¬ng lai liªn tiÕn hoµn thµnh (Future Perfect Continuous). • C¸ch (Mood) cho biÕt r»ng hµnh ®éng do ®éng tõ diÔn t¶ lµ ch¾c ch¾n, cã tÝnh c¸ch mÖnh lÖnh, ph¶i phô thuéc mét ®iÒu kiÖn nµo ®ã, cha ch¾c ch¾n hoÆc chØ míi lµ mong íc mµ th«i. Ch¼ng h¹n, Trùc thuyÕt c¸ch (Indicative Mood) diÔn t¶ mét hµnh ®éng ®·, ®ang hoÆc sÏ diÔn ra trong hiÖn thùc. §iÒu kiÖn c¸ch (Conditional Mood) diÔn t¶ mét ý tëng mµ viÖc thùc hiÖn cßn ph¶i tïy thuéc mét ®iÒu kiÖn nµo ®ã. Gi¶ ®Þnh c¸ch (Subjunctive Mood) diÔn t¶ hoÆc mét mong íc hoÆc mét t×nh tr¹ng gi¶ tëng. MÖnh lÖnh c¸ch (Imperative Mood) diÔn t¶ mét mÖnh lÖnh hoÆc mét lêi khuyÕn c¸o. VÝ dô : - President Ho Chi Minh died in 1969 (Chñ tÞch Hå ChÝ Minh tõ trÇn n¨m 1969) - We are preparing for the university entrance examination (Chóng t«i ®ang chuÈn bÞ cho kú thi vµo ®¹i häc) - Tomorrow morning, he will not preside at the monthly meeting (S¸ng mai, «ng ta sÏ kh«ng chñ tr× cuéc häp hµng th¸ng) - Try hard to succeed and stop thinking about frivolities ! (H·y cè g¾ng hÕt m×nh ®Ó thµnh c«ng vµ ®õng nghÜ ®Õn nh÷ng chuyÖn l«ng b«ng n÷a !) - She can stay at home if she likes (C« ta cã thÓ ë nhµ nÕu c« ta thÝch) - If we had been there yesterday morning, he would have invited us to breakfast ( NÕu s¸ng h«m qua chóng t«i cã mÆt ë ®ã, «ng ta ®· mêi chóng t«i ¨n ®iÓm t©m) - Long live the king ! (§øc vua v¹n tuÕ !) - Heaven help us ! (L¹y trêi phï hé chóng con !) - He staggers as though he were dead drunk (H¾n bíc lo¹ng cho¹ng nh lµ ®· say mÌm) • H×nh thøc - H×nh thøc kh¼ng ®Þnh (Affirmative Form) : Hoa is a programmer (Hoa lµ lËp tr×nh viªn), They go shopping (Hä ®i mua s¾m), She smiled happily (C« ta mØm cêi sung síng). - H×nh thøc phñ ®Þnh (Negative Form) : Hoa is not / isn't a programmer (Hoa kh«ng ph¶i lµ lËp tr×nh viªn), They do not / don't go shopping (Hä kh«ng ®i mua s¾m), She did not / didn't smile happily (C« ta kh«ng mØm cêi sung síng).
  39. 39. Ngữ Pháp Thông Dụng trong Tiếng Anh Sưu tầm: Mr. Denn - H×nh thøc nghi vÊn (Interrogative Form) : Is Hoa a programmer ? (Hoa cã ph¶i lµ lËp tr×nh viªn hay kh«ng?), Do they go shopping ? (Hä cã ®i mua s¾m hay kh«ng?), Did she smile happily ? (C« ta cã mØm cêi sung síng hay kh«ng?). - H×nh thøc nghi vÊn phñ ®Þnh (Negative Interrogative Form) : Thay v× Is Hoa not a programmer ? (Hoa kh«ng ph¶i lµ lËp tr×nh viªn hay sao?), Do they not go shopping ? (Hä kh«ng ®i mua s¾m chø?) vµ Did she not smile happily ? (C« ta kh«ng mØm cêi sung síng sao?), ngêi ta thêng viÕt Isn't Hoa a programmer ?, Don't they go shopping ? vµ Didn't she smile happily ? THI VA CACH CUA DONG TU THI THI HIEN TAI H×nh thøc VÝ dô : TO WORK X¸c ®Þnh Phñ ®Þnh Nghi vÊn Nghi vÊn phñ ®Þnh I work I don't work Do I work? Don't I work? You work You don't work Do you work Don't you work? He/she/it works He/she/it doesn't work Does he/she/it work? Doesn't he/she/it work? We work We don't work Do we work? Don't we work? You work You don't work Do you work? Don't you work? They work They don't work Do they work? Don't they work? • Don't vµ Doesn't chÝnh lµ Do not vµ Does not. Ch¼ng h¹n, I do not work tØnh lîc thµnh I don't work, hoÆc Do you not work? tØnh lîc thµnh Don't you work? • Th× hiÖn t¹i ®¬n gi¶n cã h×nh thøc gièng nh nguyªn mÉu, chØ kh¸c mét ®iÒu lµ thªm S ë ng«i thø ba sè Ýt (He/She/It). Ch¼ng h¹n, To play --> She plays, To stand --> He stands, To smile --> She smiles. • Tuy nhiªn, ph¶i thªm ES nÕu ®éng tõ tËn cïng b»ng SS, CH, SH, X vµ O. Ch¼ng h¹n, To miss --> She misses, To push --> He pushes, To clutch --> He clutches, To fix --> He fixes, To do --> She does, To go --> It goes. • Còng ë ng«i thø ba sè Ýt, Y ®æi thµnh IES nÕu ®éng tõ tËn cïng b»ng phô ©m + Y. Ch¼ng h¹n, To bury --> It buries, To identify --> He identifies, To deny --> She denies. Tuy nhiªn, nÕu ®éng tõ tËn cïng b»ng nguyªn ©m + Y th× thªm S nh b×nh thêng. Ch¼ng h¹n, To stay --> She stays, To pay --> He pays, To obey --> He obeys. C«ng dông • DiÔn t¶ thãi quen hoÆc nÒ nÕp. VÝ dô: - I bath every night (Tèi nµo t«i còng t¾m) - How often do the buses run? (C¸ch bao l©u l¹i cã xe bóyt?) - He always brushes his teeth after meals (Anh ta lu«n ch¶i r¨ng sau khi ¨n) - You never get up early (Ch¼ng bao giê c¸c anh dËy sím c¶) - We go to church twice a week (Chóng t«i ®i lÔ hai lÇn mçi tuÇn) - They often advise me to attend evening classes (Hä thêng khuyªn t«i häc líp ®ªm)
  40. 40. Ngữ Pháp Thông Dụng trong Tiếng Anh Sưu tầm: Mr. Denn • DiÔn t¶ tr¹ng th¸i hiÓn nhiªn hoÆc sù thËt bÊt di bÊt dÞch. VÝ dô : - This packet contains twenty cigarettes (Gãi nµy ®ùng hai m¬i ®iÕu thuèc) - English is easier to learn than French (TiÕng Anh dÔ häc h¬n tiÕng Ph¸p) - The sun rises in the east and sets in the west (MÆt trêi mäc ë ph¬ng ®«ng vµ lÆn ë ph¬ng t©y) - Water boils at 100 degrees Celsius (Níc s«i ë 100 ®é C) - What does this acronym mean? (Côm tõ viÕt t¾t nµy nghÜa lµ g×?) - A full stop signifies the end of a sentence (DÊu chÊm nghÜa lµ hÕt mét c©u) • DiÔn t¶ ho¹t c¶nh s©n khÊu, tin tøc thÓ thao ... VÝ dô : - When the curtain rises, a French officer is making advances to Eliza. The phone rings suddenly. She picks it up and listens quietly. As for him, the French officer smokes while staring into space (Khi mµn kÐo lªn, mét sÜ quan Ph¸p ®ang t¸n tØnh Eliza. §iÖn tho¹i bçng reo vang. Nµng nhÊc ®iÖn tho¹i lªn vµ b×nh th¶n l¾ng nghe. VÒ phÇn m×nh, viªn sÜ quan Ph¸p võa hót thuèc võa nh×n ®¨m ®¨m vµo kho¶ng kh«ng). • DiÔn t¶ mét dù ®Þnh, mét kÕ ho¹ch trong t¬ng lai. VÝ dô: - We leave London at 10.00 next Tuesday and arrive in Paris at 13.00. We spend two hours in Paris and leave again at 15.00. We arrive in Rome at 19.30, spend four hours in Rome... (Chóng t«i rêi Lu©n §«n lóc 10 giê s¸ng Thø Ba tíi vµ ®Õn Paris lóc 13 giê. Chóng t«i ë Paris hai tiÕng ®ång hå vµ l¹i ra ®i lóc 15 giê. Chóng t«i ®Õn R«ma lóc 19 giê 30, ë R«ma bèn tiÕng ®ång hå...). • Thay choHiÖn t¹i liªn tiÕn cña c¸c ®éng tõ Like, Dislike, Detest, Fear, Respect, Loathe, Hate, Love, Believe , Trust , Want , Wish , Desire , Know , Perceive, Notice , Understand , Forget , Remember , Recollect , Consist , Contain , Concern , Belong , Possess , Own , Owe , Concern , Matter , Appear (cã vÎ), Look (cã vÎ), Seem (dêng nh), Smell (cã mïi), Taste (cã vÞ), Sound (cã vÎ), Mean (cã nghÜa lµ), Signify (cã nghÜa lµ),See (hiÓu), Realize (hiÓu), Recognize (nhËn thøc), Hold (chøa ®ùng), Keep (tiÕp tôc), Admire (kh©m phôc)... VÝ dô : - I want to see him right now (T«i muèn gÆp h¾n ngay b©y giê), chø kh«ng nãi I am wanting to see him right now. - The meat smells of garlic (ThÞt cã mïi tái), chø kh«ng nãi The meat is smelling of garlic. - I perceive her smile as an ironic remark (T«i nhËn thÊy nô cêi cña c« ta lµ mét lêi nhËn xÐt mØa mai), chø kh«ng nãi I am perceiving her smile as an ironic remark . • DiÔn t¶ mét ®iÒu kiÖn. VÝ dô: - If he sees you, he'll give you a good talking-to (NÕu gÆp anh, h¾n sÏ m¾ng anh mét trËn ra trß) - We'll starve unless we find any barracks at the foot of the mountain (Chóng ta sÏ chÕt ®ãi nÕu kh«ng t×m ®îc doanh tr¹i nµo ë ch©n nói)
  41. 41. Ngữ Pháp Thông Dụng trong Tiếng Anh Sưu tầm: Mr. Denn THI HIEN TAI LIEN TIEN H×nh thøc HiÖn t¹i liªn tiÕn = HiÖn t¹i ®¬n gi¶n cña TO BE + HiÖn t¹i ph©n tõ. VÝ dô : TO WORK X¸c ®Þnh Phñ ®Þnh Nghi vÊn Nghi vÊn phñ ®Þnh I am working I am not working Am I working? Am I not working? You are working You are not working Are you working? Are you not working? He/she/it is working He/she/it is not working Is he/she/it working? Is he/she/it not working? We are working We are not working Are we working? Are we not working? You are working You are not working Are you working? Are you not working? They are working They are not working Are they working? Are they not working • I am working , He is working , They are working ... thêng tØnh lîc thµnh I'm working , He's working, They're working ... • I am not working , You are not working , He is not working ...thêng tØnh lîc thµnh I'm not working , You're not working / You aren't working , He's not working / He isn't working ... • Am I not working? , Are you not working? , Is he not working? ... thêng tØnh lîc thµnh Aren't I working? , Aren't you working? , Isn't he working? ... C«ng dông • DiÔn t¶ mét hµnh ®éng ®ang x¶y ra. VÝ dô: - It is raining (Trêi ®ang ma) - The kettle is boiling (Níc trong Êm ®ang s«i) - What are you doing? - I am feeding the pigs (Anh ®ang lµm g× vËy? - T«i ®ang cho lîn ¨n) - At present, my younger sister is teaching English and (is) studying medicine(HiÖn nay, em g¸i t«i ®ang d¹y tiÕng Anh vµ häc y khoa) • DiÔn t¶ mét t¬ng lai thËt gÇn. Ch¼ng h¹n, I am taking an oral examination tomorrow morning (S¸ng mai, t«i thi vÊn ®¸p), Are you doing anything this afternoon? (Anh cã lµm g× chiÒu nay hay kh«ng?) • DiÔn t¶ mét hµnh ®éng lÆp ®i lÆp l¹i theo thãi quen. Ch¼ng h¹n, She is always wearing her jumper the wrong way round (C« ta lu«n mÆc ¸o len nhÇm ®»ng tríc ra ®»ng sau), You are always getting the wrong number (C¸c anh lu«n quay nhÇm sè ®iÖn tho¹i). THI HIEN TAI HOAN THANH H×nh thøc HiÖn t¹i hoµn thµnh = HiÖn t¹i ®¬n gi¶n cña TO HAVE + Qu¸ khø ph©n tõ

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