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UNIT 9. RESPONSIBLE TOURISM GOOD PRACTICE
FOR CULTURAL HERITAGE SITES IN VIETNAM
Picture source:
http://commons.wikimedia....
Unit outline
Objectives
By the end of the unit participants will be able to:
• Understand the positive and negative impact...
TOPIC 1. OVERVIEW OF CULTURAL
HERITAGE AND TOURISM IN VIETNAM
UNIT 9. RESPONSIBLE TOURISM GOOD
PRACTICE FOR CULTURAL HERIT...
Defining cultural heritage
Heritage - something
inherited from the past
and passed on to future
generations
Cultural herit...
How UNESCO classifies cultural heritage
TANGIBLE CULTURAL HERITAGE
Physical manifestations or symbols of
cultural expressi...
The importance of cultural heritage
3% MIXED PROPERTIES
Vietnam’s World Heritage Sites
The Centre of Thang Long Citadel
CULTURAL HERITAGE
NATURAL
HERITAGE
Picture sources:
http:/...
Number of heritage sites in Vietnam according
to type
Historic and
cultural sites
51.20%
Architectural
heritage sites
44.2...
Vietnam’s heritage sites according to level of
protection
7,500
Nearly
PROVINCIAL LEVEL HERITAGE
SITES
Over
3,000NATIONAL ...
The connection between cultural heritage and
tourism
UNWTO:
of global tourism has a
cultural motivation
37% “…There has
be...
What is cultural tourism?
A form of tourism
connected with the
movement of people
to satisfy cultural
motivations
Picture ...
Cultural tourism is just one of many forms of
tourism
Picture sources:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Elephant_safari.j...
Benefits of cultural heritage tourism
Provides a cultural
experience and enables
cultural exchange
Contributes to the
pres...
Tourism in Vietnam is growing fast – can
cultural heritage managers keep up?
2,000,000 7,500,000 12,000,00012,000,000
35,0...
Are Vietnam’s heritage destinations about to
reach a critical threshold?
Exploration
Involvement
Development
Consolidation...
The challenges of cultural heritage tourism 1/2
DISPLACEMEN
Tof local residents
Undermining
of traditions
Cultural
identit...
The challenges of cultural heritage tourism 2/2
Loss of
authenticity
CONFLICT
over land rights
Selective
development
to at...
Responsible tourism: Building a sustainable
future for cultural heritage sites
Uses natural resources
optimally whilst sti...
The responsible tourism approach
ENVIRONMENT
SOCIAL ECONOMIC
SUSTAINABLE
TOURISM
1. BE
ACCOUNTABLE
3. TAKE
ACTION
2. HAVE
...
More enjoyable
experiences for
tourists
The benefits of responsible tourism in cultural
heritage site management
Picture s...
Key components for applying responsible
tourism in cultural heritage site management
Cultural heritage site
planning for s...
TOPIC 2. CULTURAL HERITAGE SITE
PLANNING FOR SUSTAINABILITY
UNIT 9. RESPONSIBLE TOURISM GOOD
PRACTICE FOR CULTURAL HERITAG...
What is the issue?
• Plans to protect cultural
heritage are often not
developed or alternatively not
clear
• Cultural heri...
The role and importance of cultural heritage
site management plans
• Guides day-to-day operation and on-going
physical and...
Benefits of cultural heritage plans that follow
responsible tourism principles
Reduces impacts on the
local environment an...
CULTURAL
HERITAGE SITE
PLANNING
1. Be guided by a
comprehensive
cultural heritage site
management plan
2. Embrace
particip...
Principle 1. Be guided by a comprehensive
cultural heritage site management plan
• Well-planned cultural heritage
sites ca...
Good practices in developing cultural heritage
plans
Sustainable Culturally, socially, ecologically and economically
Compr...
Key steps in adopting a cultural heritage
integrated management plan
PREPARATION
OF CULTURAL
HERITAGE PLAN
ELABORATION –
A...
Key inclusions in a cultural heritage site
integrated management plan
Introduction Describes the objectives and the purpos...
Integrate sustainability issues into planning:
Socio-cultural 1/3
SOCIO-CULTURALISSUES
Preserving the visual integrity of ...
Integrate sustainability issues into planning:
Environmental 2/3
ENVIRONMENTALISSUES
Preventive and reactive measures
for ...
Integrate sustainability issues into planning:
Economic 3/3
ECONOMICISSUES
Employment in cultural centres /
for inhabitant...
Ground planning in best practice:
The ICOMOS Charter
1
Conservation should provide for members of
the host community and v...
Using the PUP methodology in cultural heritage
site planning
• A consultative process with active
participation of relevan...
Phase 1. Planning preparation
• Initial stakeholder presentations
and interviews1
• Organisation self-analysis2
• Planning...
Phase 2. Planning for heritage
• Develop
interpretative
framework
1
• Directory of
touristic attractions2
• Zoning, sector...
Phase 3. Write up cultural heritage
management plan
• Draft the management
plan1
• Present to key
stakeholders for feedbac...
Principle 2. Embrace participation and
partnerships in cultural heritage site planning
• Cultural heritage site planning t...
Stakeholder areas of interest in cultural
heritage site planning
Community
• Economic development
• Recreational facilitie...
Build on stakeholder strengths
GOVERNMENT: Provision of destination
infrastructure, visitor safety and security, favourabl...
Benefits of broad stakeholder participation and
partnerships
• Saves time and money
• Reduces delays or blockages in heri...
Tips for gaining stakeholder participation in
cultural heritage site planning
Involve key
stakeholders early on
in the pro...
Specific areas for community involvement in
cultural heritage site planning
• Defining what the community
would like to ga...
Legislation
Agency
policies,
strategies
Regional plans,
broad-scale land
management plans
Management plans for
Cultural he...
Adopt a regional approach in heritage planning
and management
• Cultural heritage sites are impacted
upon by external deci...
Three focus areas for regional integration
Integrate or link CH
management plans with
local development
processes and the ...
TOPIC 3. RESPONSIBLE INTERPRETATION &
COMMUNICATION OF CULTURAL HERITAGE VALUES
UNIT 9. RESPONSIBLE TOURISM GOOD
PRACTICE ...
What is the issue?
• Cultural heritage sites often struggle to
provide adequate communication and
interpretation of cultur...
The objectives of communication and
interpretation in cultural heritage sites
COMMUNICATION
• To increase awareness about ...
The benefits of responsible communication and
interpretation of cultural heritage values
Creates a more positive
visitor e...
COMMUNICATION
& INTERPRETATION
1. Inform and
educate visitors
about the
importance of the
cultural heritage
site
2. Commun...
Principle 1. Inform and educate visitors about
the importance of the cultural heritage
• Providing simple information
abou...
The ICOMOS’ 7 recommendations for effective
heritage interpretation
1 ACCESS & UNDERSTANDING.
Facilitate access for all. 5...
Interpretation through signs and exhibits
• Interpretational signs and exhibits use
stories and messages to inform visitor...
Tips in effective interpretation
• Write to the target
market
• Use everyday
language
• Develop an interesting
storyline...
Examples of interpretive exhibits
3 principles for writing effective detailed
interpretive signs
1
Deliver information
using themes that are
strong and
prov...
Examples of detailed interpretive signs
Eye catching
title (theme)
Sub-headings
(well structured) Good use
of images
Good practice tip:
Interpretation should engage
1. Visitors enjoy
activities requiring some
form of participation
2. Peopl...
Examples of engaging interpretive displays
Principle 2: Communicate messages accurately
and authentically
• Poor communication of
cultural heritage values can
result...
Being authentic in communicating tourism
experiences
• Communication of messages in
cultural heritage marketing is
often b...
Avoid cultural commodification in
communication
• Communication about the culture of local
communities and cultural herita...
4 examples of cultural commodification in
tourism
Redeveloping places to make them more
attractive for tourist consumption...
TOPIC 4. RESPONSIBLE TOURISM APPROACH
TO VISITOR IMPACT MANAGEMENT
UNIT 9. RESPONSIBLE TOURISM GOOD
PRACTICE FOR CULTURAL ...
What is the issue?
• Physical / structural damage to
cultural heritage assets
• Destruction or disturbance to the
natural ...
VISITOR IMPACT
MANAGEMENT
1. Set and
enforce zones
3. Influence visitor
behaviour
2. Understand
carrying capacity
and enfo...
Principle 1. Setting and enforcing zones in large
and multi-stakeholder use heritage sites
• Allocate zones to geographica...
Key attributes of sites that influence zoning
plans
Physical attributes
Social attributes
Management
attributes
Example of historic town zoning plan with
important buildings and sites
Source: City of Bradford MDC 2006, Saltaire Conser...
Principle 2. Understand site carrying capacity
and enforce limits of acceptable change
• Carrying capacity
measures the le...
Some examples of how carrying capacity can
not be best solution for managing impacts
One destructive tourist might cause m...
Other considerations carrying capacity does not
effectively account for
• Impacts on aesthetic qualities, social systems
a...
Managing impacts through limits of acceptable
change
• Focuses on the resources that need protection
and not the people th...
Limits of acceptable change requires setting
standards
• LAC standards are established on the basis of
stakeholder and man...
Example of environmental and economic
sustainability indicators in tourism
ENVIRONMENTAL Number of threatened or extinct s...
Example of social and management
sustainability indicators in tourism
SOCIAL % of tourism operators who provide day care t...
Tips for shortlisting indicators
RELEVANCE
COMPARABILITYCREDIBILITY
CLARITY
FEASIBILITY
Of the indicator to
the selected i...
80
The key steps in developing and implementing
limits of acceptable change
Step 1
• Identify area concerns
and issues
Ste...
Principle 3. Influence visitor behaviour
• Based on implementing
regulations, incentives, penalties,
systems, and informat...
Minimising impacts by reducing tourism
volume
Access
Number of
visitors
Length of stay
Tour group
size
Skills and / or
equ...
Minimising impacts by changing tourism
behaviour
Types of
activities
Frequency
of use
Impact
appraisals
Travel
Conditions
...
Communicate tourism codes of conduct
• Voluntary principles and
practices that visitors are
requested to follow
• Codes of...
Example of a visitor code of conduct 1/2
Source: VNAT, Do’s and Don'ts in Vietnam for Community-based Tourists, VNAT, Viet...
Example of a visitor code of conduct 2/2
Source: VNAT, Do’s and Don'ts in Vietnam for Community-based Tourists, VNAT, Viet...
Good practice in developing effective
tourism codes of conduct
Sustainability. Do the criteria consider
the environment, e...
Managing visitor impacts is also about
managing visitor safety
Recreation
Personal
injury
Potential
claims and
pay outs
Pi...
Guidelines for the risk management process
Is the process working effectively to identify and manage risks? - Develop a li...
TOPIC 5. RESPONSIBLE CULTURAL
HERITAGE PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT
UNIT 9. RESPONSIBLE TOURISM GOOD
PRACTICE FOR CULTURAL HERITAGE...
What is the issue?
• Successful cultural heritage
tourism attractions need to
directly link with the values,
needs and pre...
Benefits of responsible cultural heritage
product development
Better meets market
demand making cultural
heritage ventures...
Defining cultural heritage tourism products
NARROW DEFINITION
What the tourist “buys”
WIDER DEFINITION
The combination of ...
How the UNEP defines tourism products
Experiential factor Emotional factor Physical factor
Characteristics of responsible cultural heritage
tourism products
• Responsible cultural heritage tourism
products are the...
CULTURAL
HERITAGE
PRODUCT
DEVELOPMENT
1. Ensure cultural
heritage products
are commercially
viable and linked to
markets
2...
Principle 1: Ensure cultural heritage products
are commercially viable and linked to markets
• Simply developing a
tourism...
Ensuring viable responsible cultural heritage
products by meeting market needs
• Market visitation
volume
• Market size
• ...
Using a market analysis to help understand
tourism market features
Characteristics Motivations Expectations
Potential
prod...
SEGMENT TYPE CHARACTERISTICS MOTIVATIONS EXPECTATIONS
Holidayers International
1st timers International
2nd timers +
crowd...
Example of typical tourist market segments and
characteristics in Vietnam
SEGMENT TYPE CHARACTERISTICS MOTIVATIONS EXPECTA...
What is tourism product-market matching?
• Connecting the
characteristics,
motivations and
expectations of market
segments...
Product-market matching conceptual diagram
PRODUCT
A
PRODUCT
B
PRODUCT
C
PRODUCT
E
PRODUCT
D
PRODUCT
F
PRODUCT
G
PRODUCT
I...
Which markets would you match
to these products in Vietnam?
Why are these
markets linked
to these
products?
Matching markets and products in Vietnam
Tourism market segments in Vietnam matched
to product types
ENTERTAINMENT
RELAXATION
CULTURE
NATURE
ADVENTURE
LEARNING
DOM...
Principle 2. Ensure cultural heritage products
are sustainable
• Responsible cultural
heritage products
must meet the need...
Stakeholder criteria for cultural heritage
products
1. Contains
defining
features
2. Contains
core features
3. Considers
m...
Assessment criteria to determine if product
meets defining feature requirements
REQUIREMENT ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
Authentic ...
Assessment criteria to determine if product
meets core feature requirements
REQUIREMENT ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
Accessibility ...
Example of assessment criteria to determine if
product meets market requirements
REQUIREMENT ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
Key targe...
Assessment criteria to determine if product
meets commercial viability requirements
REQUIREMENT ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
Market...
Assessment criteria to determine if product
meets sustainability requirements
REQUIREMENT ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
Economic Tou...
Assessment criteria to determine if product
meets local benefit requirements
REQUIREMENT ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
Equitable sha...
Assessment criteria to determine if product
meets human resource requirements
REQUIREMENT ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
Public secto...
Assessing product performance against
sustainability criteria
Scoring the degree a product achieves the various evaluation...
Review findings and identify potential
development responses
• Based upon the results of the sustainability assessment
dev...
ASPECT COMMENT RATING
Perspective 1: What the Consumer Want (“Do I want this product?”)
I. Core Product Features
Accessibi...
Product assessment score card 2/2
ASPECT COMMENT RATING
Perspective 3: What the Other Stakeholders Want (“Is it good for u...
Principle 3. Ensure cultural heritage product
development has defined strategies and actions
A. Define the responsible cul...
A. Define the responsible cultural heritage
product development vision, goals and
objectives
• Vision: Reflects the broad ...
Example of a vision, goals, and objectives
Example vision statement:
• “To develop competitive and sustainable
tourism pro...
B. Identify and prioritise responsible
cultural heritage product development ideas
Key considerations include the degree t...
Prioritisation considerations:
Targeting development impacts
• The number of people in poverty
who will be reached by the
...
Prioritisation considerations:
Practicality
• The cost of the initiative?
• The possible funding and other
resources avail...
C. Design responsible cultural heritage product
development interventions
• Starting point - review development goals, out...
Taking a pragmatic approach
Finally, ensure the interventions selected
consider the following two questions:
What can be d...
Principles for preparing a responsible cultural
heritage product development strategy
• Emphasise stakeholder involvement
...
D. Develop the responsible cultural heritage
product development action plan
• Clearly sets out what is
being done, when, ...
Guiding principles for securing resources for
implementing action plans
• Use the project action plan as a tool
• Use a jo...
Action plan template
ACTIVITY 1 RESULT TIMING RESPONSIBILITY RESOURCES
Sub-activity 1
Sub-activity 2
Sub-activity 3
Sub-ac...
TOPIC 6. SUSTAINABLE FINANCING FOR
CULTURAL HERITAGE MANAGEMENT
UNIT 9. RESPONSIBLE TOURISM GOOD
PRACTICE FOR CULTURAL HER...
What is the issue?
• Around the world securing adequate finance for
cultural heritage sites is a struggle yet essential
• ...
The role and importance of sustainable
financing for cultural heritage management
• Better enable the implementation of
pr...
Typical economic model of tourism in cultural
heritage sites
Government
funding
Entrance
fees
Return of
income over
budget...
RESPONSIBLE
FINANCING
1. Review
financing
mechanisms to
identify
opportunities
2. Implement
innovative fund
raising
strate...
Principle 1: Review financing mechanisms to
identify opportunities
• Existing funding and revenue
making structures and sy...
Four areas to look for financial opportunities
1
FINANCIAL PLANNING
Consistencies / inconsistencies
with government financ...
Principle 2: Implement innovative fund raising
strategies
• Reducing reliance on
government funding by
generating revenue ...
Entrance fees
Fees charged to visitors to enter the CH CHALLENGES
• Inefficient fee
collection resulting
in losses of
entr...
Permits, leases and licences
Contracts between CHs and businesses allowing them to
operate a commercial activity in exchan...
Direct commercial operation
CH authority provides commercial goods and services CHALLENGES
• Human resources,
knowledge, s...
Taxes
Charges on goods and services that generate funds for the
government and can be used to support CH management CHALLE...
Donations
Gifts of money, goods or services, offered free of charge
to support CHs
CHALLENGES
• Requires good
communicatio...
Principle 3: Support the local economy
• Responsible tourism
requires socio-economic
benefits are received by the
local pe...
Understanding the local communities’ views of
tourism in cultural heritage sites
Create income
Create employment
Create...
Helping build a stronger local economy in
cultural heritage destinations
Source: Eagles, P., McCool, S. & Haynes, C. 2002,...
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Unit 9: Responsible Tourism Good Practice For Cultural Heritage Sites In Vietnam

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Unit 9: Responsible Tourism Good Practice For Cultural Heritage Sites In Vietnam

  1. 1. UNIT 9. RESPONSIBLE TOURISM GOOD PRACTICE FOR CULTURAL HERITAGE SITES IN VIETNAM Picture source: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:HoiAnOldQuarter.jpg
  2. 2. Unit outline Objectives By the end of the unit participants will be able to: • Understand the positive and negative impacts of tourism on cultural heritage and the benefits of responsible tourism • Explain the importance of cultural heritage policy and planning • Explain how to involve stakeholders in heritage planning and management • Identify ways to interpret and communicate cultural heritage responsibly • Explain good practices in the implementation of strategies to minimise tourism impacts on cultural heritage sites • Explain key principles in the development of responsible cultural heritage products • Identify good practices in financing cultural heritage management Topics 1. Overview of cultural heritage and tourism in Vietnam 2. Cultural heritage site planning for sustainability 3. Responsible interpretation & communication of cultural heritage values 4. Cultural heritage conservation & tourism impact management 5. Responsible cultural heritage product development 6. Sustainable financing for cultural heritage management
  3. 3. TOPIC 1. OVERVIEW OF CULTURAL HERITAGE AND TOURISM IN VIETNAM UNIT 9. RESPONSIBLE TOURISM GOOD PRACTICE FOR CULTURAL HERITAGE SITES IN VIETNAM Picture source: http://www.flickr.com/photos/triller/5057891609/
  4. 4. Defining cultural heritage Heritage - something inherited from the past and passed on to future generations Cultural heritage - often refers to masterpieces of artistic and historic value passed on over time Picture source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Chua_Mot_Cot.jpg
  5. 5. How UNESCO classifies cultural heritage TANGIBLE CULTURAL HERITAGE Physical manifestations or symbols of cultural expressions or traditions INTANGIBLE CULTURAL HERITAGE Non-physical manifestations of cultural expressions and traditions of society Picture source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:%C4%90%E1%BB%93ng_K%E1%BB%B5_06.jpg http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:National_Museum_Vietnamese_History_47_(cropped).jpg
  6. 6. The importance of cultural heritage 3% MIXED PROPERTIES
  7. 7. Vietnam’s World Heritage Sites The Centre of Thang Long Citadel CULTURAL HERITAGE NATURAL HERITAGE Picture sources: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/H%E1%BB%99i_An http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/M%E1%BB%B9_S%C6%A1n http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Featured_picture_candidates/A_Busy_Ha_Long_Bay http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Phongnha17.jpg http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Grave_khai_dinh.jpg
  8. 8. Number of heritage sites in Vietnam according to type Historic and cultural sites 51.20% Architectural heritage sites 44.20% Archeological sites 1.30% Significant landscapes 3.30%
  9. 9. Vietnam’s heritage sites according to level of protection 7,500 Nearly PROVINCIAL LEVEL HERITAGE SITES Over 3,000NATIONAL LEVEL HERITAGE SITES
  10. 10. The connection between cultural heritage and tourism UNWTO: of global tourism has a cultural motivation 37% “…There has been considerable growth of a deeper level of engagement with local culture over the past decade…” EUROPEAN TRAVEL COMMISSION: of travellers are strongly influenced by history and culture in their choice of holiday destination (and only 15% are not) NATIONAL TRUST FOR HERITAGE PRESERVATION: 57%
  11. 11. What is cultural tourism? A form of tourism connected with the movement of people to satisfy cultural motivations Picture sources: http://www.flickr.com/photos/shankbone/3269789156/ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Thang_Long_Water_Puppet_Theatre2.JPG http://www.flickr.com/photos/lawtonjm/4309006912/ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Th%E1%BA%BF_Mi%E1%BA%BFu_(Hu%E1%BA%BF).jpg
  12. 12. Cultural tourism is just one of many forms of tourism Picture sources: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Elephant_safari.jpg;http://pt.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ficheiro:Rafting_em_Brotas.jpg; https://www.flickr.com/photos/lukema/8385805896/; http://www.flickr.com/photos/sblackley/2987232840/; http://www.fotopedia.com/items/flickr-1254734424; https://www.flickr.com/photos/lukema/8385805896/; http://www.flickr.com/photos/vinothchandar/6099012489/ Religious tourism Business travel Cultural tourism Mass tourism Adventure tourism Ecotourism
  13. 13. Benefits of cultural heritage tourism Provides a cultural experience and enables cultural exchange Contributes to the preservation of built heritageContributes to the revitalisation of traditional handicrafts and intangible cultural heritage Provides new employment opportunities and contributes to local economic development Enhances the amenity of a region Builds community pride Picture source: Pixabay, www.pixabay.com
  14. 14. Tourism in Vietnam is growing fast – can cultural heritage managers keep up? 2,000,000 7,500,000 12,000,00012,000,000 35,000,000 48,000,000 Y2000 Y2020Y2013 Domestic tourists International tourists YESTERDAY TOMORROW? TODAY
  15. 15. Are Vietnam’s heritage destinations about to reach a critical threshold? Exploration Involvement Development Consolidation Stagnation (Rejuvenate) (Stable) (Decline) Development threshold TIME NUMBEROFVISITORS MY SON SANCTUARY HUE HOI AN HA LONG BAY Conceptual diagram of stage of development for key heritage sites in Vietnam
  16. 16. The challenges of cultural heritage tourism 1/2 DISPLACEMEN Tof local residents Undermining of traditions Cultural identity lossCultural commodification Culture-based SOCIO-ECONOMIC DIVIDE Picture sources: www.pixabay.com http://www.spectrumcare.org.nz/media/TP/362/TalkingPoint-Issue362.htm http://www.clipartlab.com/clipart_preview/cl3-agriculture.php http://soundtrackforthepeople.wordpress.com/tag/marketing/
  17. 17. The challenges of cultural heritage tourism 2/2 Loss of authenticity CONFLICT over land rights Selective development to attractions and facilities Damage Picture sources: http://www.flickr.com/photos/archer10/4331192254/ www.pixabay.com http://www.clipartheaven.com/show/clipart/international/people_-_cartoons/asian_farmer-gif.html http://www.clker.com/clipart-14267.html
  18. 18. Responsible tourism: Building a sustainable future for cultural heritage sites Uses natural resources optimally whilst still conserving the natural heritage and biodiversity Respects and conserves socio- cultural authenticity including built and living cultural heritage and traditional values Ensures viable, long term economic benefits to all stakeholders including fair distribution of benefits
  19. 19. The responsible tourism approach ENVIRONMENT SOCIAL ECONOMIC SUSTAINABLE TOURISM 1. BE ACCOUNTABLE 3. TAKE ACTION 2. HAVE CAPACITY RESPONSIBLE TOURISM We must accept that every decision and action we make in our daily lives has an impact. We must take responsibility for our actions and acquire the knowledge, skills and resources to make change. Being responsible is not just an intent. It requires action. And that action must be for good - based upon the law, our ethics and morals.
  20. 20. More enjoyable experiences for tourists The benefits of responsible tourism in cultural heritage site management Picture source: http://www.fotosearch.com/photos-images/tour-guide.html http://www.restoration-people.com/restoration-people-news/ Pixabay, www.pixabay.com Empowers locals residents in development process Economic and employment for the community Contributes to conservation of cultural (and natural) heritage
  21. 21. Key components for applying responsible tourism in cultural heritage site management Cultural heritage site planning for sustainability TOPIC 2 Responsible cultural heritage product development TOPIC 5 Responsible interpretation and communication of cultural heritage values TOPIC 3 Cultural heritage conservation and tourism impact management TOPIC 4 Sustainable financing for cultural heritage management TOPIC 6 Picture source: Pixabay, www.pixabay.com
  22. 22. TOPIC 2. CULTURAL HERITAGE SITE PLANNING FOR SUSTAINABILITY UNIT 9. RESPONSIBLE TOURISM GOOD PRACTICE FOR CULTURAL HERITAGE SITES IN VIETNAM Picture source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Ngomon2.jpg
  23. 23. What is the issue? • Plans to protect cultural heritage are often not developed or alternatively not clear • Cultural heritage plans are frequently not co-ordinated and integrated with other sectors • Plans for economic growth are often prioritised before plans for heritage protection Picture sources: http://www.flickr.com/photos/marfis75/404887342/
  24. 24. The role and importance of cultural heritage site management plans • Guides day-to-day operation and on-going physical and interpretive features • Balances maintaining / enhancing heritage integrity with generating sufficient visitor volume to meet income requirements • Objectives: – Maintain the site’s sense of place and integrity – Preserve the site’s culturally significant dimensions – Identify issues of management concern – Promote the role of all stakeholders to devise a management strategy to allow the site to effectively meet a variety of challenges Key considerations in responsible cultural heritage site management plans • Product authenticity and quality • Financial viability • Stakeholder participation • Management of negative impacts
  25. 25. Benefits of cultural heritage plans that follow responsible tourism principles Reduces impacts on the local environment and improves quality of life for local residents Better ensures cultural heritage offers meet market trends and opportunities Better ensures the type of tourism developed brings income to local residents and benefits conservation Better ensures cultural heritage sites achieve legal, social, business standards and goals Provides all stakeholders with greater involvement and power to inform cultural heritage site development
  26. 26. CULTURAL HERITAGE SITE PLANNING 1. Be guided by a comprehensive cultural heritage site management plan 2. Embrace participation and build partnerships 3. Adopt a cross- sectoral and regional approach Principles of good practice in responsible cultural heritage site planning
  27. 27. Principle 1. Be guided by a comprehensive cultural heritage site management plan • Well-planned cultural heritage sites can encourage investment and growth • Such development cannot be achieved by traditional, uncoordinated planning • Cultural heritage integrated planning helps manage different demands by linking cultural heritage protection with socio-economic and environmental development Picture source: http://www.flickr.com/photos/33151788@N04/4556006631/
  28. 28. Good practices in developing cultural heritage plans Sustainable Culturally, socially, ecologically and economically Comprehensive Addresses all relevant issues for heritage tourism development and management Cross-sectoral Integrates tourism with related sectors such as infrastructure, education, labour, and natural resources Participatory and inclusive Involves all relevant stakeholders with specific consideration of local communities and the poor. Fair sharing of economic benefits. Process oriented Continuous, flexible and includes feedback loops. Viable Realistic, financially viable and implementation oriented
  29. 29. Key steps in adopting a cultural heritage integrated management plan PREPARATION OF CULTURAL HERITAGE PLAN ELABORATION – ADAPTATION REVIEW – MONITORING • Situation analysis • Development of plan objectives, content and structure • Defining work plan • Vision and objectives • Fields of action, objectives, strategies, and issues • Preparation of monitoring • Developing monitoring indicator scheme CONTINUAL IMPROVEMENT
  30. 30. Key inclusions in a cultural heritage site integrated management plan Introduction Describes the objectives and the purpose of the cultural heritage integrated management plan Identifying issues Describes the status-quo of the cultural site: area overview, statement of significance and individual values / authenticity / integrity, dangers and threats, instruments for safeguarding, relevant stakeholders for conservation and development, and organisational / operational structures and procedures Appraisal Describes the vision, thematic objectives, approaches, actions, etc. for the cultural site: overall vision and general objectives for the area, field of actions, objectives, strategies, and organisational and operational structures and procedures Implementation & monitoring Provides an action plan/ implementation plan, and steps for continuous monitoring and review
  31. 31. Integrate sustainability issues into planning: Socio-cultural 1/3 SOCIO-CULTURALISSUES Preserving the visual integrity of a place Identifying, evaluating, assessing and documenting cultural heritage values Conserving, restoring and maintaining authentic cultural heritage and preserving traditional uses Preserving intangible values Regulating new developments in the heritage site area and careful adaptation of buildings to new uses Traffic control Mobility / accessibility in cultural area for all generations / social groups Security of buildings Public space improvement Cultural identity of community Authentic heritage interpretation (including communications & marketing) OBJECTIVE Preserving and authentically promoting tangible and intangible cultural heritage values of a place the benefit of all.
  32. 32. Integrate sustainability issues into planning: Environmental 2/3 ENVIRONMENTALISSUES Preventive and reactive measures for natural hazards and climate change Adaptation of cultural heritage to environmental needs Improving recreational and green areas in the old town Special climatic conditions Weathering of historic urban fabric Drainage Microclimate OBJECTIVE Adaptation of the tangible cultural heritage to environ- mental requirements and minimising the negative impacts.
  33. 33. Integrate sustainability issues into planning: Economic 3/3 ECONOMICISSUES Employment in cultural centres / for inhabitants Vitality and viability (mix of economic activities; mix of shops) Accessibility Overall local needs Commercial signs in public space Balancing tourism offers with inhabitants’ needs OBJECTIVE Attracting and retaining a mix of economic uses that meets the needs of the local community and visitors and respects the character of the historic centre.
  34. 34. Ground planning in best practice: The ICOMOS Charter 1 Conservation should provide for members of the host community and visitors to responsibly experience and understand that community's heritage and culture first hand. 4 Host communities and indigenous peoples should be involved in planning for conservation and tourism. 2 The relationship between Heritage Places and Tourism is dynamic and may involve conflicting values. It should be managed in a sustainable way for present and future generations. 5 Tourism and conservation activities should benefit the host community. 3 Conservation and Tourism Planning for Heritage Places should ensure that the Visitor Experience will be worthwhile, satisfying and enjoyable. 6 Tourism promotion programmes should protect and enhance Natural and Cultural Heritage characteristics
  35. 35. Using the PUP methodology in cultural heritage site planning • A consultative process with active participation of relevant stakeholders • Facilitation by experts with strong knowledge and skills in managing participatory techniques Phase 1. Planning preparation Phase 2. Planning for heritage Phase 3. Write up tourism management plan
  36. 36. Phase 1. Planning preparation • Initial stakeholder presentations and interviews1 • Organisation self-analysis2 • Planning framework3 • Terms of reference4 • Prepare logistics for upcoming planning activities5
  37. 37. Phase 2. Planning for heritage • Develop interpretative framework 1 • Directory of touristic attractions2 • Zoning, sector and visitor profile3 • Tourism products4 • Monitoring5 • Regulation6 • Calendar of activities7 • Financial plan8
  38. 38. Phase 3. Write up cultural heritage management plan • Draft the management plan1 • Present to key stakeholders for feedback2 • Finalise the management plan3
  39. 39. Principle 2. Embrace participation and partnerships in cultural heritage site planning • Cultural heritage site planning typically involves stakeholders from the local to international level • However all stakeholders often have different goals • Fair and broad participation in cultural heritage site planning helps ensure all goals are achieved and that fewer negative impacts are felt
  40. 40. Stakeholder areas of interest in cultural heritage site planning Community • Economic development • Recreational facilities • Preservation of social values Tourism industry • Tourism infrastructure • Visitor facilities • Heritage interpretation • Profit Site managers • Protection of heritage sites and their presentation • Facilities management • Visitor management
  41. 41. Build on stakeholder strengths GOVERNMENT: Provision of destination infrastructure, visitor safety and security, favourable policies and plans to promote socio-economic development, revenue capture and management, destination marketing PRIVATE SECTOR: Marketing of heritage site and destination, provision of goods and services to support tourism in heritage destination, advice, guidance and support in product development and capacity building LOCAL RESIDENTS: Influence decisions on management and use of heritage site, employment / human resources on site, operation of tourism or cultural enterprises, input into cultural heritage research, planning and development., cultural ambassadors and volunteers. Development agencies: Technical assistance for physical development, financing of restoration / research, cultural heritage capacity building STAKEHOLDER AREAS OF INPUT FOR CONSIDERATION IN PLANNING
  42. 42. Benefits of broad stakeholder participation and partnerships • Saves time and money • Reduces delays or blockages in heritage development • Clarifies religious and cultural values and helps identify problem areas • Provides input regarding desired conditions and standards • Fosters provision of human and financial resources to assist development of cultural heritage sites
  43. 43. Tips for gaining stakeholder participation in cultural heritage site planning Involve key stakeholders early on in the process (esp. in cultural mapping and identification of tourism development options) Encourage broad co- operation through a multi-stakeholder steering committee that is actively involved in setting planning goals, objectives, strategies and activities Foster ongoing stakeholder input in planning and development through regular public meetings, workshops and forums
  44. 44. Specific areas for community involvement in cultural heritage site planning • Defining what the community would like to gain from tourism • Identifying the type of tourism that would complement the local way of life • Facilitating the implementation process • Demonstrating how to manage heritage places to optimise positive impacts and avoid negative impacts • Establishing linkages between communities and experts to build capacity, awareness and information exchange programmes
  45. 45. Legislation Agency policies, strategies Regional plans, broad-scale land management plans Management plans for Cultural heritages Subsidiary plans Operational / action plans, work programmes Principle 3. Adopt a cross-sectoral, regional approach in cultural heritage site planning • The plan will not be sustainable unless it fits in with relevant higher level plans and policies • Critical to review legislation / formal agreements designating the area and confirm their meaning • These set the overriding purpose and goals of the management plan Cultural heritage management plans fit here
  46. 46. Adopt a regional approach in heritage planning and management • Cultural heritage sites are impacted upon by external decisions, activities • CH management plans must consider impacts outside its boundaries • Particularly important when other administrations manage outside areas • For success, CH planning see itself as aiming to build more sustainable patterns of development in general Picture source: Pixabay, www.pixabay.com
  47. 47. Three focus areas for regional integration Integrate or link CH management plans with local development processes and the activities of other agencies and organisations working in the area. Identify and address the aspirations and needs of the local communities around the cultural heritage sites (as well as those living in it) in the CH management plan Incorporate regional stakeholders in the planning of cultural heritage site and compatible uses, and in educational, interpretive and community involvement programmes
  48. 48. TOPIC 3. RESPONSIBLE INTERPRETATION & COMMUNICATION OF CULTURAL HERITAGE VALUES UNIT 9. RESPONSIBLE TOURISM GOOD PRACTICE FOR CULTURAL HERITAGE SITES IN VIETNAM
  49. 49. What is the issue? • Cultural heritage sites often struggle to provide adequate communication and interpretation of cultural heritage values which can result in: – Reduced awareness of cultural heritage importance and significance and limiting opportunities to enhance cross-cultural understanding – Reduced support for action in cultural heritage conservation – Increased culture commodification and objectification • The end result is reduced visitor satisfaction, negative word of mouth promotion, and limited repeat visitation
  50. 50. The objectives of communication and interpretation in cultural heritage sites COMMUNICATION • To increase awareness about the resources and attractions in the cultural site • To alter behaviour of visitors and residents in the cultural site • To orient visitors to the cultural site • To explain about the community and cultural site authority’s goals and objectives INTERPRETATION • To increase understanding about the role and importance of special species in the cultural site and issues in conservation • To increase understanding about the role and importance of cultural elements and issues in conservation • To increase understanding and respect for local culture and heritage and socio-cultural issues in sympathetic preservation and promotion
  51. 51. The benefits of responsible communication and interpretation of cultural heritage values Creates a more positive visitor experience Facilitates understanding and appreciation of heritage sites Improves learning Increases visitors’ respect and support for the local people Better represents the values of the local community Picture sources: Pixabay, www.pixabay.com
  52. 52. COMMUNICATION & INTERPRETATION 1. Inform and educate visitors about the importance of the cultural heritage site 2. Communicate messages accurately and authentically Principles of good practice in responsible communication and interpretation
  53. 53. Principle 1. Inform and educate visitors about the importance of the cultural heritage • Providing simple information about the values and importance of the cultural heritage helps promote cross-cultural understanding and respect • Communicating cultural significance can be achieved through signs, displays, brochures, and maps • Visitor information centres / interpretation centres are also very effective
  54. 54. The ICOMOS’ 7 recommendations for effective heritage interpretation 1 ACCESS & UNDERSTANDING. Facilitate access for all. 5 SUSTAINABILITY. Implement effective strategies for economic, environmental and social sustainability. 2 INFORMATION SOURCES. Ensure interpretation is scientifically based. 6 INCLUSIVENESS. Involve all stakeholders in the development of interpretive programmes 3 CONTEXT AND SETTING. Relate interpretation to wider contexts and settings. 7 RESEARCH, TRAINING & EVALUATION. Implement technical and professional standards in interpretation. 4 AUTHENTICITY. Respect traditional social functions.
  55. 55. Interpretation through signs and exhibits • Interpretational signs and exhibits use stories and messages to inform visitors about places, objects or events • Properly planned and designed interpretive programs relay a theme / message to visitors • Common topics can include unique historical events, cultural traditions and practices, roles of men and women, livelihoods, cultural events, religious beliefs etc. • Interpretation should incorporate 3 components: education, emotion, behaviour Educational component Emotional component Behavioural component
  56. 56. Tips in effective interpretation • Write to the target market • Use everyday language • Develop an interesting storyline • Make presentations lively • Use media and messages to engage emotions •Get guides to customise tours to visitor needs •Keep interpretive materials simple and colourful and easy to read •Provide clear directions and instructions on trails
  57. 57. Examples of interpretive exhibits
  58. 58. 3 principles for writing effective detailed interpretive signs 1 Deliver information using themes that are strong and provocative. 3 Structure theme into topics easily identified by sub- headings. 2Create titles that are eye-catching and interesting.
  59. 59. Examples of detailed interpretive signs Eye catching title (theme) Sub-headings (well structured) Good use of images
  60. 60. Good practice tip: Interpretation should engage 1. Visitors enjoy activities requiring some form of participation 2. People remember activities with interactive elements 3. Make the experience more meaningful by enabling visitors to smell, taste, feel, explore, lift, push 4. Provide field guides, photographs of local events or interesting people; or plant and animal specimens Picture source: Pixabay, www.pixabay.com
  61. 61. Examples of engaging interpretive displays
  62. 62. Principle 2: Communicate messages accurately and authentically • Poor communication of cultural heritage values can result in loss of meaning and significance and erosion of the integrity of the cultural heritage • Communicating messages accurately and authentically promotes greater understanding and respect Picture source: http://www.flickr.com/photos/mynameisharsha/4344995931/
  63. 63. Being authentic in communicating tourism experiences • Communication of messages in cultural heritage marketing is often based upon selling “authentic experiences” • While authenticity is perceived it should be displayed as accurately as possible to reflect the reality • If messages are exaggerated in order to make them more attractive to consumers they will become disappointed when their expectations are not met Picture source: http://www.dannydancers.com/events.htm
  64. 64. Avoid cultural commodification in communication • Communication about the culture of local communities and cultural heritage sites should be respectful and accurate • Commercialisation and commodification of the local culture should be avoided not only in the products sold but in the language used and messages communicated • Cultural commercialisation and commodification may result in the loss of original meaning • The involvement and determination of local people of how to interpret their culture is critical
  65. 65. 4 examples of cultural commodification in tourism Redeveloping places to make them more attractive for tourist consumption Creating staged and reshaped traditional performances for tourists Adaptive reuse of historical buildings without interpretation Sale and / or reproduction of artefacts of cultural or spiritual significance as souvenirs Picture sources: http://www.flickr.com/photos/rachelf2sea/6125215016/ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Kangeelu_Kunita.jpg http://www.flickr.com/photos/jeremylim/4263274405/sizes/m/in/photostream/ http://blog.mailasail.com/kanaloa/104
  66. 66. TOPIC 4. RESPONSIBLE TOURISM APPROACH TO VISITOR IMPACT MANAGEMENT UNIT 9. RESPONSIBLE TOURISM GOOD PRACTICE FOR CULTURAL HERITAGE SITES IN VIETNAM Picture source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fall_of_the_monument_to_Lenin_in_Kiev
  67. 67. What is the issue? • Physical / structural damage to cultural heritage assets • Destruction or disturbance to the natural environment • Social tension between visitors and local residents • Safety and security of visitors at risk • Poor planning and enforcement of rules and regulations on visitor behaviour Picture source: http://www.flickr.com/photos/mikecogh/12172174654/
  68. 68. VISITOR IMPACT MANAGEMENT 1. Set and enforce zones 3. Influence visitor behaviour 2. Understand carrying capacity and enforce limits of acceptable change Principles of good practice in visitor impact management in cultural heritage sites
  69. 69. Principle 1. Setting and enforcing zones in large and multi-stakeholder use heritage sites • Allocate zones to geographical areas for specific levels and intensities of activities and of conservation • Zones can also be implemented temporally or indicate other important attributes • Formalise zones by developing and implementing policies that detail: – Use of cultural resources – Access – Facilities – Cultural heritage development – Maintenance and operations
  70. 70. Key attributes of sites that influence zoning plans Physical attributes Social attributes Management attributes
  71. 71. Example of historic town zoning plan with important buildings and sites Source: City of Bradford MDC 2006, Saltaire Conservation Area Appraisal, City of Bradford MDC, Bradford, UK Conservation area boundary Important trees Key open spaces Key view or vista World Heritage site boundary Listed buildings Key unlisted building
  72. 72. Principle 2. Understand site carrying capacity and enforce limits of acceptable change • Carrying capacity measures the level at which visitors can be accommodated • Determines thresholds of change followed by setting of limits to the number of visitors • Physical carrying capacity: Availability of space and necessary resources • Ecological carrying capacity: level of ecosystem tolerance to human interference while maintaining sustainable functioning • Social carrying capacity: psychological and socio-cultural limits of people in a space beyond which a decline in the quality of the recreational experience and user satisfaction
  73. 73. Some examples of how carrying capacity can not be best solution for managing impacts One destructive tourist might cause more damage than 50 conscientious visitors Some cultural heritage site areas can handle less use than areas with more resilient physical or social attributes Just a handful of tourists in a community might be responsible for most of the litter Some communities may accept larger groups of tourists while others reject them In some cases a single visitor at an archaeological site might be seen as too many, while for others, hundreds of visitors would not diminish the quality of the experience Visitors to a ruin site may be limited to 100 at a time, while in an isolated area some visitors may be stealing priceless souvenirs The carrying capacity of a cultural village tour may be set at 100, but that will not prevent some visitors from disturbing residents as they approach to take photographs or create disturbing noise Source: Pedersen, A. 2002, Managing Tourism at World Heritage Sites: a Practical Manual for World Heritage Site Managers, UNESCO World Heritage Centre, Paris, France
  74. 74. Other considerations carrying capacity does not effectively account for • Impacts on aesthetic qualities, social systems and the ability to support active uses • Incremental or differing rates of impact in different parts of a cultural heritage site system • Differing values of users about the importance of cultural heritage sites and systems
  75. 75. Managing impacts through limits of acceptable change • Focuses on the resources that need protection and not the people that visit them • Recognises the need for a subjective determination of states of change • Sets limits of acceptable resource interaction or use which, when close to being reached, trigger management interventions to prevent or mitigate damage
  76. 76. Limits of acceptable change requires setting standards • LAC standards are established on the basis of stakeholder and management needs, and follow legal and Convention guidelines • Management objectives should lead to measurable impact standards reflecting the desired conditions • Sustainability indicators should be set by a multi-stakeholder committee and reflect environmental, social or economic issues
  77. 77. Example of environmental and economic sustainability indicators in tourism ENVIRONMENTAL Number of threatened or extinct species as percentage of all known species Perceived value of forest resources to tourism Number of days tourists spend on nature tourism activities out of total number of days Number of hotels with environmental policy Environmental awareness campaigns conducted Number hotels recycling 25% or more of their waste products Demand/supply ratio for water Number of hotels with 50% or more of total toilets as dual flush % of energy consumption from renewable resources ECONOMIC Average wage rates in tourism jobs rural/ urban Number of local people employed in tourism (men and women) Revenues generated by tourism as % of all revenues generated in the community % of visitors who overnight in local tourist accommodation % of hotels with a majority local staff % of GDP provided by tourism Change in number of visitor arrivals Average tourist length of stay New tourism businesses as a percentage of all new businesses
  78. 78. Example of social and management sustainability indicators in tourism SOCIAL % of tourism operators who provide day care to employees with children % of tourism operators who have commitments regarding equal gender opportunity Women/men as a % of all tourism employment % women/men employees sent on training programmes Satisfaction with volume of tourists visiting the destination MANAGEMENT PERFORMANCE Sustainability Management Plan exists All personnel receive periodic sustainability management training % of purchases of services and goods from local providers % of purchases that are fair trade purchases Number of facilities built using local material Code of conduct developed with local community % of women and local minority employees
  79. 79. Tips for shortlisting indicators RELEVANCE COMPARABILITYCREDIBILITY CLARITY FEASIBILITY Of the indicator to the selected issue Of the information and reliability for users of the data And understand- ability to users Of obtaining and analysing the information Over time and across jurisdictions or regions
  80. 80. 80 The key steps in developing and implementing limits of acceptable change Step 1 • Identify area concerns and issues Step 2 • Define and describe management objectives Step 3 • Select indicators of resources and social conditions Step 4 • Inventory present resources and social conditions Step 5 • Specify standards for resources and social indicators Step 6 • Identify alternatives Step 7 • Identify management actions for each alternative Step 8 • Evaluate and select an alternative Step 9 • Implement actions and monitor conditions
  81. 81. Principle 3. Influence visitor behaviour • Based on implementing regulations, incentives, penalties, systems, and information to change visitor behaviour • Types of measures can be categorised according to whether they aim to reduce the volume of visitors or alternatively reduce the behaviour of visitors • These measures can then be further group according to whether they are “hard” measures” or “soft” measures HARD MEASURES SOFT MEASURES MANAGEVISITOR NUMBERS MANAGEINAPPROPRIATE BEHAVIOUR Limit group sizes; Impose quotas for certain sites / trails; Close trails or sites according to season or time of day Reduce or disperse visitors through entrance fee systems for sites and times Establish leagally binding regulations for businesses and visitor use of resources; Enforce use of guides; Install staff to monitor and manage visitor behaviour Provide visitor information on rules of entry (do’s and don’ts); Strategic placement (or omission) of key services and facilities VISITOR MANAGEMENT Source: The International Council on Monuments and Sites
  82. 82. Minimising impacts by reducing tourism volume Access Number of visitors Length of stay Tour group size Skills and / or equipment Extent of facilities Timing Barriers Picture source: Pixabay, www.pixabay.com
  83. 83. Minimising impacts by changing tourism behaviour Types of activities Frequency of use Impact appraisals Travel Conditions of use Park rangers Guides Information and education Qualifications and standards
  84. 84. Communicate tourism codes of conduct • Voluntary principles and practices that visitors are requested to follow • Codes of conduct can be developed to both limit negative impacts of tourism activities and also enhance positive impacts • Codes of conduct must be well- communicated in order to be effective Picture source: Pixabay, www.pixabay.com
  85. 85. Example of a visitor code of conduct 1/2 Source: VNAT, Do’s and Don'ts in Vietnam for Community-based Tourists, VNAT, Vietnam
  86. 86. Example of a visitor code of conduct 2/2 Source: VNAT, Do’s and Don'ts in Vietnam for Community-based Tourists, VNAT, Vietnam
  87. 87. Good practice in developing effective tourism codes of conduct Sustainability. Do the criteria consider the environment, economy and people? Equity. Do the criteria reflect the interests of everyone? Efficiency & effectiveness. Are the criteria practical and follow best practice in sustainable management? Relevance. Do the criteria directly connect to the destination’s own sustainability goals?
  88. 88. Managing visitor impacts is also about managing visitor safety Recreation Personal injury Potential claims and pay outs Picture source: Pixabay, www.pixabay.com
  89. 89. Guidelines for the risk management process Is the process working effectively to identify and manage risks? - Develop a list of risks associated with an area or activity; Develop checklists to use when inspecting the area; Inspect the area and talk to visitors; Record all risks identified Have the control measures eliminated or reduced the risks to an acceptable level? Have the control measures introduced any new risks? - Gather information about each risk identified; Think about the likelihood of an event (e.g. frequency of exposure to risk and probability that an accident will occur); Assess probable consequences (number of people at risk and likely severity of an injury); Use exposure, probability and consequence to calculate level or risk Determine control measures - Eliminate risk; Transfer risk; Reduce risk probability; Reduce risk impact; Accept risk Assess effectiveness of control measures - Review proposed measures; Apply control measures; Monitor effectiveness through regular assessments and documentation 1. IDENTIFY THE RISKS Identify all risks associated with an area or activity 2. ASSESS THE RISKS Assess the level of each risk 3. MANAGE THE RISKS Decide on and use the appropriate control measures 4. MONITOR & REVIEW Monitor residual risks and review Source: Eagles, P., McCool, S. & Haynes, C. 2002, Sustainable Tourism in Protected Areas: Guidelines for Planning and Management, IUCN, Gland, Switzerland & Cambridge, UK
  90. 90. TOPIC 5. RESPONSIBLE CULTURAL HERITAGE PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT UNIT 9. RESPONSIBLE TOURISM GOOD PRACTICE FOR CULTURAL HERITAGE SITES IN VIETNAM Picture source: www.pixabay.com
  91. 91. What is the issue? • Successful cultural heritage tourism attractions need to directly link with the values, needs and preferences of the target market • Cultural heritage products must also benefit the local community and other stakeholders to ensure support and sustainability • Developing cultural heritage products responsibly ensures development uses available resources sustainably, identifies links to viable market opportunities, and ensures the satisfaction and benefit of the local community Picture source: http://www.flickr.com/photos/dalbera/6614178827/
  92. 92. Benefits of responsible cultural heritage product development Better meets market demand making cultural heritage ventures more competitive Uses cultural heritage resources that provide economic benefits to the local community Minimises negative economic, environmental and social impacts Involves all stakeholders including the local people in decision-making Fosters more enjoyable and meaningful experiences for tourists
  93. 93. Defining cultural heritage tourism products NARROW DEFINITION What the tourist “buys” WIDER DEFINITION The combination of what the tourist does at the cultural heritage site and the services used
  94. 94. How the UNEP defines tourism products Experiential factor Emotional factor Physical factor
  95. 95. Characteristics of responsible cultural heritage tourism products • Responsible cultural heritage tourism products are the goods and services that form tourism experiences and are specifically designed to be: – Environmentally, socially, culturally and economically sustainable – Educational – Promote local participation
  96. 96. CULTURAL HERITAGE PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT 1. Ensure cultural heritage products are commercially viable and linked to markets 2. Ensure sustainability of selected cultural heritage products 3. Ensure cultural heritage product development has defined strategies and actions Principles of good practice in responsible cultural heritage product development
  97. 97. Principle 1: Ensure cultural heritage products are commercially viable and linked to markets • Simply developing a tourism product does not mean that visitors will come • Following a good product development process helps ensure the business, product, or service can compete effectively and make a profit Development of tourism related products and experiences requires: • Understanding existing supply and future demand for products • Market research on visitor needs and satisfaction, product development gaps and opportunities • Understanding the types of experiences that a visitor market seeks • Assuring the value and sustainability of the tourism project
  98. 98. Ensuring viable responsible cultural heritage products by meeting market needs • Market visitation volume • Market size • Market trends and interests Market growth • Reason for travel • Kinds of experiences desired Motivations & needs • Means of travel • Length of stay • Level of flexibility Travel patterns • Level of money spent by visitor types • Value to local development Spend • Greatest interest in the destination • Connect with development objectives Sustainability
  99. 99. Using a market analysis to help understand tourism market features Characteristics Motivations Expectations Potential products Forms & means of travel Reasons for travel choices Expectations of facilities, services, amenities etc
  100. 100. SEGMENT TYPE CHARACTERISTICS MOTIVATIONS EXPECTATIONS Holidayers International 1st timers International 2nd timers + crowd avoiders International On holiday Domestic Phuot Domestic Day trippers Domestic
  101. 101. Example of typical tourist market segments and characteristics in Vietnam SEGMENT TYPE CHARACTERISTICS MOTIVATIONS EXPECTATIONS Holidayers International short-haul Traveling in organized groups or with family and friends. Shorter trips, few destinations. Relaxation, entertainment, visiting main attractions, shopping. Superior food and accommodation, Mixing businesses with pleasure International short-haul Individual and independent business travellers adding some tourism activities to their trip. Entertainment, visiting main attractions, relaxation. Quality services and products. Ease of travel. 1st timers International long-haul Individual or group travel for 1 week or more, utilizing a variety of travel means and many destinations. Visiting main attractions, cultural and natural features. Good food, adequate accommodation, fair prices, variety. 2nd timers + crowd avoiders International long-haul Individual or small group travel – usually self- organized for 1 week or more, usually spending more time in fewer destinations. Authentic experiences and specific activities (i.e. trekking, caving). Adequate accommodation, good food and services, authenticity and personal experiences. On holiday Domestic Travel as a family, during national holidays and annual holiday periods Relaxation, entertainment, visiting main attractions. Good food, adequate accommodation, shopping opportunities, fair prices. Phuot Domestic Independent or small group travel, often by motorbike. Seeking alternative activities and non-touristic locations. Adequate accommodation and food, cheap prices, authenticity. Day trippers Domestic Independent travel by families and friends in private vehicles for 1 day, usually on weekends or national holidays. Relaxation, entertainment, visiting main attractions. Good food, good services, ease of travel.
  102. 102. What is tourism product-market matching? • Connecting the characteristics, motivations and expectations of market segments with suitable tourism products • To ensure sustainability, products should also be matched with development opportunities and objectives of the host destination Tourism product •Entertainment and relaxation •Culture •Nature •Adventure •Education Tourism market •Characteristics •Motivations •Expectations
  103. 103. Product-market matching conceptual diagram PRODUCT A PRODUCT B PRODUCT C PRODUCT E PRODUCT D PRODUCT F PRODUCT G PRODUCT I PRODUCT H MARKET SEGMENT 1 MARKET SEGMENT 2 MARKET SEGMENT 3 MARKET SEGMENT 4
  104. 104. Which markets would you match to these products in Vietnam?
  105. 105. Why are these markets linked to these products? Matching markets and products in Vietnam
  106. 106. Tourism market segments in Vietnam matched to product types ENTERTAINMENT RELAXATION CULTURE NATURE ADVENTURE LEARNING DOMESTIC Day trippers from Hanoi   Holidayers     Phuot    INTERNATIONAL Holidayers      Mixing business with pleasure    First timers    Second timers + Crowd avoiders     PRODUCT TYPE MARKETSEGMENT
  107. 107. Principle 2. Ensure cultural heritage products are sustainable • Responsible cultural heritage products must meet the needs and wants of consumers, business and government, and other stakeholders • There must also be available human resources with sufficient capacity Is it good for us? others Do I want it? consumers Can I sell it? Business / Government
  108. 108. Stakeholder criteria for cultural heritage products 1. Contains defining features 2. Contains core features 3. Considers market 4. Is commercially viable 5. Is sustainable 6. Provides local benefits 7. Available human resources CONSUMER REQUIREMENTS OTHER STAKEHOLDER REQUIREMENTS BUSINESS & GOVERNMENT REQUIREMENTS ADDITIONAL REQUIREMENT
  109. 109. Assessment criteria to determine if product meets defining feature requirements REQUIREMENT ASSESSMENT CRITERIA Authentic How genuine and representative of the region is the product Distinct How unique and special is the product Variety Is there a good mix of attractions, activities, services? Seasonal factors Weather, too crowded during the busy season, etc. Product function Flagship, Hub, or Supporting Product, fit with regional product clusters and circuits consumers
  110. 110. Assessment criteria to determine if product meets core feature requirements REQUIREMENT ASSESSMENT CRITERIA Accessibility How easy is it for tourists to get to the site Attractions Quality of main attractions that routs are coming for Activities What other activities can the tourists do at the site Main services What are the required tourism services available (e.g. accommodation, food service) consumers
  111. 111. Example of assessment criteria to determine if product meets market requirements REQUIREMENT ASSESSMENT CRITERIA Key target markets Easily identifiable key markets to target Market size Sufficient to generate benefits and remain viable Market trends and influence Are target markets likely to expand or influence other markets business
  112. 112. Assessment criteria to determine if product meets commercial viability requirements REQUIREMENT ASSESSMENT CRITERIA Market-based planning Tourism products are developed and managed strategically based on specific markets and trends Private sector engagement The private sector is involved, including healthy local enterprises Supportive regulatory context Regulations on business development and operations are favourable Necessary supporting resources Available local human resources, and necessary infrastructure business
  113. 113. Assessment criteria to determine if product meets sustainability requirements REQUIREMENT ASSESSMENT CRITERIA Economic Tourism economy provides equitable and attractive earning opportunities Environmental Natural environment is protected and enhanced Socio-cultural Local customs and cultures are respected and supported Institutionalisation Support of government policies, plans and programs Sector functioning Sector stakeholders able to function in appropriate roles to ensure effective and ongoing operations others
  114. 114. Assessment criteria to determine if product meets local benefit requirements REQUIREMENT ASSESSMENT CRITERIA Equitable sharing of benefits Tourism is seen as a fair and welcomed addition to local livelihood improvement Local involvement / ownership Hosting communities have open, and effective mechanisms for engagement, including management roles, in the tourism sector Poverty reduction To what degree are more disadvantaged groups (poor, women, disabled, minorities) receiving benefits others
  115. 115. Assessment criteria to determine if product meets human resource requirements REQUIREMENT ASSESSMENT CRITERIA Public sector Management and staff responsible for tourism or relevant sectors Businesses sector Business either directly involved or supporting tourism in a location Local communities People residing in tourism locations who stand to benefit from the tourism sector
  116. 116. Assessing product performance against sustainability criteria Scoring the degree a product achieves the various evaluation criteria can help to understand its level of sustainability and viability. An example is below: SCORE DEFINITION RESPONSE 0 = Not applicable This issue is not needed or relevant to the site No action required 1 = Very weak Complete inadequate leading to disastrous results. Intensive and comprehensive focused support. 2 = Weak Not adequate. Needs improvement to contribute to and effective or responsible product. Focused support of key aspects for improvement. Strengthening what is already working. 3 = Adequate Functioning adequately, but could be better in some key aspects. Focused support of key aspects for improvement. Strengthening what is already working if needed. 4 = Strong Functioning adequately, but could be better in some minor aspects. Minor improvement on specific areas if needed. 5 = Best practice A model example that is highly effective, innovative and exemplary. Show case and replicate.
  117. 117. Review findings and identify potential development responses • Based upon the results of the sustainability assessment development responses will become clearer. • Development responses may vary according to strategic aims • Below are some examples of development responses: Improve viability of key products Encourage partnerships with the private sector Enhance local benefits Support the establishment of community-level management organisations Improve accessibility Request and lobby for government funding for rapid road improvement
  118. 118. ASPECT COMMENT RATING Perspective 1: What the Consumer Want (“Do I want this product?”) I. Core Product Features Accessibility How easy is it for tourists to get to the site 2. Attractions Quality of main attractions that routs are coming for 3. Activities What other activities can the tourists do at the site 4. Main Services What are the required tourism services available 5. Supporting Services What additional services are there to make it more convenient for tourists? Summary Comments: Total II. Defining Product Features: (Characteristics) 1. Authentic How genuine and representative of the region is the product 2. Distinct How unique and special is the product 3. Variety Is there a good mix of attractions, activities, services? 4. Seasonal Factors Weather, too crowded during the busy season, etc. 5.Product Function Flagship, Hub, or Supporting Product, fit with product clusters and circuits 6.Lifecycle Stage The product’s point of development (e.g. emerging, established etc) Summary Comments: Total Product assessment score card 1/2 ASPECT COMMENT RATING Perspective 2: What Businesses Want (“Can I sell this product?”) III. Market Considerations: 1. Key target markets Easily identifiable key targets to target. 2. Market size Sufficient to generate benefits and remain viable. 3. Market trends and influence Are target markets likely to expand or influence other markets. Summary Comments: Total IV. Commercial Viability: 1. Market-based planning Tourism products developed and managed based on markets and trends 2. Private sector engagement The private is involved, including healthy local enterprises. 3. Supportive regulatory context Regulations on business development and operations are favourable. 4. Supporting resources Available local human resources, and necessary infrastructure. Summary Comments: Total
  119. 119. Product assessment score card 2/2 ASPECT COMMENT RATING Perspective 3: What the Other Stakeholders Want (“Is it good for us?”) V. Sustainability: 1. Economic Tourism economy provides equitable and attractive earning opportunities. 2. Environmental Natural environment is protected and enhanced. 3. Socio-cultural Local customs and cultures are respected and support-ed. 4. Institutionalization Support of government policies, plans and programs. 5. Sector functioning Sector stakeholders can function in appropriate roles for good operations. Summary Comments: Total VI. Local Benefits: 1. Equitable sharing of benefits Tourism seen as a fair and welcomed addition to local livelihoods 2. Local involvement/ ownership Community has good mechanisms for tourism engagement & management 3. Poverty reduction Disadvantaged groups (poor, women, disabled, minorities) receive benefits Summary Comments: Total ASPECT COMMENT RATING Perspective 4: Human Resources: Availability, Capacity and Needs VII. Human Resource Development: (Current capacity and needs) 1. Public Sector Management and staff responsible for tourism or relevant sectors 2. Businesses Sector Business either directly involved or supporting tourism in a location 3. Local communities Local communities stand to benefit from the tourism sector Summary Comments: Total OVERALL SCORE: TOTAL
  120. 120. Principle 3. Ensure cultural heritage product development has defined strategies and actions A. Define the responsible cultural heritage product development vision, goals and objectives B. Identify and prioritise responsible cultural heritage product development ideas C. Design responsible cultural heritage product development interventions D. Develop responsible cultural heritage product development action plan Strategy activities Action plan activities
  121. 121. A. Define the responsible cultural heritage product development vision, goals and objectives • Vision: Reflects the broad aims and purpose of tourism development • Goals: A clear, agreed set of aspirations to work towards • Objectives: Specific targets that when reached, will achieve the goals
  122. 122. Example of a vision, goals, and objectives Example vision statement: • “To develop competitive and sustainable tourism products that contribute to the improvement of local livelihoods” Example development goals: • To increase the amount of spending by tourists in the destination • To improve the performance and profitability of local tourism businesses • To increasing investment in tourism • To reduce the impact of tourism on the local environment and resources Example development objectives: • To increase full time employment in tourism in the local area by 15% by 2015 • To increase average daily spend of international visitors in the local area by 5% by 2020 • To increase average annual visitation to cultural villages by 10% by 2015
  123. 123. B. Identify and prioritise responsible cultural heritage product development ideas Key considerations include the degree to which intervention ideas help achieve: 1. Commercial viability goals: The commercial viability and realistic development potential of the products 2. Sustainability goals: The degree to which local environmental, social and economic benefits will be created 3. Sectoral goals: Strengthening infrastructure & communications; Improving promotion in key markets; Improving visitor information & interpretation; Improving quality standards; Improving safety & security Commercial viability test Sustainability test Sectoral test PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT OPTION
  124. 124. Prioritisation considerations: Targeting development impacts • The number of people in poverty who will be reached by the action  • The likely increase in income per person reached • Any non-financial benefits that could reach the poor • The ability of the action to reach the particular target segment of those in poverty  • The extent to which measurement of the action’s impact is possible  • The speed and visibility of impact • The sustainability of results • The extent to which the action will enhance knowledge and can be replicated 
  125. 125. Prioritisation considerations: Practicality • The cost of the initiative? • The possible funding and other resources available? • The relevance to agreed policies and commitments? • The availability of people with sufficient capacity to carry it out? • The chance of success and the risk implications?
  126. 126. C. Design responsible cultural heritage product development interventions • Starting point - review development goals, outputs of the product-market matching analysis and the product assessment activities • Approaches to consider when designing interventions can include: Working with products that are generating high volumes of spending Working with products which may already be delivering a high proportion of spending to the poor Fostering, supporting and encouraging growth and participation of the poor
  127. 127. Taking a pragmatic approach Finally, ensure the interventions selected consider the following two questions: What can be done with the resources available? What are the interests and commitment of the different stakeholders?
  128. 128. Principles for preparing a responsible cultural heritage product development strategy • Emphasise stakeholder involvement • Based on principles of sustainable tourism: RESPONSIBLE TOURISM PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY Economically viable and competitive Socially equitable and culturally sensitive Environmentally responsible
  129. 129. D. Develop the responsible cultural heritage product development action plan • Clearly sets out what is being done, when, by whom, and resource commitments • Should be able to function as a stand-alone resource • General principles: – Ensure participation – Duration appropriate for the destination – Specify actions for all key stakeholders Who? What? When? Resources?
  130. 130. Guiding principles for securing resources for implementing action plans • Use the project action plan as a tool • Use a joint partnership budget or fund individually • Allow time for resource mobilisation • Identify mechanisms for receiving funding • Be flexible in financial planning • Look to the future VND
  131. 131. Action plan template ACTIVITY 1 RESULT TIMING RESPONSIBILITY RESOURCES Sub-activity 1 Sub-activity 2 Sub-activity 3 Sub-activity 4 ACTIVITY 2 RESULT TIMING RESPONSIBILITY RESOURCES Sub-activity 1 Sub-activity 2 Sub-activity 3 Sub-activity 4 ACTIVITY 3 RESULT TIMING RESPONSIBILITY RESOURCES Sub-activity 1 Sub-activity 2 …
  132. 132. TOPIC 6. SUSTAINABLE FINANCING FOR CULTURAL HERITAGE MANAGEMENT UNIT 9. RESPONSIBLE TOURISM GOOD PRACTICE FOR CULTURAL HERITAGE SITES IN VIETNAM Picture source: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:At_Hue_Citadel4..JPG
  133. 133. What is the issue? • Around the world securing adequate finance for cultural heritage sites is a struggle yet essential • In Vietnam most cultural heritage sites receive a small budget from the Government • Supplementary cultural heritage revenue raising activities to support Government funding for cultural heritage sites • Support to the local economy and help improve the socio-economic well-being of the local residents.
  134. 134. The role and importance of sustainable financing for cultural heritage management • Better enable the implementation of prioritised cultural heritage management activities and the achievement of cultural heritage objectives • Provide increased stability and confidence in forward budgeting • Reduce the financial strain on provincial and national budgets.
  135. 135. Typical economic model of tourism in cultural heritage sites Government funding Entrance fees Return of income over budget Departure & hotel taxes Business & sales tax Employment & income tax Employment & wages Licences & user fees Infrastructure & management costs Employment & wages Payments for goods & services Tourists National government – Local government Businesses Local communities Cultural heritages Source: Font, X., Cochrane, J., and Tapper, R. 2004, Tourism for Protected Area Financing: Understanding tourism revenues for effective management plans, Leeds Metropolitan University, Leeds, UK
  136. 136. RESPONSIBLE FINANCING 1. Review financing mechanisms to identify opportunities 2. Implement innovative fund raising strategies 3. Support the local economy Three principles of good practice in responsible financing of cultural heritage sites
  137. 137. Principle 1: Review financing mechanisms to identify opportunities • Existing funding and revenue making structures and systems may be inefficient or ineffective providing • Analysing current financing systems can sometimes reveal opportunities to cut costs or increase revenue. Picture source: Pixabay, www.pixabay.com
  138. 138. Four areas to look for financial opportunities 1 FINANCIAL PLANNING Consistencies / inconsistencies with government financial planning timeframes. Ensure up to date. Specification / allocation of funding requirements. 3BOARDS Role and responsibilities. Financial autonomy. 2 REVENUE GENERATION Range of user charges. Account for inflation, current day costs, changes in disposable income, increasing demand. Examine opportunities for non-tourism charges. 4INVESTMENT Range of existing incentives. Examine opportunities to implement new or increase existing incentives. Source: PARC Project 2006, Policy Brief: Building Viet Nam’s National ProtectedAreas System – policy and institutional innovations requiredfor progress, Creating Protected Areas for Resource Conservation using Landscape Ecology (PARC) Project, Government of Viet Nam, (FPD) / UNOPS, UNDP, IUCN, Ha Noi, Vietnam
  139. 139. Principle 2: Implement innovative fund raising strategies • Reducing reliance on government funding by generating revenue from additional fund raising strategies is an increasing worldwide trend • To be most effective a range of strategies should be pursued to target different stakeholders and generate the maximum amount of revenue • Strategies may include entrance fees, concessions and leases, taxes and donations
  140. 140. Entrance fees Fees charged to visitors to enter the CH CHALLENGES • Inefficient fee collection resulting in losses of entrance fee revenue • Scarce human resources for fee collection / reducing conservation activities • Corruption / bribery CHARACTERISTICS • Fees charged to visitors to enter the CH • Most effective in high visitation CHs or where unique cultural exhibition items can be found • Rate should aim to cover capital and operating costs, reflect quality of service and product offering, and market demand / willingness to pay • Visitors pay more if they know the money will be used to enhance the experience or conserve culture • Tiered pricing can maximise revenue Source: Font, X., Cochrane, J., & Tapper, R. 2004, Tourism for Protected Area Financing: Understanding tourism revenues for effective management plans, Leeds Metropolitan University, Leeds, UK
  141. 141. Permits, leases and licences Contracts between CHs and businesses allowing them to operate a commercial activity in exchange for a fee CHALLENGES • Unsuccessful businesses = less revenue • Business not respecting contractual obligations • Business not controlling visitor behaviour • Profit made by business = income lost by CH CHARACTERISTICS • Private sector more critical due to limited government funding • Examples: tour guiding, accommodation, restaurants, transportation • Requires good control • CH benefit: business has the knowledge, experience, equipment etc • Business benefit: access to attractive location, limited competition Source: Font, X., Cochrane, J., & Tapper, R. 2004, Tourism for Protected Area Financing: Understanding tourism revenues for effective management plans, Leeds Metropolitan University, Leeds, UK
  142. 142. Direct commercial operation CH authority provides commercial goods and services CHALLENGES • Human resources, knowledge, skills, financial resources • Ensuring businesses are not owned by CH personnel who receive all the profits and no benefit to the CH CHARACTERISTICS • Can cover same activities as private sector • Increasing revenue through the sale of additional goods and services such as souvenirs, food and beverages and in-house tours. • Can be wholly-state owner or Public-Private Partnership (PPP) / joint venture • Ensures all / more money is obtained by the CH • Should include local labour and goods / services Source: Font, X., Cochrane, J., & Tapper, R. 2004, Tourism for Protected Area Financing: Understanding tourism revenues for effective management plans, Leeds Metropolitan University, Leeds, UK
  143. 143. Taxes Charges on goods and services that generate funds for the government and can be used to support CH management CHALLENGES • Not popular with locals or visitors • Ensuring money goes back into conservation • Costs of managing the system • Hard to manage “small” taxes (same administration as larger taxes) CHARACTERISTICS • Allows for generating funds nationally and on a long-term basis and to use the funds to suit needs • Examples: Local tax on users of a cultural heritage or use of equipment, bed levies on accommodation • Accessing tax concessions for conservation works/donations where possible Source: Font, X., Cochrane, J., & Tapper, R. 2004, Tourism for Protected Area Financing: Understanding tourism revenues for effective management plans, Leeds Metropolitan University, Leeds, UK
  144. 144. Donations Gifts of money, goods or services, offered free of charge to support CHs CHALLENGES • Requires good communication to visitors by guides and print material etc • Good transparency and accountability in management and use of money CHARACTERISTICS • Can use trust funds to hold and manage the donations • Providing opportunities for visitors to donate directly to restoration projects including cash, ‘in-kind’ gifts, and labour • Can encourage businesses to donate a small % of sales to support a CH project (e.g. restoration of monuments, collection of cultural exhibition items) • Can use donation boxes • Fund raising through projects or events such as cultural festivals Source: Font, X., Cochrane, J., & Tapper, R. 2004, Tourism for Protected Area Financing: Understanding tourism revenues for effective management plans, Leeds Metropolitan University, Leeds, UK
  145. 145. Principle 3: Support the local economy • Responsible tourism requires socio-economic benefits are received by the local people • If local communities only see the cost of the CH and no benefits, they are unlikely to support CH management or tourism Picture source: Pixabay, www.pixabay.com
  146. 146. Understanding the local communities’ views of tourism in cultural heritage sites Create income Create employment Create opportunities for local businesses Assist community development Protect culture Access to better services
  147. 147. Helping build a stronger local economy in cultural heritage destinations Source: Eagles, P., McCool, S. & Haynes, C. 2002, Sustainable Tourism in Protected Areas: Guidelines for Planning and Management, IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK Employing local community members as heritage site staffs Engaging the local community in the cultural heritage site supply chain Providing advice and support on how to improve the quality of local goods and services Helping the local community to institutionalise its tourism service providers Establishing clear mechanisms for the use of fees paid by the tourists Implementing financial management training for locally managed cultural heritage sites Bundling the price of a locally made handicraft product into cultural heritage tour fees.
  148. 148. Xin trân trọng cảm ơn! Thank you!

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