Unit 3: Responsible Tourism Marketing And Communications


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Unit 3: Responsible Tourism Marketing And Communications

  1. 1. UNIT 3. RESPONSIBLE TOURISM MARKETING AND COMMUNICATIONS Picture source: http://www.flickr.com/photos/41894171246@N01/2824822534
  2. 2. Unit outline Objectives By the end of this unit, participants will be able to: • Describe the types of different dissemination channels for interaction with visitors • Explain the importance of marketing and communicating about Responsible Tourism • Explain the importance of authenticity and accuracy in marketing Responsible Tourism • Identify the types of sustainability marketing messages that can be delivered to tourists • Explain the importance of customer data protection • Describe the communication channels for disseminating Responsible Tourism provisions Topics 1. Importance of responsible marketing and communications in tourism 2. Communicating authentic and accurate messages 3. Marketing and communicating sustainable practices 4. Maintaining data privacy in marketing 5. Collecting visitor feedback
  4. 4. The role and function of marketing and communications Management process Engages audiences Presents messages Aims for attitudinal or behavioural response
  5. 5. The marketing and communications mix Personal selling Promotions
  6. 6. The “4P” marketing mix PRICE •Discounts •Commissions •Surcharges •Extras PLACE •Distribution channels •Methods of distribution •Coverage •Location PROMOTION •Advertising •Sales promotion •Salesmanship •Publicity PRODUCT •Design •Quality •Range •Brand name •Features
  7. 7. Products in tourism marketing • The goods and services that enable the tourism process • The combination of products creates a visitor “experience” • Common types of products include: – Accommodation – Attractions – Transport – Recreation – Shopping – Restaurants
  8. 8. Pricing in tourism marketing • Refers to the amount charged for a tourism product • Cost of end product as well as at points along distribution chain • May be adjusted for different circumstances • Regulated through conditions • Amount should consider operating costs, profit margin and distribution network costs • Other influences include demand, seasonality, target market, and competitors
  9. 9. Place in tourism marketing • The link between the product and the consumer • Considers where and how a consumer may make a purchase decision • Direct or through distribution channels • Choice of distribution depends on factors like: – purchasing behaviour of target market – associated costs – distributor familiarity and enthusiasm of the product
  10. 10. Promotion in tourism marketing • Aims to influence, inform, and / or persuade • Usually a mix of: – Advertising – Public Relations – Personal selling – Sales Promotions • Promotional mix depends on consumer profile - what do they read, where do they go, who influences them..?
  11. 11. The 5th P - Packaging • Combines two or more products and /or services to: 1. Make them easier to buy (convenience) 2. Provide consumers with well priced, attractive and convenient holiday options (price advantage) • Other consumer benefits include ease of payment and planning and less stress • Used to target specific markets and explore new ones • Fosters partnerships building of tourism operators for mutual benefit
  12. 12. Applying principles of responsibility to marketing and communication • Respects law and good practice • Decent and honest • Respects fair competition • Has sense of social responsibility • Respects user privacy
  13. 13. 3 key components of responsibility in tourism marketing and communications SELL PRODUCTS FAIRLY INFORM ABOUT DESTINATIONS TRUTHFULLY RAISE AWARENESS ABOUT SUSTAINABILITY
  14. 14. Benefits of responsible tourism marketing and communication Creates competitive advantage Increases value and demand Increases customer loyalty Increases customer satisfaction Facilitates more respectful interaction in destinations
  16. 16. Tourism experiences involve… TOURIST EXPERIENCE Place Infrastructure Services InterpretationOthers? Demand Motivation Types of tourists Authenticity INFLUENCES:
  17. 17. Authenticity in tourism experiences • Travel to experience something unique or original • Integrity can relate to a place, an object or an activity • While authenticity is perceived.. ..it remains highly connected to marketing tourism experiences • Services nature of tourism and component parts make marketing susceptible to inaccurate messages Picture source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Water_Puppet_Theatre_Vietnam(1).jpg
  18. 18. Examples of inauthentic advertising from around the world Picture sources: http://www.dailymail.co.uk/travel/article-2128151/France-tourism-advertising-campaign-left-red-faced-allegations-using-false-photos.html http://www.adnews.com.au/adnews/tourism-australia-s-250m-push-labelled-false-advertising http://travel.ninemsn.com.au/blog.aspx?blogentryid=335279&showcomments=true  Sharing a bottle of wine on the beach…really? Are we in Spain or the Carribbean!? The Mediterranean Sea has never looked this good!
  19. 19. Testing the ethics of proposed marketing actions TEST QUESTION Legal Test Does the contemplated action violate the law? Duties Test Is this action contrary to widely accepted moral obligations? Special Obligations Test Does the proposed action violate any other special obligations that stem from the type of marketing organisation at focus? Motives Test Is the intent of the contemplated action harmful? Consequences Test Is it likely that any major damages to people or organisations will result from the contemplated action? Utilitarian Test Is there a satisfactory alternative action that produces equal or greater benefits to the parties affected than the proposed action? Rights Test Does the contemplated action infringe on property rights, privacy rights, or the inalienable rights of the consumer? Justice Test Does the proposed action leave another person or group less well off? Is this person or group already a member of a relatively underprivileged class? Source: Laczniak, G.R. & Murphy , P.E. 1993, Ethical Marketing Decisions: The Higher Road, Allyn and Bacon, Needham Heights, MA, USA in Dunfee, T.W., Craig Smith, N. and Ross, W.T. 1999, ‘Social contracts and marketing ethics’, Journal of Marketing, 63(3): 14-32)
  20. 20. Commodification of culture • The manufacturing and selling of culture for profit • Response to fulfilling demand for perceived authenticity • May result in the loss of original meaning • Imperative to ensure involvement and determination of local people Picture source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Water_Puppet_Vietnam.jpg
  21. 21. 4 examples of cultural commodification in tourism Redeveloping places to make them more attractive for tourist consumption Creating staged and reshaped traditional performances for tourists Adaptive reuse of historical buildings without interpretation Sale and / or reproduction of artefacts of cultural or spiritual significance as souvenirs Picture sources: http://www.flickr.com/photos/rachelf2sea/6125215016/ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Kangeelu_Kunita.jpg http://www.flickr.com/photos/jeremylim/4263274405/sizes/m/in/photostream/ http://blog.mailasail.com/kanaloa/104
  22. 22. Greenwashing • Knowingly misleading consumers about a product or service’s environmental practices or benefits for own gain CAUSES • Sector’s intensity in resource use • Largely unregulated nature of the sector • Sector composition and competition • Consumer demand EFFECTS • Erosion of public trust of tourism eco-labels • Reputational damage
  23. 23. Greenwashing is all around us but can be hard to spot Example 1 • A hotel chain claims to be environmentally friendly because they allow guests to choose whether to sleep on the same sheets and use the same towels for continuous days. While the idea is good it is not making a significant difference. More impact can be made by installing for example, motion-sensor lighting, more efficient insulation and heating, or purchasing non- toxic carpeting and bedding. Example 2 • A well-known international fast food restaurant chain tried to paint itself as ‘green’ just because it had begun to use biofuel made from leftover grease in its fleet of trucks as well as using recycled paper in its takeaway bags. However the company still uses beef grazed on deforested land in South America, and bases its entire concept around disposable packaging. Source: Marie C. 2013, ‘Misleading Marketing: Beware the Greenwash!’, Elux Magazine, Feb 12, 2013
  24. 24. The “7 Sins” of tourism promotion • The hidden trade-offSIN 1. • No proofSIN 2. • VaguenessSIN 3. • Worshiping false labelsSIN 4. • IrrelevanceSIN 5. • Lesser of two evilsSIN 6. • FibbingSIN 7. Source: Kuehnel J. 2011, ‘Greenwashing in the Travel and Tourism Industry’, Toronto Sustainability Series, Available [online]: http://ecoopportunity.net/2011/05/greenwashing-in-the-travel-and-tourism- industry/2/, Accessed: 21/01/2014
  25. 25. The key benefits of marketing products and experiences accurately and authentically • More satisfied visitors; fewer complaints • Enhanced reputation • Increased sales and income • Fewer negative social, economic and environmental impacts
  26. 26. Steps to identifying and communicating authenticity in marketing Understand own perspective about the tourism products and experiences being sold Understand the function, meaning and importance of the local culture and environment Identify the ideal or set of ideals you want to be known for Market and promote according to those ideals
  28. 28. FOR BUSINESS & DESTINATIONS FOR TOURISTS The function and purpose of marketing and communicating sustainable practices Inform about sustainability activities Gain support in sustainability efforts Feel good
  29. 29. Key steps for communicating sustainability: The “Keep it Real” approach Understand the market Identify objectives of sustainability communications Develop appropriate messages and communication channels Communicate messages at the right time STEP 1 STEP 2 STEP 3 STEP 4 Source: VisitEngland 2010, Keep it real – market and communicate your credentials, London: VisitEngland and England’s Regional Sustainable Tourism Leads Group
  30. 30. Step 1. Understand the markets and customise sustainability messages • While most consumers care it does not mean they will act differently • However, when everything else is equal, sustainability values and actions differentiate a product • Need to know attitudes of key market segments and tailor sustainability messages accordingly “Ethical seekers”: Seek out green holidays as a continuation of their lifestyle “Just want to switch off”: Want a simple, uncomplicated break from daily life “Feel good factor”: Take an interest in sustainable tourism through travel press Key market segments
  31. 31. Characteristics of key market segments Feelgood Switch off Ethical seakers • Ethical seekers: Rational, International, Interrogative, Willing to Pay • Feel good factors: Emotional, Local, Simplified, Unlikely to Pay • Switch off: Irrelevant, Local or International, Cynical, Won’t Pay Source: VisitEngland 2010, Keep it real – market and communicate your credentials, London: VisitEngland and England’s Regional Sustainable Tourism Leads Group Symbolic representation of market segment size
  32. 32. Step 2. Identify objectives of sustainability communications 1. To raise awareness and change behaviour 2. To allow tourists to feel good about doing the right thing 3. To increase visitation and/or sales Picture sources: http://www.rhinoresourcecenter.com/images/London-1874- 1885_i1314084682.php?type=tax_images&taxon=7&sort_order=asc&sort_key=year http://www.flickr.com/photos/ilovegreenland/10134146143/sizes/m/in/photostream/ http://www.vietnamspirittravel.com/guide/vietnam_bank_notes.htm
  33. 33. Objective 1: Communicating sustainability to raise awareness and change behaviour • Give return benefits for changing behaviour • Keep messages motivational and positive • Ensure communications are: – Specific – Demonstrate clear positive impacts of actions – Explain customer benefits – Present only sustainable options Picture sources: http://www.rhinoresourcecenter.com/images/London-1874- 1885_i1314084682.php?type=tax_images&taxon=7&sort_order=asc&sort_key=year
  34. 34. Objective 2: Communicating sustainability to let consumers feel good • Consumers appreciate efforts regardless of motivation for travel • Show consumers how you have “taken care of” sustainable issues which then allows them to relax and enjoy the benefits • Promote easy sustainability options such as: – Easy methods to make charitable donations – Promoting sustainable holiday options (e.g. public transport options, where to recycle etc.) • Ensure sustainability options are ‘good’ choices with positive impacts Picture sources: http://www.flickr.com/photos/ilovegreenland/10134146143/sizes/m/in/photostream/
  35. 35. Objective 3: Communicating sustainability to increase visitation and / or sales • Sustainability credentials create differentiation and help you get noticed • Sustainability can attract more customers and sales than through raising prices • Providing discounts or additional benefits for behaving sustainably can gain loyalty and sales • Design sustainable packages for low season and new services for high season • Provide sustainable options to encourage customers to stay longer or come back during the low season Picture sources: http://www.vietnamspirittravel.com/guide/vietnam_bank_notes.htm
  36. 36. Step 3. Develop appropriate messages and communication channels • Common mistakes in communicating messages of sustainability: – Lecturing tourists – Being overly apologetic • Key: Communicate messages carefully to get the desired response from the consumer. Picture source: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Hmong_minority_children_in_Sa_Pa.JPG
  37. 37. Key methods in effectively communicating sustainability messages • Sustainability should not be boring • Turning messages into interesting facts • Make learning interactive Make it fun and participatory • Create personal connections Show empathy • Turn sustainability requests into positive experiences • Look at the benefits of sustainability Make it special
  38. 38. Key communication channels for sustainability messages Certification Press Website Social media Print media • Thread messages throughout the current communication channel & examine new opportunities. • In particular, the following channels should be considered:
  39. 39. BEFORE BOOKING • Pre-departure info BETWEEN BOOKING & ARRIVAL • Tourism product sustainability areas DURING THE VISIT • Physically show sustainability practices AFTER THE VISIT • Updates on sustainability activities Step 4. Communicating messages at the right time
  40. 40. TOPIC 4. MAINTAINING DATA PRIVACY IN MARKETING UNIT 3. RESPONSIBLE TOURISM MARKETING & COMMUNICATIONS Picture source: http://www.proskauer.com/practices/privacy-data-security/
  41. 41. The role and importance of good data management • Data is needed in order to carry out and regulate business • Good data management refers to the maintenance of privacy in the collection, storage and use of personal data • Good data management is important: – To enhance and build on relationships with customers – To reduce the likelihood of financial, commercial and reputational challenges due to bad practice Picture source: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:BIEK_1814_Notebook.jpg
  42. 42. What type of data in tourism needs protection? DATA REQUIRING PROTECTION Name Address Email Phone number Fax numberPassport number Date of birth Visa number Bank account details
  43. 43. Ensuring data is collected in the right way • Data should only be collected if: – It relates to the type of business the organisation is in – The purpose for collecting the information can be demonstrated • Good practice in collecting data: 1. Inform if information might be used for marketing or other purposes 2. Include a privacy policy and explain the purpose of collecting data and its usage in application forms / contracts 3. Obtain legal advice on how to collect bank or credit card details Picture source: http://databaseicons.wordpress.com/
  44. 44. Ensuring data is managed in the right way in marketing • Keep personal information secure • Ensure data is up-to-date • Ensure data is stored according to purpose of collection • Allow opt-in or opt-out of marketing • Retain opt-out requests for assurance
  45. 45. Vietnamese Law on Protection of Consumers’ Rights & Decree No. 99/2011/ND-CP OBLIGATIONS OF TRADERS • Explain purpose of use • Ensure safety, accuracy and completeness of information • Not transferring information without consent PROHIBITED ACTS OF TRADERS • Cheating or misleading consumers • Regularly marketing against consumers’ wishes • Coercion through threatening behaviour or profiteering • Requiring payment of goods and services that weren’t ordered
  46. 46. Sending marketing information • OK to send marketing information if an individual or company has requested it • No consent required to send marketing information by post or telephone unless customer has stated otherwise • Explicit consent of individuals is needed for sending marketing information by SMS, fax or e-mail but this is not required of business • Seek legal advice first if external databases are purchased to send marketing information?
  47. 47. TOPIC 5. COLLECTING VISITOR FEEDBACK UNIT 3. RESPONSIBLE TOURISM MARKETING & COMMUNICATIONS Picture source: http://www.flickr.com/photos/jurgenappelo/5201223017/
  48. 48. The role and importance of obtaining regular visitor feedback • Crucial to improving businesses and the tourism industry as a whole • Enables organisations and destinations: – Know their strengths and make the most of them – Know which existing or new products, services and experiences can be developed – Know who their visitors are, why they come and what they value about the experience • For business it is also helps prevent issues that can lead to complaints Picture source: http://www.flickr.com/photos/jurgenappelo/5201223017/
  49. 49. Methods for collecting visitor feedback A. Surveys B. Focus groups C. Feedback forms and comment cards D. Social media E. On the spot verbal feedback and observation
  50. 50. A. Collecting visitor feedback through surveys • Set of predetermined questions about specific topics • Often used to gauge customer satisfaction after the use of a product or service • Good for benchmarking performance • Enable businesses to align their services to the expectations and needs of visitors • Can be online, by phone, mail or face to face • Best to repeat visitor satisfaction surveys at least every 3-4 years (minimum)
  51. 51. Potential types of information to collect in a satisfaction survey Level of satisfaction with: • Restaurant and Café • Accommodation • Attractions • Shopping • Events • … Components of satisfaction: • Value • Accessibility • Service • Environment • Communication style • … Levels of satisfaction: • Very dissatisfied • Dissatisfied • Somewhat dissatisfied • Neutral • Somewhat satisfied • Satisfied • Very satisfied Consumer profile characteristics: • Age • Origin / nationality • Gender • Income bracket • Profession • Type of travel arrangement • Motivations • Travel party size • Trip duration • Repeat visitor • … Others: • Source of information • Recommendations for improvement • Likely to make return visit / purchase • Likely to recommend • Expenditure • Expectations • Activities undertaken • …
  52. 52. Tips to writing effective survey questions Start simple, end simple Keep it short Cover one point at a time Be specific with time frames Limit open- ended questions Group similar questions together Less is more! Stay focused on the survey objectives
  53. 53. B. Collecting visitor feedback through focus groups • Open discussion of a small group of people led by a moderator • Gets in depth understanding of thoughts and opinions • Structured around predetermined questions • Group is homogenous • ‰Requires repetition
  54. 54. Developing effective focus group questions Characteristics of questions Types of questions Source: Duke University 2005, Guidelines for Conducting a Focus Group, Duke University, USA, Available [online]: http://assessment.aas.duke.edu/documents/How_to_Conduct_a_Focus_Group.pdf, Accessed: 22/01/2014 1. Engagement questions: introduce participants to the topic of discussion 2. Exploration questions: get to the core of the discussion 3. Exit question: check to see if anything was missed in the discussion • Short and direct • ƒFocused on one dimension each • ƒUnambiguous • ƒOpen-ended or sentence completion • ƒNon-threatening or embarrassing • ƒNot resulting in “yes” or “no” answers
  55. 55. Example of basic questions for a focus group on visitor satisfaction of a destination ENGAGEMENT QUESTIONS 3. What motivated you to visit the destination? 4. How did you find out about the destination? 5. What was your experience in organising travel arrangements? EXPLORATION QUESTIONS 3. What were the best things you saw or experienced in the destination? 4. What were the most disappointing aspects of your holiday in the destination? 5. How do you feel about the standard of service and quality of the attractions in the destination? 6. How well did the holiday represent good value for money? EXIT QUESTION 8. Would you recommend the destination to family and friends? 9. Is there anything else you would like to say about your holiday in the destination?
  56. 56. C. Collecting visitor feedback through feedback forms and comment cards • Physical, paper cards or forms with one or more survey questions • Designed to gather feedback after a good or service has been consumed • E.g. Visitor book at cultural heritage site, providing hotel guests with a comments card
  57. 57. Example of questions in a guest feedback form • How friendly was the front desk staff? • How quick was the check-in process? • How clean was your room upon arrival? • How clean did the housekeeping staff keep your room throughout your stay? • How well-equipped was your room? • How helpful was the concierge throughout your stay? • How comfortable were your bed linens? • How quickly did the hotel restaurant serve your order? • How convenient was the hotel breakfast service? • How delicious was the hotel breakfast service? • How affordable was the hotel breakfast service? • How affordable was your stay at our hotel? • Overall, were you satisfied with our hotel, neither satisfied nor dissatisfied it, or dissatisfied with it? • How likely are you to recommend our hotel to others?
  58. 58. D. Collecting visitor feedback through social media • Enable both direct feedback and feedback on consumer attitudes and trends • Allows product feedback before implementation through questions and discussions • Enables monitoring of brand awareness through search results • Allows for answering of basic questions via polls and e- surveys • Can elicit emotional feedback via YouTube
  59. 59. E. Collecting visitor feedback through on the spot feedback and observation • Observe what visitors are doing • Understand what visitors are thinking • Simple, cheap and fast • Helps fix problems before visitors depart • Attitude: “all feedback is good feedback”
  60. 60. Finally, don’t forget to follow-up on feedback! • Prioritise improvements and put into action promptly • Communicate actions to visitors via email, newsletters, organisation website etc
  61. 61. Xin trân trọng cảm ơn! Thank you!