Unit 16: Responsible Tourism For Tour Operators

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  • Broad objectives: Understand the importance and how to adopt responsible tourism principles in accommodation operations, how to manage to save energy, water and waste – the3 key areas of sustainable practice in the accommodation sector.Objectives for Unit 10 only : (Other topics refer to units 1,4,5,11)Explain the importance of adopting responsible tourism principles in accommodation operations Explain the methods used in your hotel or guest house for saving energy, water and waste managementDescribe the procedures for energy consumption reduction accommodation operationsDescribe the ways of saving water in accommodation operationsExplain the ways of increasing the use of recycling in accommodation operationsDefine the significance of energy saving and minimising waste Explain how to raise awareness and build capacity of staff in sustainable tourism principles that relate to their day-to-day responsibilitiesDescribe how to set sustainability targets for improvementDescribe the function and benefits of the Vietnam Green Lotus StandardsTopics:The value of the accommodation sectorThe issue of water, energy and waste in the accommodation sectorImplementing waste, water & energy minimisation actionsOverview of Vietnam’s Green Lotus standards
  • The Tour Operators’ Initiative for Sustainable Tourism Development estimates for example, that globally, outbound tour operators represent 12% of all international arrivals - a figure that does not take into account packages sold by inbound tour destinations.In Vietnam, the tours and travel sector is equally significant. In 2010 there were some 800 international-market tour operators, more than 10,000 domestic-market tour operators, and some 17,000 registered tour guides in Vietnam.
  • Foreign tourists rely heavily on tour operators in Vietnam because of the language barrier, issues with accessibility (not having own transport, finding it difficult to use understand public transport system), and in order to be able to access restricted areas (e.g. Dong Van town in Ha Giang province is restricted to tourists unless they are accompanied by a tour guide and also purchase the required permit). As such, even free independent travellers (FITs) who normally would not go on a tour will normally take at least 1 while in Vietnam.
  • With their significant share of the total travel market and key importance to the international travel market in Vietnam, tour operators wield significant power and influence in the shaping of tourism in the country.Assuming the role of intermediary between the tourist and service providers, tour operators impact on how destination resources are managed by influencing the choices of consumers, the practices of suppliers, and the development patterns of destinations. In Vietnam, tour operators therefore influence where a large portion of international touristsstay, where they eat, the places they visit, how they travel, and the level and form of interaction they have with the local people and the natural environment.With such a significant share of the tourism market, tour operators in Vietnam can also influence the practices of suppliers – in particular, their impacts on society and the environment, making them one of the most powerful actors in the Vietnam tourism value chain, and critical to Vietnam successfully achieving its sustainable tourism development objectives.The power and influence of tour operators in Vietnam can however, be both an opportunity and a challenge for the sustainable development of tourism in Vietnam. If tour operators do not act responsibly they will only exacerbate the negative impacts of tourism on the people, economy and environment due to the significant share of the market that they are connected with. On the other hand, if tour operators act responsibly, then just one single operator can potentially positively impact on the activities of hundreds of tourists and tourism suppliers in any given year, with massive multiplier effects possible with every additional tour operator that acts sustainably.
  • And if the tour operator takes more than 30 tours in a year, or the tour is for more than 1 day, includes more than 1 meal, and visits more than 1 destination then the multipliers continue to increasetakes more than 30 tours in a year, Because we know that typically most foreign visitors to VN will take at least 1 tour during their visit TOs can play a very significant role in building sustainability in VN and due to the power relationship they have with suppliers, TOs are knowingly or unknowingly responsible for the success of responsible tourism in the country
  • And if the tour operator takes more than 30 tours in a year, or the tour is for more than 1 day, includes more than 1 meal, and visits more than 1 destination then the multipliers continue to increasetakes more than 30 tours in a year, Because we know that typically most foreign visitors to VN will take at least 1 tour during their visit TOs can play a very significant role in building sustainability in VN and due to the power relationship they have with suppliers, TOs are knowingly or unknowingly responsible for the success of responsible tourism in the country
  • Trainer can ask participants to explain why they think each of these is a problem and the role and responsibilities TOs have over each issue.Restricted economic development – Tour operators that pay below-award salaries to staff as well as suppliers can hinder local economic development. Moreover, the selection of destinations that have unacceptable labour conditions or working practices such as forced labour or child labour further entrenches social problems and the development of economic underclasses.Economic leakage – The use of non-local suppliers and service providers contributes to economic leakages and may further entrench local poverty in destinations.Erosion of social values and cultural conflict – Tour operators that don’t inform guests of expected codes of conduct when interacting with the local people or the local environment, or do not accurately promote the local culture and people contribute to the erosion of cultural authenticity, foster inappropriate social behaviour of tourists, and create cultural conflict.Compromise visitor safety and security – Tour operators with inadequate health and safety provisions for guests can result in the loss or theft of guests’ property and the compromising of their health and safety, and potentially end in costly litigation and negative publicity of Vietnam as a tourism destination in the international press.Entrench friction, distrust and disharmony between private sector and local community – Tour operators that unfairly exploit a destination for their own profit without adequate compensation to the local people and businesses generate friction between the local community and the tourism private sector, and further inhibit local socio-economic development.Destruction of natural environment – Tour operators that select destinations that do not have good environmental management systems can result in the further destruction of the natural environment. Poorly developed tour packages that don’t assess the environmental impact of supplier operations can lead to unnecessarily high energy and water consumption, additional waste, and the loss of biodiversity.Depletion of natural resources – Tour operator offices with high energy and water use place additional pressure on the natural resources of a destination. Poor planning in the procurement and use of office supplies also leads to increased pollution and waste.
  • Uses natural resources optimally whilst still conserving the natural heritage and biodiversityRespects and conserves socio-cultural authenticity including built and living cultural heritage and traditional valuesEnsures viable, long term economic benefits to all stakeholders including fair distribution of benefitsResponsible Tourism asks tour operators to take responsibility for their actions (and omissions) and to make decisions and implement actions that maximise economic, social and environmental benefits and minimise associated negative impacts.To achieve Responsible Tourism tour operators must adopt sustainable business practices that positively impact both the country where they are based and the destinations they visit, in terms of their economic effects, the environmental and cultural resources exploited, and their policies towards the host communities.
  • The benefits of sustainable business practices for tour operators are real cost savings, increased market share, enhanced reputation and the preservation of their main business assets – the places and cultures their clients are willing to pay to visit.Direct business benefits for tour operators in adopting a Responsible Tourism approach include:Revenue growth - Being responsible increases income by securing the loyalty of current customers and attracting new ones, resulting in increased market share.Cost savings - By reducing resource use, decreasing waste output and avoiding non-compliance fines responsible actions help lower operating costs and improve overall productivity and efficiency.Access to capital - Withenvironmental and social criteria increasingly becoming a standard part of risk assessments in lending finance, responsible tour operators are more likely to be able to attract capital from banks and investors.Increased staff productivity and retention - Staff are more likely to feel proud of working for a responsible tour operator which results in an increased ability to attract and retain skilled and talented employees, a reduction in HR recruitment and training costs, and an increased capacity to innovate and compete.Brand value and reputation - A reputation for being responsible adds value to a tour operator’s brands and strengthens its market position, making it less vulnerable to short-term market and economic changes.Preservation of destinations - Acting responsibly makes tourist destinations more pleasant places to visit and live in. Ensuring the long-term quality of a destination will by default, also help guarantee a tour operator’s business viability.Improved service – Responsible management makes holiday facilities safer and healthier for employees and visitors, and supports the local community to enhance their economic well-being, thereby increasing staff morale and resulting in improved service and higher customer satisfaction.Risk management and license to operate – Acting responsibly enables tour operators to reduce their legal liability by managing compliance and pre-empting relevant legislation.Pre-empting government regulations - Governments are increasingly under pressure to regulate the business sector particularly in order to curb bad practices. Tour operators that develop their own codes of conduct and produce independently verified performance reports are in a strong position to influence any proposed legislation.Hairat H. & Maher A. 2010, ‘Integrating Sustainability Into Tour Operator Business: An Innovative Approach In SustainableTourism’, Ara Journal of Tourism Research, Vol 2.2, ISSN: 1997-2520, pp.126-140
  • Consumers demand responsible tour operators and travel experiences 93% of Conde Nast Travellers surveyed readers said that travel companies should be responsible for protecting the environment, and 58% said their hotel choice is influenced by the support the hotel gives to the local community71% of TripAdvisor members surveyed plan to make more eco-friendly choice for their holiday in 2013 compared to 65% in 201247% of Conde Nast Travellers surveyed readers said they are interested in volunteer vacations, with 98% of those who had volunteered in the past saying they were satisfied with their experience
  • Consumers demand responsible tour operators and travel experiences 93% of Conde Nast Travellers surveyed readers said that travel companies should be responsible for protecting the environment, and 58% said their hotel choice is influenced by the support the hotel gives to the local community71% of TripAdvisor members surveyed plan to make more eco-friendly choice for their holiday in 2013 compared to 65% in 201247% of Conde Nast Travellers surveyed readers said they are interested in volunteer vacations, with 98% of those who had volunteered in the past saying they were satisfied with their experience
  • Leading the charge for Responsible Tourism within the private sector in Vietnam are the Responsible Travel Club (RTC) in Hanoi, and the Responsible Travel Group (RTG) in Hue. The two non-profit groups bring together a range of tour operators who are passionate about making tourism in Vietnam more sustainable. The two groups aim to achieve this through knowledge-sharing, capacity building and skills training in Responsible Tourism skill sets, the compilation and distribution of sustainable best practice information, and involvement in Responsible Tourism projects and activities such as clean-up campaigns. The two groups have also successfully developed a range of Responsible Tourism excursions in Vietnam that have been specifically designed to enhance local economic opportunities and revitalise threatened cultures, whilst at the same time provide a genuine and memorable experience for visitors.
  • Leading the charge for Responsible Tourism within the private sector in Vietnam are the Responsible Travel Club (RTC) in Hanoi, and the Responsible Travel Group (RTG) in Hue. The two non-profit groups bring together a range of tour operators who are passionate about making tourism in Vietnam more sustainable. The two groups aim to achieve this through knowledge-sharing, capacity building and skills training in Responsible Tourism skill sets, the compilation and distribution of sustainable best practice information, and involvement in Responsible Tourism projects and activities such as clean-up campaigns. The two groups have also successfully developed a range of Responsible Tourism excursions in Vietnam that have been specifically designed to enhance local economic opportunities and revitalise threatened cultures, whilst at the same time provide a genuine and memorable experience for visitors.
  • Case study :To save cost 70% of the staff of the company are trainees without pay or casual labour with daily wage instead of recruitment of full time colleagues. These 70% colleagues do not have any insurance since they are not part of the compulsory social insurance.During the high season : the company ask all staff to work without day off for one month and give lieu leave later during the lower season. The managers even do not allow the colleagues to take leave when they have some family events saying that the priority must be given to the company businesThe company do not want to pay money to train and develop the staff with the reason that in reality the staff will not stay forever and leave anyway in the future and the company waste money.The company want to pay only minimum salary to most of their staff believing that the staff anyway get tips from the guests.
  • I think each key word here should be explained by the trainer. Labor standards refer to the local laws of the country as well as international best practices. Men and women means equal opportunity to jobs as well as working conditions (e.g. pay rates). Decent and productive means work should not be demeaning (it should keep the respect of the employee) and also be useful for the company as well as the growing the employee in terms of knowledge and skills. Etc, etc
  • Annual leave and public holidays: An employee who has 12 months in full to work is entitled to 12 days annual leave fully paid & days off fully paid on public holidaysAbsence for military or public service duties: Employers are required to reemploy employees afterwardsSocial insurance (SI) and leave: Employers and employees contribute to compulsory SI fund for contracts of 3 months or more. The SI fund pays allowances for sick leave, maternity leave, work-related accidents, occupational disease, pensionsSick leave: An allowance with a maximum of 30 days – 60 days per year or more depends on the time of the SI fund contribution or the type of illnessMaternity leave: 6 month leave and allowanceProper response to accidents at work: Immediately treated with the employer’s full responsibility: Full salary and expenses for treatment paid by employer & a lump sum or in monthly instalments paid by the social insurance fundPension plans: Pensions paid to employees when they retire
  • The purpose of incentives and bonuses is to improve business performance by rewarding employees, for example, for the achievement of sales increase, and also to provide general job motivation. Examples of incentives and bonuses include:(a) Staff retreat: Staff go out for dinner or on an excursion fully sponsored by the employer as a reward for their good work performance. Often includes team-building activities.(b) Paid holiday: The employee is sent on a paid holiday by the employer. In tourism this may often be in the form of a Familiarisation Trip, where the employeeis sent to the destination he / she is selling in order to be more familiar with its features to be able to better sell the destination.(c) Pay bonuses: Payment of a fixed amount “bonus” in addition to standard salary for good work performance, e.g. if a sales person exceeds quotas for a certain period of time.
  • Employers must ensure sufficient safety and hygiene working conditions in the work place whilst employees must adhere to workplace policies and procedures for health and safety. The following key obligations relating to occupational health and safety are required of employers and employees: Employer obligations: Ensure workplace meets basic requirements for space (suitable furniture, adequate lightning as well as appropriate access to information and communication technologies etc.) Provide good ventilation and ensure minimal noise, heat and other harmful elements. Periodically test and maintain machinery and equipment and ensure related labour safety and hygiene requirements are met and information is provided in a visible place easily accessible to employees. Test and assess dangerous and harmful factors and implement measures to minimize hazards and improve the working conditions and health care for employeesEmployee obligations: Comply with regulations, procedures and rules on labour safety and hygiene related to the work and duties assigned. Use and maintain personal protective equipment. Promptly report to the responsible person potential or occupational accidents, diseases, toxic or dangerous incidents and assist remedy the consequence if practical.
  • Training should begin immediately after employment and carry on throughout the course of employment.1. Induction training: Helps new employees settle in quickly and happily to a productive role. 2. Ongoing skills training:
  • Overview of the job, timescales and expectations Overview of the workplace (e.g. location of kitchen and toilets) Introductions to staff Overview of work practices and procedures (e.g. work hours, holidays, writing time sheets, dress code, health and safety rules). The organisation’s mission, goals, values and philosophy. In terms of responsible tourism, ethics, integrity, and corporate social responsibilities expected of staff.
  • Refer to Unit 5 for further information about ADDIE.Analyse the training need: Why is training needed? What type of training? When and where is training needed? Who needs to be trained and who will conduct the training? How will the training be performed?Design the training programme: Using current job descriptions a complete list of standards and procedures can be developed from each responsibility outlined in the job description. Measurable learning objectives, the training delivery approach, and an overview of the training programme topics or modules should be developed using a logical step-by-step approach.Develop the training programme: Using the objectives and information compiled during the design phase to develop the training programme including trainer and trainee materials and potentially assessment activities. Implement the training programme: Teach the training programme to employees according to the specifications of the training programme design. Evaluate the training programme: Have the learners obtained the knowledge, skills, or attitudes identified during the analysis phase? Adjustments may be required to the training programme design, development and delivery as a result of the initial piloting.
  • Energy usage minimisation strategiesFollow key activities for guest roomsComputer power use - Switch off computers or set energy saving modes / timers. Disable computer screensavers and set automatic “power saver” modeOther electrical appliance power use – Switch off printers, faxes, monitors, photocopiers at the wall after hours (don’t leave on “standby” mode)Type of lights – Use low energy light bulbsNatural light – Ensure reasonable amount of natural light to reduce need for lightingVentilation – Open windows for natural ventilation instead of using AC, or provide desk fans
  • Use slide to cross-check how well participants developed their audit questions
  • Energy usage minimisation strategiesType of vehicle - Consider purchasing company vehicles that are electric, hybrid or diesel poweredMaintenance - Keep company vehicles regularly serviced (including well inflated tyres to correct pressure)Off-site meetings - Where possible “teleconference” instead of travelling to meetingsStaff transport - Facilitate carpooling initiatives for staff (offer to pick people up, start a roster etc)
  • Use slide to cross-check how well participants developed their audit questions
  • Use slide to cross-check how well participants developed their audit questions
  • Analysing waste and determine baseline: Estimate the number of containers of waste collected per month and multiply by the volume of the container (e.g. in litres). Multiply total by 12 to obtain an estimate for a 12 month (1 year) period. Multiply the estimated number of containers over 1 year by the cost of collection of a container to calculate average cost over a 1 year period. Divide the total by 1,000 to convert to cubic metres of waste.Multiply the total number of cubic metres by 2.29 to calculate tonnes of waste.
  • For benchmarking purposes and it can be useful to understand the unit cost of waste.In Vietnam, it is possible to do this if the hotel uses a paid waste collection service. The unit cost of waste can the be calculated by dividing the monthly volume of waste by monthly cost of waste collection.
  • Questions: What went wrong in the above situation? Who do you think is responsible?  Did the tour guide take the right actions?  What would have been a better response?  How could good company policies have avoided the situation?  What type of policies do you think would be appropriate?
  • A tourism product from the eyes of a tourist refers to the mix of experiences that are consumed whilst on holiday, which may include such components as accommodation and restaurants through to natural and cultural attractions and festivals and events.
  • Tourism products can be classified as under for a better understanding of each of their peculiar characteristics, so that they can be marketed and positioned appropriately:1. NATURAL TOURISM PRODUCTS: Countryside;Climate- temperature, rains, snowfall, days of sunshine;Natural Beauty- landforms, hills, rocks, gorges, terrain; Water- lakes, ponds, rivers, waterfalls, springs; Flora and Fauna; Wildlife;Beaches;Islands;Spas;Scenic Attractions2.MAN- MADE TOURISM PRODUCTS:Cultural tourism;Traditions (Pilgrimages,Fairs and festivals, Arts and handicrafts, Dance, Music,Folklore,Native life and customs); Entertainment (Amusement and recreation parks,Sporting events,Zoos and oceanariums, Cinemas and theatres, Night life, Cuisine); Business (Conventions, Conferences)
  • Split participants into 2 groups to discuss the forms of tourism products in Vietnam. One group talk about natural tourism products, the other talk about the man-made tourism products. Choose one of the most famous tourism products and present about it.
  • Entertainment and relaxation-based products: Shopping, dining, nightlife, sports, relaxation, entertainment areas, amusement parksCultural-based products: Local food, history, ethnic minorities, artsNature-based products: Eco-tourism experiences based on adventure or learning, and sightseeing.Adventure-based products: Activities carried out in nature that may be “soft” or “active” based on the level of exertion required to participate in the activities.Education-based products: For tourists looking for a more in-depth appreciation of different aspects, of culture, history, natural science.
  • Responsible destination: Madagasca. The island off Africa contains numerous ecological wonders that have been preserved; is home to 5% of the world’s animal species; has almost 5000km of pristine coastline; has 46 protected areas including the 3rd largest reef in the world; offers many sustainable tourism options – sun and sand tourism, nature and cultural tourism, adventure tourism
  • Conducting a market analysis will help understand the characteristics and needs of the market. The type of information that is needed to understand the nature of markets include:Market growth: The overall numbers of visitors from source markets, the overall size of the source market, and the market trends and interests.Motivations and needs: Understanding the kinds of experience that visitors are looking for.Travel patterns: Understanding the main travel means, the flexibility and likely length of stay of main source marketsSpend: Whether visitors are high or low spenders, what they spend their money on, and how much of this goes to supporting local developmentConducting a market analysis from a Responsible Tourism product development perspective requires identifying markets / segments with greatest interest in, and potential for, the destination, and the characteristics and profiles of market segments with the greatest potential to contribute to the destination’s sustainable development objectives.
  • Get participants to split up into market segments and identify and describe the type of traveller they are (long-haul, short haul), their common characteristics (length of stay, form of travel etc) motivations for travelling to Vietnam, and expectations of quality and range of goods and services and experiences in Vietnam.
  • Get participants to split up into market segments and identify and describe the type of traveller they are (long-haul, short haul), their common characteristics (length of stay, form of travel etc) motivations for travelling to Vietnam, and expectations of quality and range of goods and services and experiences in Vietnam.
  • Market penetration: Requires little innovation and new investment. Appropriate for emerging destinations with limited budgets and who wish to avoid risk. May not be suitable if current penetration of the existing market for the product or service is already high.Market development: A potential option if there are indications that current tourism products appeal to new or emerging markets.Product development: Create new products and services for existing markets; Works with familiar markets with known interests; can strengthen the destination’s appeal resulting in longer stays, increased spending, and wider development benefits for more local people.Product diversification: Higher level of challenge and risk, especially for emerging or struggling destinations; usually only undertaken by mature and robust destinations.
  • Define the vision: Reflects the aims for tourism development capturing the overall purpose, e.g. “To develop competitive and sustainable tourism products that contribute to the improvement of local livelihoods”. Set goals and objectives: A clear, agreed upon and recorded set of goals and objectives that stakeholders can work towards. Identifying goals in a shared process will give ownership to participants.  Typical goals of a Responsible Tourism product development strategy include: increasing the amount of spending by tourists in the destination, improving the performance and profitability of local tourism businesses, increasing investment in tourism, and reducing the impact of tourism on the local environment and resources.  Identify and prioritise intervention initiatives: When evaluating possible Responsible Tourism product development initiatives the commercial viability and realistic development potential of the products, and the degree to which local benefits will be created are of primary importance. 
  • Once the mandate and commitment of stakeholders has been secured the next step in the product development process involves determining the main vision, goals and objectives to be achieved through the collaboration. These will be directly used to guide the product development action plan later on. Vision Statement: The aims for tourism development in the destination should be reflected in a Vision Statement that captures the overall purpose for developing tourism. An example of a Responsible Tourism Vision Statement or a destination could be something such as:“To develop competitive and sustainable tourism products that contribute to the improvement of local livelihoods”Development Goals: Having a clear, agreed set of goals and objectives that the stakeholders can work towards is essential. These need to be agreed upon and recorded so that they can be referred to during the life of the partnership to help to guide direction and resolve differences that may arise. Careful clarification of issues at this stage will save time and reduce conflict later. Identifying goals in a shared process will give ownership to participants.Agreeing common goals will be more difficult when there are significant differences between the goals of individual participants. When this occurs work should commence with establishing common goals can be pursued by small working groups where suggestions can be put forward to be reviewed, discussed, and agreed on by the wider group. If necessary an external facilitator can be engaged.Typical goals of a Responsible Tourism Product Development Strategy include:- Increasing the amount of spending by tourists in the destination.- Improving the performance and profitability of local tourism businesses.- Increasing investment in tourism.- Reducing the impact of tourism on the local environment and resourcesTo reach the goals objectives must be developed. Good objectives are specific, measurable, attainable, realistic, and timely(SMART), e.g. To increase employment in tourism in the destination by 10% by 2015
  • The initial list of possible actions must be reviewedand discussed to bring it into a shorter, manageable, prioritised list of interventions. The main considerations when evaluating and prioritising responsible tourism product development initiatives are the level to which they:1. The commercial viability and realistic development potential of the products2. The degree to which local benefits will be created3. The degree to which higher (sector) level goals are reached: Some interventions might be concerned with broader issues of destination management but can also support improved local livelihoods. Examples could include: Strengthening Infrastructure and Communications. As well as benefiting tourism, this can directly help poor communities and open opportunities in all sectors. Improving Promotion in Key Markets. This can be crucial in achieving necessary visitor flows and spending. Improving Visitor Information and the interpretation of cultural heritage. As well as improving the overall quality of experience, this can play a major role in influencing visitor behaviour and the level of spending directed to the poorImproving Safety and Security. This can be an major barrier for tourism in some destinations and addressing it would also benefit poor communities.Such broad interventions should seek to generate higher levels of income and wellbeing for the local people.There are several general strategies that can be used to further exploit tourism for local development purposes. Typically these include:- Increasing the Number and Frequency of Visits: Markets accounting for large numbers of visitors may have a greater net effect on poverty in the destination than smaller markets.- Increasing Length of Stay: The longer tourists stay in a destination the more they will need to spend money on goods, services, activities and attractions.Increasing Spending: The amount of spending in the destination will affect the impact on the local economy. Increasing opportunities for visitors to spend money locally will make significant contributions to local development.Some generalstrategies to consider that willfurther exploit tourism for the purpose of local development include:Increase number and frequency of visitsIncrease length of stayIncrease spend
  • The starting point for creating specific interventions should be a review of the Development Goals, the outputs of the Product-Market Matching Analysis and the Product Assessment activities.Approaches to consider when designing interventions can include:- Working with products that are generating high volumes of spending to try to raise the pro-portion of that spending which reaches the poor.- Working with products which may already be delivering a high proportion of spending to the poor, to increase their viability, net size and the volume of spending on them.- Fostering, support and encourage growth and ever greater participation of the poor in products which are already receiving a significant volume of spending with a high proportion of this being already channelled to the poor.One of the benefits of the stakeholder collaboration process is the pooling of a broad range resources represented by the various stakeholder’s knowledge, skills and resources. Utilising all these resources effectively will lead to innovative, practical initiatives that will have a high likelihood of effective implementation and tangible results.
  • The process of developing a Responsible Tourism Product Development Strategy should emphasize stakeholder involvement for the purposes of identifying strategic and pragmatic actions that stakeholders can take responsibility for and work collectively towards fulfilling shared goals and objectives.The strategy must also be based on the principles of sustainable tourism, supporting tourism development that is: Economically Viable and Competitive: delivering local prosperity and employment which can be maintained over time. Socially Equitable and Culturally Sensitive: benefiting the poor and disadvantaged groups and enhancing cultural richness and quality of life. Environmentally Responsible: minimising global and local pollution and conserving natural resources and biodiversity.
  • The purposes of the Action Plan is to clearly set out what activities are being implemented and the steps required, the timing of activities and who the responsible parties are. Members of the DMO need to discuss together and come to common agreements on how the implementation of the strategy needs to be carried out.The Action Plan part of the overall Responsible Tourism Product Development Strategy, but should also be used as a separate working document that can be regularly reviewed and updated. It may be written as a one, two or three year plan, depending on what is most appropriate for the destination.It should specify actions to be taken by different stakeholders, individually or jointly, and which may be coordinated by the DM group. The Action Plan can be designed as a simple table, such as on the following slideIt is important that roles and responsibilities are very clear and agreed upon and then reflected in the action plan so that all stakeholders have a common point of reference and no confusion or miscommunications occur. It also allows each partner to focus on its core function without being distracted.In allocating responsibilities, consideration should be given to the skills, interests and resources of the different partners, e.g. private sector partners may play a strong role locally where a project fits their objectives.Partner commitment to delivery against agreed actions should also be secured. Contributions should be specific to be able to monitor inputs. A measurable target should be established for each action where possible, based on outputs, expected outcomes and impacts.Signing Agreements Before proceeding to implementation, it is sometimes necessary to create a formal agreement which captures the main decisions that have been reached and commits partners to a future activities and actions.
  • Use as a tool – the plan can be used as a portfolio of projects for which specific funding proposals can be writtenJoint partnership fund or separate – common fund can work or each element of the partnership can be responsible for funding its own aspects of the projectAllow time – Obtaining resources can take time so plan for the delays to avoid disappointment and frustrationsIdentify funding mechanisms – Be creative, e.g. If the DMO cannot legally receive and hold money from a donor then partner with an NGO who can act on behalf of the DMOFlexible – Resource requirements may change as projects progress (e.g. cost estimates too low, additional activities might be required etc)Future – Consider ongoing funding needs after project is completed and examine options and opportunities for continued funding constantly
  • A supply chain is a system of organisations, people, activities, information, and resources involved in moving a product or service from supplier to customer. Supply chain activities transform natural resources, raw materials, and components into a finished product that is delivered to the end customer.A company’s supply chain covers all parts of the production process and involves the goods and services provided by different suppliers contracted by a company. These goods and services can be directly or indirectly related to the final tourism product. In tourism, a supply chain may comprise a range of components including accommodation, transport, catering / food & beverages, excursions, entertainment, handicrafts, food production and waste disposal as well as infrastructure supporting tourism in the destination. Together these components form part of the product a tourist purchases as a holiday. The linkages between the aforementioned components are highlight in the picture below.In tourism, a supply chain may comprise a range of components including accommodation, transport, catering / food & beverages, excursions, entertainment, handicrafts, food production and waste disposal, as well as infrastructure supporting tourism in the destination.
  • Trainer should go back to meaning of responsible tourism (see Unit 1). What we mean be “responsibility”. The key areas of responsibility (economic, social, env). Then apply this to supply chain: Making suppliers a company engages with more sustainable by applying the key principles of responsible tourism – economic, environmental and social- such as buying locally, being aware of and minimising negative impacts on the social-cultural, economic and environment etc...This requires an analysis of the sustainability of each component in the supply chain for the production of a tourism service or product to evaluate their level of commitment to sustainability and areas in which negative impacts can be minimised and positive impacts maximised.“ALSO – A company is only as sustainable as its suppliers. It is superficial (and reverses good work being done) if an ecohotel, for example, uses suppliers that have practices that harm the environment or do not benefit local people if this is what the ecohotel itself is trying to achieve.
  • Consumers increasingly expect the companies they buy from to ensure that their products provide not just quality and value-for-money, but also safeguard environmental and social sustainability. Companies must take responsibility for ensuring the sustainability of all the inputs that go into their products. For organisations who offer products comprised almost entirely of contracted goods and services such as tour operators, this means that effectively implementing sustainability policies requires working closely with suppliers to improve sustainability performance in all the components of a holiday – throughout the life cycle of a holiday package.Customers expect it: Consumers increasingly expect companies to ensure the products they provide are not just quality and value-for-money, but also safeguard environmental and social sustainabilityEroding core product: Engaging unsustainable suppliers is by default contributing to the eroding of a tourism organisations’ core product; the quality of a destination’s natural and cultural heritage and human resources
  • Business profile:Enhancement of the core assets of the business through the protection of the environment and culture, and contribute to poverty reductionMarket access:Increased number of customer as demand for responsible tourism products is increasingOperational effectiveness:Increased revenue by implementing cost reducing actions such as for example the reduction of energy consumptionSustainability: Fostering the local economy through local sourcing,Minimize negative impacts on social- cultural and environment, reduce the conflicts and encoraging local community participate in maintaining tourism attractions and resources
  • Responsible tourism chain: "Delivering sustainability performance improvements alongside financial performance, by working to improve the business operations of each supplier in a company's supply chain;Utlimately the sustainability of a tourism business / product, depends on issues including the environment and working conditions in the destination; safety (eg.safety of customers and staff), resource use and disposal (proper handling, reuse and recycling of waste materials,measures to increase the efficiency of resource use)Example of responsible food chain: all food suppliers enagage in responsible business practices such as sourcing only safety foods and other inputs, priority from local communities, use local employees, minimize negative impacts on environment … Recognises sustainability goes beyond the company – a company does not operate in a sustainability bubble. Other actors impact on env, economy and society so effective sustainable development requires looking at the activities of external actors and their impactsRecognises the power of contracting suppliers in either promoting helpful or harmful practices on the people, economy and environment – the contractor in a business arrangement has some power to influence how the receiver of the contract behaves and can create conditions that must be met.Requires working with suppliers to help them achieve positive sustainability performance along with positive financial performance – economic sustainability comes first but should then look at practical interventions to improve sustainability performance
  • Local tour operator responsible supply chain provisions with restaurants. The tour operator selects restaurants that only locally owned and managed, that cares for the environment; employspoor local staff; is committedto purchasinglocal ingredients; implements food safety provisions; buys from producers that grow food organically and who don’t hunt / harvest and sell endangered animals etcThe example demonstrates how each actors on the chain commits to sustainability and applies responsible tourism practices that to minimized negative impact and maximize positive ones
  • Legal disputes – Supply chain policies should be based on the rule of law and supported by signed agreements (e.g. a supplier code of conduct). If a supplier is not acting according to a company’s sustainability policy and code of conduct and an incident occurs that results in legal action as a result of the supplier not following the required sustainable action, then the company will not be liable because the supplier was required to meet the company’s policy requirements and code of conduct. Demonstrates company commitment to maintaining a healthy environment, building a happier society and buoyant local economy thereby enhancing the company brand and improvingsales and loyaltyA policy (even if just voluntary requiring support of suppliers to meet sustainability objectives) can still help generate the right support from suppliers to reach sustainability targets because the company’s sustainablility policy is clear and official.When supported by procedures and b2b support, policies can create greater stability and consistency in sustainability actions and result in faster achievement of objectives
  • A)BASELINE STUDY: Whichof our suppliers are doing what?B)POLICY & PROCEDURES What will we do to make our supply chain more sustainable and how?TARGET SETTING How do we know when our suppliers have become sustainable?ACTION PLANNING What are the steps suppliers should take to reach our sustainability targets?C)AWARENESS & SUPPORT How can we make suppliers aware and support action?D)MONITOR, EVALUATE, IMPROVE How can we make sure we generate continual improvement?
  • The activities, resources and time required to support suppliers to meet sustainability targetsRequire defining and agreement on actions required to meet the agreed targets, based on the company’s sustainable supply chain policyFollow the standards set to measure suppliers’ performanceShould consider different time frames: To allow time for suppliers to meet sustainability standards, the action plan should identify activities and goals for the short-term (6-12 months), medium-term (2-3 years) and long-term (3-5 years). Identify responsibilities (e.g. for each department) - Identify the people who are to actIdentify resources required to implement the action plan (e.g. training, technical information, finances, human resources)
  • - Consider prioritising suppliers for involvement in the first stages of the program, based on economic and managerial considerations. It may be more practical to begin with just a few destinations and/or selected suppliers, rather than trying to introduce the program everywhere at once.- Recognise that suppliers may have different priorities for improvements and are likely to make progress at different rates.- Understand that change takes time. It is important to focus on achieving continuous improvements, rather than trying to achieve everything all at once. The key is to initiate programs with all suppliers to improve their performance and see measurable improvement over time. - Consider working with other partners, including public authorities, NGOs and other tour operators operating in the same destination, to help encourage sustainability performance improvements amongst all suppliers, for example by developing a common approach in certain geographic or supplier areas.
  • Develop and agree on an internal approach and procedures for implementation of sustainability performance as a contracting criteria.Draft contractual clauses to reflect minimum performance requirements on key issues and consider legal matters arising from incorporation of sustainability standards into suppliers’ contracts. Establish procedures to deal with suppliers that fail to meet minimum set standards or that have submitted false information. In serious cases and on specific issues (e.g. the ECPAT Code on commercial sexual exploitation of children), companies may decide to suspend contracts with suppliers who are in breach of contract conditions.Consider appointing an individual staff member or a small team to develop and update standards and support materials, coordinate training for suppliers and staff, manage informational databases, coordinate monitoring, auditing and verification, and provide progress reports.
  • If suppliers do not have a good understanding about the issues of sustainability, the impacts of poor practices, and the benefits of good practices then there is less chance of gaining their participation and commitment in achieving the sustainability standards and targets that have been set within the sustainable supply chain policy. Moreover, once a supplier has improved their understanding of the need for greater sustainability they may require assistance in order to know how to get there, as well as incentives to generate greater motivation to action.
  • MEETINGSPros:In-depth explanationDirect delivery (cannot be put off or ignored, e.g. email)Opportunities for suppliers to ask questions for clarificationResults in greater commitment towards actionLow costCons:Time intensive for participants and presenterEffectiveness dependent on presenter’s communication skills100% attendance not assuredFLYERS ETCPros:Can be supported by images and illustrationsCan be passed on to other stakeholdersCan be read whenever convenientCons:Relatively less detailed explanation100% readership not assuredReaders less likely to follow-up if they need clarification on the policyTime intensive to writeLess likely to gain widespread commitment towards actionRelatively high costWEBSITEPros:Relatively quick and easy to developAccessible 24 hours / dayCan be linked to other web resourcesCan have in-depth explanationCan be supported by images and illustrationsLink can be viewed by all stakeholdersRelatively inexpensiveCons:100% readership not assuredReaders less likely to follow-up if they need clarification on the policyLess likely to gain widespread commitment towards actionEMAILPros:Direct delivery to target audience Relatively quick and easy to developAccessible 24 hours / dayCan be linked to web resourcesCan be forwarded to other stakeholdersHighly inexpensiveCons:Less conducive for in-depth explanationsDoesn’t support images / illustrations well100% readership not assuredReaders less likely to follow-up if they need clarification on the policyLess likely to gain widespread commitment
  • In order to identify what type of support is needed reference should be made to the results of the baseline study. From this, strategies can be devised to help bridge any gaps that might be preventing the supplier from reaching the sustainability targets. Examples of types of support include:Training: The use of in-house expertise or contracting external trainers to run training in specific areas such as the principles of green office, development of employment contracts and position descriptions, protecting the rights of children etcPrint material: Developing simple “how-to guides” or document templates on specific areas, for example, a “how to guide for composting kitchen waste”, or template example for developing a visitor code of conductMentoring: Identifying, training and allocating internal leaders on specific sustainability topic areas and making mentors available to suppliers for the provision of on-going support and advice in the achievement of sustainability goalsFam trips: Organising familiarisation trips for suppliers to demonstrate best practice in actionLink to 3rd party information or networks: Linking suppliers to international and national industry associations, international organizations and NGOs, who have information or provide services in areas such as environmental management, community development and fair trade.
  • Suppliers may be more likely to make the effort to improve their environmental, social and economic sustainability performance if they know that their actions will be recognised and rewarded by tour operators.Suppliers will need to be convinced of the advantages of taking sustainability measures, which might include preferred supplier schemes in the form of higher rates, longer-term contracts, committed guarantees or joint marketing agreements, more brochure space, joint promotional activities or favoured status in system sales searches.Incentives should be used at first to encourage suppliers to meet minimum standards. Once these minimum standards have been accepted, it will be possible to include them in supplier contracts, taking geographical and socio-economic conditions into account. The impending inclusion of sustainability standards in contracts should be communicated to suppliers well in advance, and staff should be trained to encourage and monitor sustainability through their relations with suppliers.Preferential contracting: Suppliers that are able to demonstrate that they meet or exceed performance standards are given priority in the signing of on-going contracts above those that do not meet the standards.Early contract renewal: The contracts of suppliers that are able to demonstrate that they meet or exceed performance standards are renewed earlier than those who do not meet the standards.Promotional opportunities: Suppliers that are able to demonstrate that they meet or exceed performance standards are featured on the organisation’s websites, brochures, and in media press releases that highlight the supplier’s environmental, social or economic performance achievements as a result of working with the organisationFinancial incentives: Consideration can be given to providing a limited cash payment (fixed or variable) to suppliers that are able to meet or exceed particular sustainability standards. Alternatively, a cash prize (with certificate of recognition / appreciation) could be offered to high performers.
  • Law & good practice - Complies with the laws, regulations and self-regulatory codes of practiceDecent and honest - and truthful (does not intentionally mislead the consumer)Respects accepted principles of fair competition and good business practice Is prepared with a sense of social responsibility - is based on the principle of fairness and good faith and is not unethical, offensive, or challenges human dignity and integrityRespects user privacy – privacy and use of personal details of consumers is not compromisedComplies with the laws, regulations and self-regulatory codes of practiceMoreover, responsible marketing should also consider the environment and seek to use natural resources sustainably in the delivery of promotional messages.
  • Competitive advantage: Certified “sustainable” products can gain a certain degree of competitive advantage over competition which gives an advantage in marketing over competitors who are not being responsible or sustainable. Some schemes even provide certification such as Green LotusDemand: Consumers are increasingly demanding organisations to be environmentally and socially responsible. If an organisation is acting acting responsibly then customers will be more willing to buy the product & the value of the product will be higher. Increase the likelihood of developing customer loyalty – because customers are aware of the organisation;s responsible actions through its marketing and communication they also feel like they are contributing to a good cause and are therefore more likely to remain loyal to the company or organisation.Customer satisfaction - Ensures target market and destination or product are better matched because if misleading information is provided then it leads to disappointment when it does not meet with was has been promoted to the customer.Respect: Because responsible marketing and communication includes informing visitors about how to respect the local culture and environment, visitors will interact with the community and environment in a more respectful way.
  • Authenticity in tourism refers to the motivation of tourists to travel in order to experience something unique or original. ‘Authenticity’ can relate to the relative integrity (the level of genuinenessor “realness”) of a place (e.g. an historical building such as a temple or pagoda), an object (e.g. a culturalperformance) or an activity (e.g. going fishing with the local fishermen)in relation to its original creation.Authenticity is however a perception held in the eyes of the consumer and in reality culture, traditions and society is a constantly evolving process. Phenomena simply are the way they are – with or without perceived authenticity, e.g. a touristmay think that a village that has electricity, satellite TVs, and modern 2 level town houses is not authentic – however for the local people this is their reality and therefore authentic.Authenticity is however, still highly connected to the marketing of tourism experiences by tour operators, travel agents, hotels, attractions and restaurants all of whom often want to promote their products as authentic (e.g. authentic Vietnamese food, authentic local homestay experience, authentic traditional performance etc).In tourism marketing authenticity also relates to ensuring the marketing of the experience is truthful with the reality. In the quest to package the most exciting and profound experiences the reality can become exaggerated and ultimately result in disappointment if the tourists’ expectations that have been created by the promotion are not met, e.g. selling a traditional homestay experience but the homestay has been developed to meet customer demands for modern comforts such as separate double bedrooms, western showers etc. While this might make many tourists happy, others may see it as not authentic anymore and be disappointed with the company for claiming it would offer an “authentic” experience.Marketers should not over exaggerate or communicate messages that do not mostly match with the reality. This will result in disappointment in the eyes of the consumer and affect the organisation brand and also that of the destination as a whole.Services nature of tourism – tourism product is an amalgam of many products (transport, accommodation, F&B etc). Because tourism is often related to the provision of a service it is open to issues of standardisation and control which can the be reflected through inaccurate marketing messages.
  • A tourism board in southern Europe used images of the Caribbean in their travel campaign, as their own beaches were not considered good enoughA large nation in Oceania presented images of a couple walking on a beach alone with a bottle of wine when all visitors to the beach must be accompanied by a guide and alcohol is not permittedA large southern European nation used the image of a woman emerging from what looks like the Mediterranean Sea in its advertisements but it was actually a Hawaiian scene with the background altered to feature an image of the country’s own coastline
  • Commodification of culture is about the manufacturing and selling of culture to create viable, mesmerising products that can be sold to consumers for profit instead of for the original purpose of the form of cultural expression. For example, turning a wedding dance into a dinner performance for tourists, or selling tours to visit traditional festivals and ceremonies (e.g. love markets) that were previously only attended by those who were in the process of courting to find a husband or wife.In order to fulfil tourists’ demand for perceived authenticity host populations often resort to staging authenticity – e.g. excluding modern elements from a cultural performance, constructing a traditional cultural village to look historical etc.Commodification can also result in the loss of meaning – e.g. a traditional performance normally only conducted at weddings is performed on a stage to a crowd of tourists. This makes the tourism experience inherently inauthentic because the objects are not genuine or original.In tourism promotion it is important to protect cultural meaning and significance. Staging culture for tourists’ consumption therefore needs to be done sensitively with the objective being not to lose meaning and significance to the local people. Therefore critical that the local custodians of the culture are actively involved in the development and interpretation of their culture for tourists – and are aware of the dangers.
  • Greenwashing is considered to be a problem because it contributes to consumer scepticism of all green claims, and diminishes the power of the consumer in driving organisations toward greener solutions for manufacturing processes and business operations. Knowingly misleading consumers about a product or service’s environmental practices or benefits for own gainCauses: Sector enterprises collectively consume a high degree of energy and water and produce a high degree of wasteHighly unregulated nature of the global travel and tourism industrySector comprised of high number of small and medium size enterprises creating significant competition and need to differentiateShifting consumer awareness and expectations of business to be environmentally and socially responsible Effects: Erosion of public trust of tourism eco-labelsReputational damage both at the enterprise level and whole sectors like hotels, airlines, cruises and car rentals.
  • Keep it Real is an approach for organisations and destinations that are acting sustainably to let their customers know about it – and enjoy it. The Keeping it Real approachrecognisesthat authenticity makes customers’ holidays more fun and their business trips more pleasant. The approach was developed as a result of organisations and destinations that are acting sustainably being too shy to tell their customers, for fear it’s not relevant, or that it will be misunderstood. This has been true even of organisations that have achieved sustainability awards and certification but whostruggle to know how it can be used to best effect. The approach is based upon the basic principles of understanding who you tell, for what purpose and through which channels, and more importantly that you know what you’re saying is really worth shouting about.
  • Most consumers care, or at least want to know that they are not doing harm. But this does not mean they will act differently (i.e. price, convenience / location, habits in purchase behaviour and brand loyalty can inhibit change to a new more sustainable tourism product and will almost always come 1st in the minds of the consumer). However, when all of these are equal amongst competitors, sustainability values and actions differentiate a product.In order to communicate any kind of message an intended recipient of the message needs to be identified. Whilst marketing sustainable and ethical practices can be delivered to any market since there is generally increasing awareness and concern for the sustainable practices in organisations and destinations, to be of most relevance, three key market segments shouldbe considered, with sustainability messages adjusted for each:Ethical seekers”: Seek out green holidays as a continuation of their lifestyle. While not large in number, “ethical seekers” are vocal and loyal and want to learn about the sustainability aspects of the destination products, services and experiences that they undertake.“Just want to switch off”: Want a simple, uncomplicated break from their daily lives and responsibilities making issues of sustainability of little interest or value in their decision-making. Communication of sustainability should be “behind the scenes” and focus on how it improves their experience. “Feel good factor”: By far the largest market segment, this group takes an interest in sustainable tourism through the travel press, but usually only due to the point of difference it brings. Whilst not strongly committed to act, simple sustainability messages that clearly demonstrate benefits can result in favourable actions.
  • Before any marketing of sustainable principles and practices is undertaken it is important to clarify what the objectives are. While the mix and importance of objectives will vary between actors, some of the most common objectives include:Raise awareness and change behaviour: Another key purpose of communicating sustainable messages is to multiply the impacts of the sustainable practices that are already being implemented and get tourists to support your efforts by increasing their understanding about negative impacts of tourism and the benefits of changing their behaviour to be more socially, economically and environmentally sensitive. To raise awareness and change behaviour messages should be clear about what needs to be done, be positive about the direct benefit of taking prescribed actions, and identify who the beneficiaries of change are.Allow tourists to feel good about doing the right thing: By selecting a tourism business or supporting an attraction that is implementing sustainable principles tourists become active participants in positive change which makes them feel like they are doing a good service to the community, economy or environment, and reinforces that they have made the right decision.Increase visitation and / or sales: Offering an experience or product that is sustainable can be a point of difference with other organisations, destinations and attractions and can therefore help drive increased visitation and / or sales. Moreover, it meets growing consumer demand for organisations to implement good corporate social responsibility. However, when promoting sustainability credentials it is important that the link between sustainability and consumer benefits is clear. Moreover, it is critical that what is being promoted is genuine and truthful to avoid the negative associations of “greenwashing” (see below).
  • If not done well, communicating messages of sustainability can seem to tourists like they are being lectured which is not what they want when they are on holiday, or alternatively messages might come across as being overly apologetic, which can reduce consumer confidence. Messages that are communicated therefore need to be carefully worded in order to get the desired response from the audience. Examples of different approaches in effectively delivering sustainability messages include:
  • See next slide for information
  • The slide can be converted into a handout or remain as a slide.The story behind the ESRT boothESRT participated in the Vietnam International Travel Mart Hanoi 2013 by having a booth in the exhibition hall. The aim of the booth was to raise awareness about responsible tourism. The ESRT booth was designed completely out of cardboard and constructed by a local creative team. The booth was laid out with an entrance and exit to control visitor flow as well as create a structure for the learning process. On the floor is a pathway for visitors to follow (known as the “Responsible Tourism Pathway”). On the walls are hand drawn images of the beautiful Vietnamese landscape and its people. Starting in the Mekong Delta in the South, the path progresses through Vietnam's key landscape regions, finishing in the mountainous North.As visitors walk along the “Responsible Tourism Path” they encounter people, animals, objects and sign posts that inform them about key messages, facts and figures about responsible tourism (7 Key Questions about Responsible Tourism, plus 8 Key Responsible Tourism Messages). When the visitors exit the booth they have a raised awareness about the need, benefits, and potential actions they can take in creating a responsible tourism future in Vietnam.Participants to discuss the effectivenessof ESRT’s communication approach about responsible tourism. How was responsible tourism reflected in the design? Etc, etc INFORMATION FOR THE TRAINER (TO REVEAL TO PARTICIPANTS AFTER THEY HAVE PROVIDED THEIR IDEAS):To demonstrate the environmental aspects of Responsible Tourism, the booth incorporates the following key elements:Constructed from cardboard, a natural material, and 100% recyclableLow energy consumption required to produce booth walls and props compared to other materials such as plastic, metal or wood No hazardous chemicals were required to produce the booth, meaning less harm to people and the environment To demonstrate the economic and social aspects of Responsible Tourism, the booth incorporates the following key elements:Low construction cost of booth material compared to other types of materials such as plastic and woodWe are supporting the local economy by using a small local booth design team based in Hanoi who also purchase their materials locallyWe provided our design team with competitive employment rates  If ESRT wanted to ask people and organisations to adopt a responsible approach to tourism then they also needed to be able to demonstrate some benefits, otherwise nobody would listen to them. Key benefits obtained by ESRT in its booth design inlcluded:  Their environmentally design setthem apart from the crowd - No other booths look theirs in the thousands that were present. It was unique and attracted attention. No additional marketing required!  The environmentally friendly design communicated their message - The cardboard construction instantly deliveredtheir message of being environmentally friendly. Just by looking at the booth visitors could understand what their principles were and the area of our work - and they didn't even need to open our mouths! Their unique design increasedvisitation - The unique design automatically attracted interest and visitation, increasing the return on their awareness objectives. It was particularly popular with media and people visitors taking photos. If they had been in the private sector and their objectives were sales, then they would hada distinct advantage (visitation = potential sales)! Being responsibe made the staff happier to do they are doing – The staff we proud of the booth and the environmental and social principles theyhave adopted. Itmotivated them to tell others about it! They wereproud to be associated with a good cause, and if they are happy and motivated to work, the organisation is also happy!  Finally, by minimising our impacts on the environment and supporting the local people and economy ESRT were doing their bit to make Vietnam a more pleasant place for people to live in and to visit!
  • Before booking: Tell visitors before they arrive about your sustainable credentials and the reason why it is better value, better quality, or simply a more appealing proposition. Between booking and arrival: Tell visitors how to prepare for their visit in pre-departure packs that include information about what to bring, what is acceptable behaviour, dress code, how to respect others etc. On arrival particularly important issues can be reinforced by staff conducting the meet and greet.During the stay / visit: At this point customers or visitors can be physically shown sustainability practices being undertaken with explanations about what can be done to assist. In accommodation for example, small messages in the bathroom can request guests to help reduce water consumption by reusing their towels or switching off lights when they leave.After the stay / visit: Keep in touch with visitors can not only be a good way to encourage repeat visitation and referrals but can also be an opportunity to further deliver information about sustainability practices. For example, by updating customers on community projects or the successes of environmental activities.
  • Just give 1 sentence to describe each (the detail provided in the following slides)
  • Surveys: Conducted online, by phone or mail, surveys consist of a set of predetermined questions that can assist in obtaining structured feedback about specific topics that can be more easily collated and analysed. Commonly used to gauge customer satisfaction after the use of a product or service.Focus groups: Moderated, small-group discussions between a pre-selected group of individuals, focus groups can provide insight into the preferences, attitudes, and opinions about existing or new products or services. Feedback forms and comment cards: Physical, paper cards or forms with one or more survey questions designed to gather feedback after a good or service has been consumed. Examples can include a providing a visitor book at a cultural or heritage site or providing guests in a hotel with a comments card under their door on the final night of their stay. Social media: Social networks, online communities, blogs, forums and discussions boards can be used to collect customer feedback either directly on a destination or business (e.g. Trip Advisor), or alternatively to obtain information about general consumer attitudes and trends.On the spot verbal feedback and observation: Simply observing visitor behaviour and asking for their opinion about a particular product, service or experience can be the simplest, cheapest and fastest form of feedback. A positive and objective attitude of “all feedback is good feedback” should be adopted. Verbal on the spot observation and feedback also provides an opportunity to fix a problem before a visitor departs, increasing satisfaction, positive referrals and repeat business.
  • Focus groups: Moderated, small-group discussions between a pre-selected group of individuals, focus groups can provide insight into the preferences, attitudes, and opinions about existing or new products or services. Thoughts and opinions - Helps gain an in depth understanding of the thoughts,opinions, preferences and attitudes about existing or new products or servicesMore effective - Surveys assume that people know how they feel. But sometimes they really don’t. Sometimes it takes listening to the opinions of others in a small and safe group setting before they form thoughts and opinions. Focus groups are well suited for those situations. Surveys are good for collecting information about people’s attributes and attitudes but if you need to understand things at a deeper level then use a focus group.Moderated discussion of small group - The focus group moderator nurtures disclosure in an open and spontaneous format. The moderator’s goal is to generate maximum number of different ideas and opinions from as many different people in the time allotted. 6-10 people is a good size to let people feel comfortable to talk freely and also generate enough opinions for discussion.Structured discussion - Focus groups are structured around a set of carefully predetermined questions – usually no more than 10 – but the discussion is free-flowing. Ideally, participant comments will stimulate and influence the thinking and sharing of others. Some people even find themselves changing their thoughts and opinions during the group. Homogenous group - A homogeneous group of strangers comprise the focus group. Homogeneity means everyone feels equal (less disputes) and reduces inhibitions among people who will probably never see each other again. Repetition - ‰ It takes more than one focus group on any one topic to produce valid results – usually three or four. You’ll know you’ve conducted enough groups (with the same set of questions) when you’re not hearing anything new anymore, i.e. you’ve reached a point of saturation.
  • Surveys: Conducted online, by phone or mail, surveys consist of a set of predetermined questions that can assist in obtaining structured feedback about specific topics that can be more easily collated and analysed. Commonly used to gauge customer satisfaction after the use of a product or service.Focus groups: Moderated, small-group discussions between a pre-selected group of individuals, focus groups can provide insight into the preferences, attitudes, and opinions about existing or new products or services. Feedback forms and comment cards: Physical, paper cards or forms with one or more survey questions designed to gather feedback after a good or service has been consumed. Examples can include a providing a visitor book at a cultural or heritage site or providing guests in a hotel with a comments card under their door on the final night of their stay. Social media: Social networks, online communities, blogs, forums and discussions boards can be used to collect customer feedback either directly on a destination or business (e.g. Trip Advisor), or alternatively to obtain information about general consumer attitudes and trends.On the spot verbal feedback and observation: Simply observing visitor behaviour and asking for their opinion about a particular product, service or experience can be the simplest, cheapest and fastest form of feedback. A positive and objective attitude of “all feedback is good feedback” should be adopted. Verbal on the spot observation and feedback also provides an opportunity to fix a problem before a visitor departs, increasing satisfaction, positive referrals and repeat business.
  • Social media: Social networks (e.g. Facebook, Twitter, Trip Advisor), online communities such as blogs, forums and discussions boards (e.g. Lonely Planet Thorn Tree, Trip Advisor) can be used to collect customer feedback either directly on a destination or business (e.g. Trip Advisor), or alternatively to obtain information about general consumer attitudes and trends.Can be both direct feedback and to gauge general consumer attitudes and trendsCollect product feedback – Post questions on your social media page and gather opinions from current customers, but also prospective customers before implementing developing or introducing new products Review brand awareness – Use social media searches to see each time someone mentions your company or destination. Some applications can even allow you to get real-time updates pushed to your desktop and instantly reply.Add a survey or poll to your website or blog - Create an electronic form - from open-ended questions, to polls with radio buttons, to multiple choice – and embed it on your website or blog.Post a YouTube video – Upload a video to YouTube to capture feedback and emotional responses. YouTube now allows for “video responses,” so users who see your video can post a response in the same way they’d post a text comment.
  • On the spot verbal feedback and observation: Simply observing visitor behaviour and asking for their opinion about a particular product, service or experience can be the simplest, cheapest and fastest form of feedback.Observe what they are doing - Observation: watch what visitors do, where they go, what they buy, and how they interactUnderstand what they are thinking - Gaining immediate feedback: ask for opinions about a product, service or experienceA positive and objective attitude of “all feedback is good feedback” should be adopted. Verbal on the spot observation and feedback also provides an opportunity to fix a problem before a visitor departs, increasing satisfaction, positive referrals and repeat business.
  • The process of tourism organisations that visit a destination providing support and assistance to that local community to manage its tourism products sustainably for the benefit of themselves, the community, and the visitor.Recognises businesses have a moral obligation to provide support due to their own economic gain from the community’s resourcesRecognises support is also a good businesses strategy. If natural and cultural tourist attractions are not protected, tourists will no longer be willing to purchase holidays to those destinations, or alternatively they will be willing to pay far less.Taking a responsible approach means not only supporting the local people, but also the local environment, culture and economyResponsible support to destinations is concerned with organisations not simply utilising destinations for their own economic benefit, but playing an active role in enhancing its social and cultural assets, helping preserve the local environment, and bring a fair distribution of economic benefits to the local community.
  • Ensures visitors and enterprises operate in a socio-culturally and environmentally sensitive mannerEnsures local suppliers are fairly compensated for their goods and servicesPromotes active engagement of enterprises with the local government, community and organisations in their local supply chain to foster sustainable tourism outcomesEncourages enterprises to help generate funds for sustainability managementPromotes the sharing of information with local producers and service providers on how to improve their products to better meet the needs of tourists
  • Using a visitor code of conduct in Myanmar
  • Using a visitor code of conduct in Myanmar
  • Codes of conduct can be communicated and disseminated to visitors via brochures, the company website, via tour guides in pre-orientation sessions before a tour begins, or alternatively by playing video clips to visitors as they are transported to the destinations (e.g. on the tour bus, cruise boat, plane). Destinations should also work in conjunction with the operators to communicate the codes of conduct at the site, for example, on signs, or via staff / local guides. The implementation of staff training as well as community awareness raising activities should also take place.Before booking: Tell visitors before they arrive about the destination’s people, culture and environment on the company website, social network page, brochure etc.Between booking and arrival: Tell visitors how to prepare for their visit in pre-departure packs that include information about what to bring, what is acceptable behaviour, how to dress, how to respect others etc. During the stay / visit: On arrival particularly important issues can be reinforced by staff conducting the meet and greet. In the destination provide more detailed information about the people, culture and environment, its importance and any sustainability issues on signs at entrance ways and tourism hubs. Tour guides should reiterate important codes of conduct verbally to the visitors.
  • Tourism operators have considerable power and influence in the tourism system due to their central position because:They provide the goods and services that enable the tourism experienceThey employ the local people, support the supply chain, and generate revenue for local governmentsThey directly engage with the tourist who interacts with the destinationHowever, the power and influence of tourism operators can either generate sustainable or unsustainable outcomes depending on their choices
  • Tourism operators such as hotels, tour operators and restaurants are central to the tourism experience and therefore hold a lot of influence over the other stakeholders that they deal with. Because of their position of power and influence their actions and decisions can foster significant effects upon others – and this may be either sustainable or unsustainable. A tour operator for example, can decide on which hotels and restaurants he will use. If he supports local restaurants with good employment policies, sustainable food sourcing, and good customer care, his support of the restaurant will help it become more economically sustainable (due to more repeat business), and make a positive contribution to the local environment due to its food choices, as well as its customers who receive better treatment. When more than 1 tour operator makes similar responsible decisions then the benefits “snowball” and can be felt more widely.
  • Attend public sector convened events such as tourismconferences, meetings andforums that call for privatesector participationProvide input and feedback through governmenttourism surveys or research programmes that include private sector stakeholders.Government authority stakeholder workshops or calls for feedback on tourism policies and whitepapers.Work with government in the development of tourism products and services in destinations.
  • In addition to working directly with destination governments, tourism operators can indirectly influence destination development and sustainability by joining forces with like-minded businesses and NGOs. The two key types of collaboration include working with businesses and working with NGOs.Work with like-minded businesses: Become a member of an industry association or group.Associations and groups may be based upon industry cluster (e.g. accommodation, tours, restaurants), geographic location (e.g. a destination tourism association), or special interest (e.g. responsible travel group). Such groups will can act as the “voice” for the industry and thus there may be considerable opportunities to develop or lobby for the implementation of sustainable practices in the destination. E.g. VISTA, VITA, Responsible Travel Club of Vietnam, Responsible Travel Group of Vietnam, provincial level sector associations etcWork with NGOs: Increasingly NGOs are becoming intermediaries that help bring together the government, the private sector, and communities. By working with NGOs who are engaging in sustainable tourism projects tourism operators can also help foster positive change.
  • Tourism operators can foster sustainability in destinations by helping educate local communities about the importance of sustainable natural resource management, socio-cultural sensitivity and fair economic distribution. Key ways to help educate local communities includes:Speak at schools and universities: Inform students about the need for greater sustainability in destinations and the steps your organisation is taking to achieve this.Participate in seminars and conferences: Seize opportunities to speak at seminars and conferences relating to the private sector and sustainable tourism development.Fund educational scholarships or donations: Set up a scholarship for children and young adults to enable them to attend school, college or university. Where possible, scholarships can also be linked to studying disciplines related to sustainable tourism, environmental management, or local culture. Donations to schools or universities such as in the provision of educational resources such as books that relate to sustainable tourism can also indirectly help educate local communities about the importance sustainable tourism.Participate in curriculum development: Be actively involved in the formulation of school or university curricula that relate to sustainable tourism.
  • DISCUSSION: What are benefits of Vietnam to have the national tourism association (VITA)? How can the VITA help Vietnam’s tourism private sector? What will be some challenges the VITA will face in order to be completely effective?
  • 1. Select sustainable destinations and send your business there2. Assist sustainable local organisations prepare business plans and funding proposals3. Partner, sponsor or fundraise for environmental and social causes4. Promote ways for customers to support heritage conservation5. Enable direct donations for sustainable tourism activities
  • Companies can also become directly involved in building destinations that are more environmentally and socially sustainable which provides benefits for both the local community, for tourists, and in return, the company bottom-line. Types of company support can include:Join together with NGOs or community groups to implement environmental or social development activities such as building local infrastructure in villages (e.g. schools, community centres, bridge etc). Provide equipment such as books, clothing, and equipment in fundraising efforts to support environmental or social development projects. Sponsor internships to the local youth that entails the provision of skills training and potential job opportunities. Provide free vouchers / prizes of company products or services at charity fundraising events (e.g. free hotel room, free meal for two, free tour).Allow company staff time off to participate in voluntary activities such environmental clean-up days.
  • Frequently tourists visiting a destination would like to assist in the preservation of natural and cultural heritage sites once they are aware of there of the importance of the site and if there are challenges in the maintenance of the heritage site, however, they do not know how to go what opportunities might exist for supporting heritage conservation or what opportunities might exist for them to provide support. By providing information to customers on ways to support heritage conservation businesses are able to play an intermediary role by directly linking heritage sites with the support of visitors. Types of support may consist of donations, volunteering on conservation projects, and advocacy (e.g. telling friends about the place and its cultural or environmental importance). Common strategies of communicating about heritage conservation are illustrated in the boxes on the following page.
  • Tourism businesses can support sustainable development in destinations by encouraging their customers to provide donations that go directly to organisations or groups involved in environmental or social development causes. Enabling visitors to make donations also allows them to feel that they are directly helping to improve the situation. To encourage direct donations businesses can publicise charities that the business supports, enable tourists to visit project sites to foster understanding about the cause, and provide options for providing donations such as direct cash payments or on-going sponsorship programmes that might provide basic membership benefits (e.g. newsletter, merchandise, discounts etc).
  • Unit 16: Responsible Tourism For Tour Operators

    1. 1. UNIT 16. RESPONSIBLE TOURISM FOR TOUR OPERATORS Picture source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Cycle_rickshaw_in_Hanoi.jpg
    2. 2. Unit outline Objectives By the end of this unit, participants will be able to: • Understand the importance and benefits of applying responsible tourism to travel and tour operation in Vietnam • Apply responsible employment policies and strategies • Explain procedures for reducing energy, water and waste • Understand the role of responsible tourism organisational policies and how to implement them • Explain how to develop economically viable responsible tourism products • Understand the steps required to develop a responsible tourism supply chain • Implement responsible tourism marketing and communication • Identify how to support local tourism destinations Topics 1. Overview of tour and travel sector in Vietnam 2. Implementing responsible tourism in internal management 3. Developing responsible tourism products 4. Creating responsible tourism supply chains 5. Ensuring responsibility in marketing and communications 6. Responsible support to tourism destinations
    3. 3. TOPIC 1. TOURS & TRAVEL SECTOR OVERVIEW & THE NEED FOR RESPONSIBLE TOURISM RESPONSIBLE TOURISM FOR TOUR OPERATORS Picture source: http://www.fotopedia.com/items/flickr-4473340424
    4. 4. Composition of the tours and travel sector Transport operators Attractions Picture sources: http://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/1364221; http://www.flickr.com/photos/needoptic/9861409444/; http://www.flickr.com/photos/dalbera/4399833574/; http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Southern_Vectis_coaches_at_Bustival_2010.JPG; http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Victoria_Hoi_An_Hotel_Ressort_und_Spa.jpg; http://www.flickr.com/photos/calflier001/6943300353/
    5. 5. Key sector figures 12% GLOBAL1 VIETNAM2 Outbound tour operator arrivals domestic-market tour operators registered tour guides international-market tour operators800 10,000 17,000 Excludes packages! 1 Tour Operators’ Initiative for Sustainable Tourism Development 2003, Sustainable Tourism: The Tour Operators’ Contribution 2 ESRT 2013, Vietnam Tourism Marketing Strategy To 2020 & Action Plan: 2013-2015 (Proposed), ESRT, Vietnam
    6. 6. Why tours are particularly important to the international market in Vietnam Picture sources: http://thethaovanhoa.vn/xa-hoi/doi-ve-tra-ve-tau-tet-phai-truoc-10-gio-tau-chay-tru-30-gia-ve-n20121202171607247.htm; http://vietnamlandingvisa.blogspot.com/2012/08/frequent-confusion-about-vietnam.html; http://www.tropicalisland.de/vietnam.html; http://www.theguardian.com/higher-education-network/blog/2012/mar/29/talented-students-may-lose-out
    7. 7. The power and influence of tour operators TOUR OPERATOR ACCOMMODATION RESTAURANTS TRANSPORT ATTRACTIONS TOUR GUIDES Promotes and / or provides trade by including in packages or recommending to guests Engages boat, bus, train, plane and other transport operators to move guests to / at attractions Promotes and / or provides trade to natural and cultural attractions through tours Provides employment within organisation or by contract Promotes and / or provides trade by including in packages or recommending to guests Influence Influence Influence TOURIST
    8. 8. The tour operator multiplier effect: A key to responsible tourism 1/2 1 tour operator 30 tours / year 25 guests / tour 750 responsible travellers / year = 750 stays in green hotels = 750 meals in local restaurants = 750 visitors to sustainable destinations … Typical tour operator:
    9. 9. The tour operator multiplier effect: A key to responsible tourism 2/2 180 tour operators (1%) 30 tours / year 25 guests / tour 135,000 responsible travellers / year and if just 1% of Vietnam’s 18,000 tour operators acted responsibly, we could have 135,000 responsible travel trips in 1 year! Typical tour operator:
    10. 10. Potential negative impacts of unsustainable practices Economic leakage Restricted economic development Social values and cultural conflict Visitor safety and security Friction, distrust and disharmony Destruction of natural environment Depletion of natural resources
    11. 11. How responsible tourism offers tour operators a sustainable pathway forward Ensures natural resources are used optimally Promotes viable and long term economic benefits Promotes conservation of natural heritage Uses strategically effective business practices Builds respect of culture and authenticity
    12. 12. Why responsible tourism also makes good business sense Revenue growth Cost savings Access to capital Better brand Happier staff More attractive destinations Licensed to operate Improved service Ready for regulations Picture sources: Pixabay, www.pixabay.com
    13. 13. Consumer’s are also demanding responsible travel… 58% 47% 93%of Conde Nast Travellers think travel companies should be responsible for protecting the environment of Conde Nast Travellers also say their hotel choice is influenced by the support the hotel gives to the local community 71%of TripAdvisor members planned to make a more eco-friendly choice for their holiday in 2013 compared to 65% in 2012 of Conde Nast Travellers are interested in volunteer vacations, and 98% of past volunteers satisfied with their experience 1 Source: PR News Wire 2011, “Conde Nast Traveller Announces Winners of the 2011 World Savers Awards”, http://www.prnewswire.com/news-releases/conde-nast-traveler-announces-winners-of-the-2011-world-savers-awards-127886823.html; CondeNast Traveller, “Readers’ Poll.” Feb 2009; 2 Source: TripAdvisor 2012, TripAdvisor survey reveals travellers growing greener, TripAdvisor, Available [online]: http://www.multivu.com/mnr/49260-tripadvisor-eco-friendly-travel-survey-voluntourism-go-green, Downloaded: 07/03/2014
    14. 14. …and are willing to pay to go green 50% of TripAdvisor travellers are willing to spend more money to stay at an eco-friendly accommodation 75%of TripAdvisor travellers say the economic landscape does not affect their interest in eco-friendly travel choices 23%of TripAdvisor travellers would pay up to $25 additional per night to stay at an eco-friendly accommodation, while 9% would be willing to spend $25-$50 extra Source: TripAdvisor 2012, TripAdvisor survey reveals travellers growing greener, TripAdvisor, Available [online]: http://www.multivu.com/mnr/49260-tripadvisor-eco-friendly-travel-survey-voluntourism-go-green, Downloaded: 07/03/2014
    15. 15. The Responsible Travel Club (Hanoi) and the Responsible Travel Group (Hue) 1/2 • 2 informal associations of travel agencies, NGOs and individuals • Aim to build and practice responsible travel for sustainable growth in all regions of Vietnam • Philosophy: – Community support – Business collaboration – Environment conservation & protection – Cultural preservation
    16. 16. Examples of RTC and RTG initiatives 2/2 Responsible travel organisations in Vietnam: RTC in Hanoi RTG in Hue Interventions: Knowledge-sharing Capacity building and skills training Compilation and distribution of sustainable best practice information Responsible tourism projects: Clean-up campaigns Community development projects Responsible tourism excursions to: Enhance local economic opportunities Revitalise threatened cultures Provide a genuine and memorable experience for visitors Picture sources: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tourism_in_Belize http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Madagascar_baobab.JPG http://www.fotopedia.com/items/flickr-6054914564 http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Recreational_cyclists_take_breaks_while_driving_on_a_bicycle_tour.jpg
    17. 17. The key elements of responsible tour operation Responsible tourism internal management Responsible tourism products Responsible tourism supply chains Responsible marketing & communications Responsible support to tourism destinations TOPIC 2 TOPIC 3 TOPIC 4 TOPIC 5 TOPIC 6
    18. 18. TOPIC 2. IMPLEMENTING RESPONSIBLE TOURISM IN INTERNAL MANAGEMENT RESPONSIBLE TOURISM FOR TOUR OPERATORS Picture source: https://creativecommons.org/tag/oer/page/5
    19. 19. Key components of responsible tourism in internal management A. Implement responsible practices in the workplace B. Create a Green Office C. Implement policies on responsible tourism and build capacity to achieve them
    20. 20. A. Implement responsible practices in the workplace
    21. 21. Defining responsible employment • Implementing labour standards that promote opportunities for women and men to obtain decent and productive work in conditions of freedom, equity, security and dignity (ILO) • Ensures economic growth provides benefits for all • Balances employer and employee benefits Labor standards Equal opportunity Decent and productive work
    22. 22. Provide industry accepted employment benefits Annual leave and public holidays Absence for military or public service duties Social insurance and leave Sick leave Maternity leave Proper response to accidents at work Pension plans
    23. 23. Provide incentives and bonuses Examples of incentives and bonuses: • Staff retreat: sponsored reward for all staff (often annual) • Paid holiday: awarded to high performing staff (competitively) • Pay bonuses: monetary reward for all staff for their work by the end of the year
    24. 24. Provide an adequate work space Providing an adequate work space refers to: • Employers providing safe and hygienic working conditions; and • Employees following the workplace policies and procedures on health and safety
    25. 25. The 2 main types of workplace training 1. Induction training 2. Ongoing skills training
    26. 26. Provide an induction training programme • Overview of job, timescales and expectations • Overview of workplace • Introduction to other staff • Overview of organisation’s mission, goals, values and philosophy • Expectations in commitment to achieving responsible tourism
    27. 27. Ongoing skills training • Formal training in skills capacity related to the occupation and needs of the employee • Part of a formal organisational training plan that identifies: – Requirements of the training for the company – Current skills of the workforce and needs in the future – Available resources for training – Appropriate approaches for training – Training opportunities
    28. 28. Key steps in developing a skills training programme using A-D-D-I-E Design Develop Implement Evaluate Analyse Learning problem Goals and objectives Audience’s needs Existing knowledge Learning environment Constraints Delivery options Project timeline Instructional Design Strategy Delivery method Training structure and duration Evaluation methodology Create prototype Develop training materials Desktop review Run training pilot Training schedule Print and prepare training material Prepare trainers Notify learners Launch training Collect training evaluation data Review training effectiveness Assess project performance Report performance results
    29. 29. B. Create a Green Office
    30. 30. Considerations for reducing energy consumption in the office Natural light Ventilation Type of lights Computer power useOthers: - Power use of other electrical appliances
    31. 31. Office energy audit questions Types Usage External factors • Is office equipment the most energy efficient models (generally Energy Star)? • Are computers, monitors, printers, copiers and other office equipment turned off when not in use? • Are computers, monitors, printers, copiers and other office equipment set for “sleep” or energy saving mode? • Is equipment recycled or properly disposed of at end of use? Source: NSW Business Chamber 2009, Sustainability Toolkit – Hospitality, Australian Government – Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts, Australia
    32. 32. Considerations for reducing energy consumption from transport Vehicle type Tyre pressure Maintenance Others: - Staff transport - Off-site meetings Tinted windows
    33. 33. Vehicles and transportation energy audit questions Types Usage External factors • Are company vehicles most fuel efficient models available for your business’s requirements? • When purchasing a new vehicle is fuel efficiency prioritised? • Are employees encouraged or incentivised for taking public transport or carpooling? • Do company vehicles receive regular maintenance? Source: NSW Business Chamber 2009, Sustainability Toolkit – Hospitality, Australian Government – Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts, Australia
    34. 34. Considerations for minimising waste in the office Picture sources: http://www.buyecogreen.com.au/ecocern-a4-brown-paper-100-recycled-105-gsm-ream-500-sheets--p700363 https://www.officemaxcanada.com/en/sites/core/Think_overview.aspx http://blog.stickyinstitute.com/?p=376 http://www.printershoppers.com/printer-buying-guide/ Office equipment
    35. 35. Waste audit questions: Office • Can all copiers/printers/faxes print double sided? • Are all computers and printers default settings set to print double sided? • Is office equipment recycled or properly disposed at end of use? • Does the company send paper invoices? • Does the company send out paper advertisements or promotions? Source: NSW Business Chamber 2009, Sustainability Toolkit – Hospitality, Australian Government – Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts, Australia
    36. 36. Calculating your volume of waste Number of containers per month Volume per container (L) 12 (months) Average volume (L) of waste in 1 year Image sources: http://highlanderimages.blogspot.com/2011/12/rubbish-man.html http://nushine.com.au/cleaning-food-hygiene-products/bins-liners/garbage-bin/prod_101.html http://labspace.open.ac.uk/mod/resource/view.php?id=465057 http://www.wmich.edu/registrar/calendars/ Baseline volume of wasteTo convert volume into cubic metres of waste or tonnes of waste: Cubic metres = Total volume of waste (L) / 1,000 Tonnes = Total volume of waste (m3) x 2.29 (approx)
    37. 37. Costing your volume of waste Image sources: http://highlanderimages.blogspot.com/2011/12/rubbish-man.html http://labspace.open.ac.uk/mod/resource/view.php?id=465057 http://www.vietnamspirittravel.com/guide/vietnam_bank_notes.htm Baseline unit cost of waste Average volume of waste per month (m3 or tonnes) Cost of waste collection per month (VND) Unit cost of waste
    38. 38. C. Implement policies on responsible tourism and build capacity to achieve them
    39. 39. The function of company policies in responsible tourism • Links company vision and values to day-to-day operations • Communicate expectations about work performance and boundaries of action • Ensures compliance with relevant laws & regulations and provides a defence against inappropriate actions • Promotes efficiency in operation and reduces need for constant management intervention • Helps achieve sustainable tourism objectives Healthy communities Natural environment Economic vitality SUSTAINABILITY
    40. 40. Company benefits of having responsible tourism policies • Helps defend a company from legal disputes  • Demonstrates company commitment to maintaining a healthy environment, building a happier society and buoyant local economy thereby enhancing the company brand and improving sales and loyalty • Promotes the support of customers to help the company achieve its sustainability objectives • Fosters stability and consistency in decision-making and operational procedures resulting in fewer operational setbacks • Creates stronger and more competitive tourism destinations that have better environments, happier people and stronger local economies for the long term benefit of business, local residents and tourists
    41. 41. Common types of capacity building used by companies to train staff • Provision of access to repositories of information and electronic and print resources • Provision of company guidelines and manuals • Consultation such as coaching / mentoring • Co-ordinating alliances and observing real best practice case studies • Workplace training
    42. 42. TOPIC 3. DEVELOPING RESPONSIBLE TOURISM PRODUCTS RESPONSIBLE TOURISM FOR TOUR OPERATORS Picture source: Pixabay, www.pixabay.com
    43. 43. Key components in developing responsible tourism products A. Understanding responsible tourism products B. Developing tourism products that are commercially viable C. Matching markets with product development opportunities and objectives D. Responsible tourism product development strategy and action planning
    44. 44. A. Understanding responsible tourism products
    45. 45. Defining tourism products NARROW DEFINITION What the tourist buys WIDER DEFINITION The combination of what the tourist does at the destination and the services used
    46. 46. Types of tourism products Natural tourism products Man-made tourism products
    47. 47. Types of tourism products in Vietnam Others? Picture sources: http://www.flickr.com/photos/barbararich/96982409/; http://www.flickr.com/photos/chericbaker/4446189110/; http://www.flickr.com/photos/matthieu-aubry/1242936011; http://www.flickr.com/photos/lintmachine/2386330877/; http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:VietnamCombatArtTheLadiesbyDavidFairringtonCATVI1968.jpg; http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/M%E1%BB%B9_S%C6%A1n; http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vietnamese_cuisine; http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Hiking_at_highest_peak_in_Kosova_-_Gjeravica.JPG; http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sea_kayak; http://pixabay.com/en/diver-light-diving-silhouette-sea-108881/; http://www.flickr.com/photos/whltravel/4303957860/; http://www.flickr.com/photos/agapbulusan/2418856362/; http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hmong_people
    48. 48. Characteristics of responsible tourism products • Responsible tourism products are the goods and services that form tourism experiences and are specifically designed to be: – Environmentally, socially, culturally and economically sustainable – Educational – Promote local participation
    49. 49. Examples of responsible tourism products Responsible tourism destination Madagascar – contains a range of ecological wonders; Is dedicated to protecting the environment; Offers many sustainable tourism options Responsible tourism attraction Protected areas; Protected cultural heritage sites; A theme park based on a rainforest theme that both educates visitors on sustainability issues and sells local products Responsible tourism accommodation Eco-resorts that have been built and managed according to sustainable tourism principles (e.g. protect the environment, involve and benefit local people) Responsible tourism transportation Renewable energy hybrid vehicles, Bicycle tours; Air travel with carbon offsets Picture sources: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tourism_in_Belize http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Madagascar_baobab.JPG http://www.fotopedia.com/items/flickr-6054914564 http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Recreational_cyclists_take_breaks_while_driving_on_a_bicycle_tour.jpg
    50. 50. B. Developing tourism products that are commercially viable
    51. 51. The responsible tourism product development process RESPONSIBLE TOURISM PRODUCT PLANNING •Market analysis •Product analysis •Match markets with products •Product assessment for development STAKEHOLDER CO-ORDINATION AND COLLABORATION •Determine goals and actions •Establish collaborations RESPONSIBLE TOURISM PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY AND ACTION PLAN •Develop a responsible tourism product development strategy •Develop an implementation action plan
    52. 52. Ensuring viable responsible tourism products by meeting market needs • Market visitation volume • Market size • Market trends and interests Market growth • Reason for travel • Kinds of experiences desired Motivations & needs • Means of travel • Length of stay • Level of flexibility Travel patterns • Level of money spent by visitor types • Value to local development Spend • Greatest interest in the destination • Connect with development objectives Sustainability
    53. 53. SEGMENT TYPE CHARACTERISTICS MOTIVATIONS EXPECTATIONS Holidayers International 1st timers International 2nd timers + crowd avoiders International On holiday Domestic Phuot Domestic Day trippers Domestic
    54. 54. Example of typical tourist market segments and characteristics in Vietnam SEGMENT TYPE CHARACTERISTICS MOTIVATIONS EXPECTATIONS Holidayers International short-haul Traveling in organized groups or with family and friends. Shorter trips, few destinations. Relaxation, entertainment, visiting main attractions, shopping. Superior food and accommodation, Mixing businesses with pleasure International short-haul Individual and independent business travellers adding some tourism activities to their trip. Entertainment, visiting main attractions, relaxation. Quality services and products. Ease of travel. 1st timers International long-haul Individual or group travel for 1 week or more, utilizing a variety of travel means and many destinations. Visiting main attractions, cultural and natural features. Good food, adequate accommodation, fair prices, variety. 2nd timers + crowd avoiders International long-haul Individual or small group travel – usually self- organized for 1 week or more, usually spending more time in fewer destinations. Authentic experiences and specific activities (i.e. trekking, caving). Adequate accommodation, good food and services, authenticity and personal experiences. On holiday Domestic Travel as a family, during national holidays and annual holiday periods Relaxation, entertainment, visiting main attractions. Good food, adequate accommodation, shopping opportunities, fair prices. Phuot Domestic Independent or small group travel, often by motorbike. Seeking alternative activities and non-touristic locations. Adequate accommodation and food, cheap prices, authenticity. Day trippers Domestic Independent travel by families and friends in private vehicles for 1 day, usually on weekends or national holidays. Relaxation, entertainment, visiting main attractions. Good food, good services, ease of travel.
    55. 55. C. Matching markets with product development opportunities & objectives
    56. 56. What is tourism product-market matching? • Connecting the characteristics, motivations and expectations of market segments with suitable tourism products • To ensure sustainability, products should also be matched with development opportunities and objectives of the host destination Tourism product •Entertainment and relaxation •Culture •Nature •Adventure •Education Tourism market •Characteristics •Motivations •Expectations
    57. 57. Product-market matching conceptual diagram PRODUCT A PRODUCT B PRODUCT C PRODUCT E PRODUCT D PRODUCT F PRODUCT G PRODUCT I PRODUCT H MARKET SEGMENT 1 MARKET SEGMENT 2 MARKET SEGMENT 3 MARKET SEGMENT 4
    58. 58. Which markets would you match to these products in Vietnam?
    59. 59. Why are these markets linked to these products? Matching markets and products in Vietnam
    60. 60. Existing products New products 4 key product development options ExistingmarketsNewmarkets Market penetration Sell more of an existing product to an existing market Product development Sell a new or improved product to an existing market Market development Sell existing products to a new market Product diversification Sell new products to new markets
    61. 61. Developing existing tourism products To existing markets • Strategy: Intensive promotion of existing products to current market to increase market share To new markets • Strategy: Conduct market analysis to identify new and untapped markets with strong growth potential for existing products Picture source: http://www.flickr.com/photos/rwp-roger/4353435590/
    62. 62. Developing new tourism products To existing markets • Strategy: Expand on products in destination and promote to existing market segments To new markets • Strategy: Attract new markets with strong growth potential Picture source: http://www.flickr.com/photos/dalbera/4410383427/
    63. 63. Market penetration and development: Vietnam tourism market segment opportunities MARKET SEGMENT OPPORTUNITIES Independent international travellers Often more flexible in their travel patterns and spending behaviours than those traveling in groups. Domestic markets Offer more stable, year-round business than international tourists. Business travellers and visitors to friends/family Have potential for add-on trips, activities and spending to business activities Specialty and niche markets Willing to spend more and stay longer for authentic and / or unique special interest activities and experiences such as birdwatching, trekking, diving etc
    64. 64. D. Responsible tourism product development strategy and action planning
    65. 65. Responsible tourism product development strategy and action plan development process 1. Define the responsible tourism product development vision, goals and objectives 2. Identify and prioritise responsible tourism product development ideas 3. Design responsible tourism product development interventions 4. Develop responsible tourism product development action plan Strategy activities Action plan activities
    66. 66. 1. Define the responsible tourism product development vision, goals and objectives • Vision: Reflects the broad aims and purpose of tourism development • Goals: A clear, agreed set of aspirations to work towards • Objectives: Specific targets that when reached, will achieve the goals
    67. 67. Example of a vision, goals, and objectives in responsible tourism product development Example vision statement: • “To develop competitive and sustainable tourism products that contribute to the improvement of local livelihoods” Example development goals: • To increase the amount of spending by tourists in the destination • To improve the performance and profitability of local tourism businesses • To increasing investment in tourism • To reduce the impact of tourism on the local environment and resources Example development objectives: • To increase full time employment in tourism in the local area by 15% by 2015 • To increase average daily spend of international visitors in the local area by 5% by 2020 • To increase average annual visitation to cultural villages by 10% by 2015
    68. 68. 2. Identify and prioritise responsible tourism product development ideas Key considerations include the degree to which intervention ideas help achieve: 1. Commercial viability goals: The commercial viability and realistic development potential of the products 2. Sustainability goals: The degree to which local environmental, social and economic benefits will be created 3. Sectoral goals: Strengthening infrastructure & communications; Improving promotion in key markets; Improving visitor information & interpretation; Improving quality standards; Improving safety & security Commercial viability test Sustainability test Sectoral test TOURISM PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT OPTION
    69. 69. 3. Design responsible tourism product development interventions • Starting point - review development goals, outputs of the product-market matching analysis and the product assessment activities • Approaches to consider when designing interventions can include: Working with products that are generating high volumes of spending Working with products which may already be delivering a high proportion of spending to the poor Fostering, supporting and encouraging growth and participation of the poor
    70. 70. Principles for preparing a responsible tourism product development strategy • Emphasise stakeholder involvement • Based on principles of sustainable tourism: RESPONSIBLE TOURISM PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY Economically viable and competitive Socially equitable and culturally sensitive Environmentally responsible
    71. 71. 4. Develop the responsible tourism product development action plan • Clearly sets out what is being done, when, by whom, and resource commitments • Should be able to function as a stand-alone resource • General principles: – Ensure participation – Duration appropriate for the destination – Specify actions for all key stakeholders Who? What? When? Resources?
    72. 72. Guiding principles for securing resources for implementing action plans • Use the project action plan as a tool • Use a joint partnership budget or fund individually • Allow time for resource mobilisation • Identify mechanisms for receiving funding • Be flexible in financial planning • Look to the future VND
    73. 73. Action plan template ACTIVITY 1 RESULT TIMING RESPONSIBILITY RESOURCES Sub-activity 1 Sub-activity 2 Sub-activity 3 Sub-activity 4 ACTIVITY 2 RESULT TIMING RESPONSIBILITY RESOURCES Sub-activity 1 Sub-activity 2 Sub-activity 3 Sub-activity 4 ACTIVITY 3 RESULT TIMING RESPONSIBILITY RESOURCES Sub-activity 1 Sub-activity 2 …
    74. 74. TOPIC 4. CREATING RESPONSIBLE TOURISM SUPPLY CHAINS RESPONSIBLE TOURISM FOR TOUR OPERATORS Picture source: http://www.flickr.com/photos/echovalleyranch/7006775983/
    75. 75. Key elements in developing responsible tourism supply chains A. Understand the principles of responsible tourism supply chains B. Develop sustainable supply chain policies and action plans C. Raise awareness and support suppliers to meet sustainability targets
    76. 76. A. Understand the principles of responsible tourism supply chains
    77. 77. What is a supply chain? • The system of moving of a product or service from supplier to customer • Results in natural resources, raw materials, and components being transformed into a finished product • Tourism supply chains involve core and ancillary tourism goods and services • The final product purchased in a general tourism supply chain is the holiday Picture sources: vov.vn/Uploaded/VietHoa/2012_11_21/Bieu%20dien%20van%20nghe.jpg http://sinhcafe.com/photo_north/Maichau/maichau_hoabinh_trekking_adventuretoursdotvn.jpg http:// www.schoolanduniversity.com/images/page_uploads/Food-and-beverage-Management.jpg http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/9/97/Premier_Executive_Transport_Services_Boeing_737-700_KvW.jpg http://www.relaxitsdone.co.nz/_media/images/257-luxury-accommodation-in-queenstown-at-45-south-luxurious-master-bedroom.jpg
    78. 78. Picture source: http://piboonrungroj.files.wordpress.com/2011/07/slide03.jpg The tourism sector supply chain
    79. 79. Two compelling reasons why we need sustainable supply chains in tourism Consumers expect it You are eroding your core product
    80. 80. Some other good reasons to develop a sustainable supply chain • Improved profile / brand • Improved market access • Increased operational effectiveness • Increased sustainability
    81. 81. The function of making tourism supply chains more sustainable • Recognises sustainability goes beyond the company • Uses the power of policies and contracts combined with b2b support to create positive change • Requires working with suppliers to achieve positive financial and sustainability performance • Is grounded in the principles of responsible tourism Healthy communities Natural environment Economic vitality SUSTAINABLE TOURISM
    82. 82. Example: Putting responsibility into a component of a tour operator’s supply chain TOUROPERATOR Hotel Restaurant Dairy suppliers Fruit & vegetable suppliers Canned goods suppliers Others Attractions Others Tour operator • Uses local destination guides • Employs local staff • Recycles • Informs guests of sustainability issues • … Restaurant • Employs local staff • Sources sustainable food • Implements Fair Trade • Supports local sustainability projects • Pays fair salaries • … Suppliers • Grow food organically • Do not sell endangered animals • Have good working conditions • …
    83. 83. Example of a simple tour operator supply chain http://sociologicalimagination.org/wp-content/uploads/2010/07/tourism.jpg http://www.vietnamonline.com/userfile/news/dangnguyen/2012/11/Vietnam%20expects%206%20million%20foreign%20tourists%20this%20year.jpg http://images02.jaovat.com/ui/2/75/58/22306758_1.jpg http://stores.niengiamtrangvang.com/admin/pics/395686035/VAN%20CHUYEN%20KHACH%20DU%20LICH.jpg http://quantri.dntu.edu.vn/uploads/news/2013_05/huong-dan-vien-du-lich.jpg http://a9.vietbao.vn/images/vn901/khoa-hoc/11149425-nha-hang.jpg http://www.msccruises.com/gl_en/Images/Spa-packages.jpg http://du-lich.chudu24.com/f/m/1310/15/7-diem-den-hap-dan-nhat-viet-nam-tren-tap-chihuffington-post-2.jpg http://www.dulichvietnam.com.vn/data/quang-nam.jpg Transport Tour guide Food and Beverage Craft village and souvenir Spa and entertainment Destination and facilities
    84. 84. B. Develop sustainable supply chain policies and action plans
    85. 85. The benefits of having sustainable supply chain policy in tourism • Helps defend a company from legal disputes  • Demonstrates company commitment to sustainability  • Promotes support of suppliers to achieve sustainability objectives • Create greater stability and consistency in supplier sustainability actions resulting in the faster achievement of sustainability objectives
    86. 86. TOPIC 2 TOPIC 3 TOPIC 4 The key steps to developing a sustainable supply chain Understand where you are Conduct a baseline study to understand the sustainability of your existing supply chain Decide where you want to be Develop a sustainable supply chain policy, standards, targets and action plan Help your suppliers get there Raise awareness, build capacity and offer rewards to help your suppliers meet the sustainability goals Monitor performance and improve Monitor, evaluate and improve performance of suppliers in meeting sustainability targets
    87. 87. Example of responsible supply chain policy statement A1 Tours recognises that our social, economic and environmental impacts reside as much in our supply chain as in our own activities. In our supply chain A1 Tours will ensure that our suppliers are: • Aware of the specific environmental, social and economic issues, risks and opportunities relevant to their operations and products • Ensure they operate to internationally recognised standards of practice • Ensure systems implemented deliver effective performance management and improvement A1 Tours Responsible Supply Chain Policy Statement
    88. 88. Example of responsible supply chain procedures In order to develop a sustainable supply chain, A1 Tours will: 1. Take a leadership role in sustainable supply chain management 2. Screen suppliers for their performance in social, economic and environmental issues management 3. Support suppliers to improve sustainability performance 4. Set minimum performance standards 5. Consult with stakeholders 6. Monitor compliance to agreements 7. Terminate business relationships if performance remains below standard or suppliers are unable or unwilling to work towards performance targets A1 Tours Responsible Supply Chain Procedures
    89. 89. Sustainable supply chain action planning • Sets out the activities and resources required to support suppliers to meet sustainability standards and targets • Requirements: – Participation and agreement – Understanding of standards – Adequate resources including knowledge and skills
    90. 90. The TOI’s tips for effective sustainable supply chain action planning Involve suppliers incrementally Plan for different rates of supplier progress Focus on continuous improvements Work with other partners in the same destination Source: Tour Operators’ Initiative for Sustainable Development (TOI) 2004, Supply Chain Engagement for Tour Operators: Three Steps Toward Sustainability, TOI, France
    91. 91. Key steps in developing a sustainable contracting system • Develop approach and procedures for implementation of sustainability performance as a contracting criteria • Draft contractual clauses for minimum performance requirements • Establish procedures for supplier non-compliance  • Appoint a staff member to manage sustainable supply chain activities
    92. 92. C. Raise awareness and support suppliers to meet sustainability targets
    93. 93. The importance of awareness and support in developing sustainable supply chains •Develop sustainability messages •Communicate sustainability messages to suppliers Raising awareness creates understanding, participation and commitment •Provide training, information, networks, assistance •Offer incentives and rewards Providing support promotes action
    94. 94. Awareness raising channels relevant to developing a sustainable tourism supply chain Meetings and workshops Gather relevant suppliers together to communicate about the sustainability supply chain programme and new or amended policies. Newsletters, brochures & flyers Inform suppliers and others about the new or amended policy through your organisation’s print promotional material such as newsletters, flyers and brochures. It’s also good for your customers to read. Website Create a section on sustainability in the company website to communicate responsible tourism policies and actions. Great for suppliers and customers. Email Deliver information about the sustainability program directly to the mailbox of the supplier. Coming from senior management can add a level of authority. Quick and direct. Picture sources: Pixabay, http://pixabay.com/
    95. 95. Communicating the new sustainable supply chain policy: Key information to deliver Sustainability policy / Code of Conduct etc •The original policy / procedures / code etc in full Background •Explanation of comprehensive development process adopted Purpose •Importance about why the sustainability programme is needed Affected stakeholders •Indication about who the Policy, Code etc affects Benefits & incentives •What the direct and indirect benefits of adoption will be Implementation plan •What the company will do next to instigate the sustainability programme Further information •Where to obtain further information (or from who) and how
    96. 96. Supporting tourism suppliers through capacity building CAPACITY BUILDING OPTIONS Training Informati on resource s Mentori ng Fam trips Network s
    97. 97. The TOI’s recommendations on incentives for suppliers to meet sustainability goals • Suppliers need to be convinced of the advantages of taking sustainability measures • Recognition and rewards help foster positive action • Develop a “preferred supplier” scheme for suppliers that meet sustainability goals which offers benefits such as:  Higher rates  Longer-term contracts  Committed guarantees  Joint marketing agreements  More brochure space  Joint promotional activities  Favoured status in system sales searches Source: Tour Operators’ Initiative for Sustainable Development (TOI) 2004, Supply Chain Engagement for Tour Operators: Three Steps Toward Sustainability, TOI, France
    98. 98. TOPIC 5. ENSURING RESPONSIBILITY IN MARKETING AND COMMUNICATIONS RESPONSIBLE TOURISM FOR TOUR OPERATORS Picture source: Pixabay, www.pixabay.com
    99. 99. Key components of responsible marketing and communications A. Understand the role and importance of responsible marketing & communications B. Ensure authentic and accurate messages are communicated C. Market and communicate practices in sustainability D. Be guided by visitor feedback
    100. 100. A. Understand the role and importance of responsible marketing & communications
    101. 101. Applying principles of responsibility to marketing and communication • Respects law and good practice • Decent and honest • Respects fair competition • Has sense of social responsibility • Respects user privacy
    102. 102. Benefits of responsible tourism marketing and communication Creates competitive advantage Increases value and demand Increases customer loyalty Increases customer satisfaction Facilitates more respectful interaction in destinations
    103. 103. B. Ensure authentic and accurate messages are communicated
    104. 104. Authenticity in tourism experiences • Travel to experience something unique or original • Integrity can relate to a place, an object or an activity • While authenticity is perceived.. ..it remains highly connected to marketing tourism experiences • Services nature of tourism and component parts make marketing susceptible to inaccurate messages Picture source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Water_Puppet_Theatre_Vietnam(1).jpg
    105. 105. Examples of inauthentic advertising from around the world Picture sources: http://www.dailymail.co.uk/travel/article-2128151/France-tourism-advertising-campaign-left-red-faced-allegations-using-false-photos.html http://www.adnews.com.au/adnews/tourism-australia-s-250m-push-labelled-false-advertising http://travel.ninemsn.com.au/blog.aspx?blogentryid=335279&showcomments=true  Sharing a bottle of wine on the beach…really? Are we in Spain or the Carribbean!? The Mediterranean Sea has never looked this good!
    106. 106. Commodification of culture • The manufacturing and selling of culture for profit • Response to fulfilling demand for perceived authenticity • May result in the loss of original meaning • Imperative to ensure involvement and determination of local people Picture source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Water_Puppet_Vietnam.jpg
    107. 107. Greenwashing • Knowingly misleading consumers about a product or service’s environmental practices or benefits for own gain CAUSES • Sector’s intensity in resource use • Largely unregulated nature of the sector • Sector composition and competition • Consumer demand EFFECTS • Erosion of public trust of tourism eco-labels • Reputational damage
    108. 108. Greenwashing is all around us but can be hard to spot Example 1 • A hotel chain claims to be environmentally friendly because they allow guests to choose whether to sleep on the same sheets and use the same towels for continuous days. While the idea is good it is not making a significant difference. More impact can be made by installing for example, motion-sensor lighting, more efficient insulation and heating, or purchasing non- toxic carpeting and bedding. Example 2 • A well-known international fast food restaurant chain tried to paint itself as ‘green’ just because it had begun to use biofuel made from leftover grease in its fleet of trucks as well as using recycled paper in its takeaway bags. However the company still uses beef grazed on deforested land in South America, and bases its entire concept around disposable packaging. Source: Marie C. 2013, ‘Misleading Marketing: Beware the Greenwash!’, Elux Magazine, Feb 12, 2013
    109. 109. C. Market and communicate practices in sustainability
    110. 110. Key steps for communicating sustainability: The “Keep it Real” approach Understand the market Identify objectives of sustainability communications Develop appropriate messages and communication channels Communicate messages at the right time STEP 1 STEP 2 STEP 3 STEP 4 Source: VisitEngland 2010, Keep it real – market and communicate your credentials, London: VisitEngland and England’s Regional Sustainable Tourism Leads Group
    111. 111. Step 1. Understand the markets and customise sustainability messages • While most consumers care it does not mean they will act differently • However, when everything else is equal, sustainability values and actions differentiate a product • Need to know attitudes of key market segments and tailor sustainability messages accordingly “Ethical seekers”: Seek out green holidays as a continuation of their lifestyle “Just want to switch off”: Want a simple, uncomplicated break from daily life “Feel good factor”: Take an interest in sustainable tourism through travel press Key market segments
    112. 112. Step 2. Identify objectives of sustainability communications 1. To raise awareness and change behaviour 2. To allow tourists to feel good about doing the right thing 3. To increase visitation and/or sales Picture sources: http://www.rhinoresourcecenter.com/images/London-1874- 1885_i1314084682.php?type=tax_images&taxon=7&sort_order=asc&sort_key=year http://www.flickr.com/photos/ilovegreenland/10134146143/sizes/m/in/photostream/ http://www.vietnamspirittravel.com/guide/vietnam_bank_notes.htm
    113. 113. Step 3. Develop appropriate messages and communication channels • Common mistakes in communicating messages of sustainability: – Lecturing tourists – Being overly apologetic • Key: Communicate messages carefully to get the desired response from the consumer. Picture source: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Hmong_minority_children_in_Sa_Pa.JPG
    114. 114. BEFORE BOOKING • Pre-departure info BETWEEN BOOKING & ARRIVAL • Tourism product sustainability areas DURING THE VISIT • Physically show sustainability practices AFTER THE VISIT • Updates on sustainability activities Step 4. Communicating messages at the right time
    115. 115. D. Be guided by visitor feedback
    116. 116. Methods for collecting visitor feedback A. Surveys B. Focus groups C. Feedback forms and comment cards D. Social media E. On the spot verbal feedback and observation
    117. 117. A. Collecting visitor feedback through surveys • Set of predetermined questions about specific topics • Often used to gauge customer satisfaction after the use of a product or service • Good for benchmarking performance • Enable businesses to align their services to the expectations and needs of visitors • Can be online, by phone, mail or face to face • Best to repeat visitor satisfaction surveys at least every 3-4 years (minimum)
    118. 118. B. Collecting visitor feedback through focus groups • Open discussion of a small group of people led by a moderator • Gets in depth understanding of thoughts and opinions • Structured around predetermined questions • Group is homogenous • ‰Requires repetition
    119. 119. C. Collecting visitor feedback through feedback forms and comment cards • Physical, paper cards or forms with one or more survey questions • Designed to gather feedback after a good or service has been consumed • E.g. Visitor book at cultural heritage site, providing hotel guests with a comments card
    120. 120. D. Collecting visitor feedback through social media • Enable both direct feedback and feedback on consumer attitudes and trends • Allows product feedback before implementation through questions and discussions • Enables monitoring of brand awareness through search results • Allows for answering of basic questions via polls and e- surveys • Can elicit emotional feedback via YouTube
    121. 121. E. Collecting visitor feedback through on the spot feedback and observation • Observe what visitors are doing • Understand what visitors are thinking • Simple, cheap and fast • Helps fix problems before visitors depart • Attitude: “all feedback is good feedback”
    122. 122. TOPIC 6. RESPONSIBLE SUPPORT TO TOURISM DESTINATIONS RESPONSIBLE TOURISM FOR TOUR OPERATORS Picture source: Pixabay, www.pixabay.com
    123. 123. Key components of providing responsible support to tourism destinations A. Understand the role and importance of supporting destinations B. Incorporate responsible tourism practices into interactions with destination communities C. Promote sustainable tourism in destinations D. Help fund sustainable tourism in destinations
    124. 124. A. Understand the role and importance of supporting destinations
    125. 125. What do we mean by supporting local tourism destinations? • The provision of assistance to local communities to manage their tourism related resources sustainably • Recognises a moral obligation • Recognises it also makes businesses sense • Requires not only supporting the local people, but also the local environment, culture and economy Picture source: http://www.flickr.com/photos/noxstar/5196831438/
    126. 126. The role and benefits of supporting local tourism destinations Picture sources: http://pixabay.com/en/together-team-people-circle-hands-235128/; http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Brass_scales_with_cupped_trays.png; http://archive.saga.vn/view.aspx?id=17697; http://vi.wikipedia.org/wiki/H%E1%BB%99i_Gi%C3%B3ng; http://hinhanh.1ty.vn/view-3074/; http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chiang_Mai_Province SUPPORTING LOCAL TOURISM DESTINATIONS Participation & inclusion
    127. 127. Implementing effective support to local destinations for sustainable tourism Develop mechanisms for responsible tourism interaction Engage with key stakeholders to promote sustainable tourism development Help finance sustainable tourism • Organisational policies & procedures • Codes of conduct • Collaboration and partnership agreements • Engaging with authorities • Partnering with the private sector • Raising awareness & building capacity in sustainable tourism • Driving business • Visitor charitable activities • Fundraising • Sponsorships TOPIC 3 TOPIC 4TOPIC 2
    128. 128. B. Incorporate responsible tourism practices into interactions with destination communities
    129. 129. Relationships in a tourism code of conduct LOCAL TOURISM DESTINATION Code of Conduct Destination Management Organisation (DMO) Tourists Tourism Organisation Environment People Economy
    130. 130. Example of a visitor code of conduct 1/2 Source: VNAT, Do’s and Don'ts in Vietnam for Community-based Tourists, VNAT, Vietnam
    131. 131. Example of a visitor code of conduct 2/2 Source: VNAT, Do’s and Don'ts in Vietnam for Community-based Tourists, VNAT, Vietnam
    132. 132. Communicating codes of conduct to visitors BEFORE BOOKING • Destination’s people, culture and environment • Website, social media, brochures… DURING THE VISIT • Meet and greet • Detailed information about destination’s people, culture and environment • Signs in prominent places • Tour guides reinforce key issues BETWEEN BOOKING & ARRIVAL • How to prepare • Pre-departure pack
    133. 133. C. Promote sustainable tourism in destinations
    134. 134. Why the tourism private sector has a responsibility to promote responsible tourism • The tourism private sector is central in the tourism system giving them power and influence over how tourism develops • Collectively tourism enterprises are highly connected to the nature and impacts of tourism on destinations • Links and partnerships with tourism authorities, other businesses and the local community are key areas where the private sector can influence sustainability Picture sources: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Vietjet_Air_VN-A686_Pepsi_livery_(11100523213).jpg http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/C%C6%A1m_t%E1%BA%A5m http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rex_Hotel
    135. 135. The power and influence of the tourism private sector TOURISM ENTERPRISE (hotel, tour operator, restaurant, attraction, etc) BUSINESS COMMUNITY GOVERNMENT VISITORS SUPPLY CHAIN ACTORS Provide employment within their organisations Provide revenue through payment of tourism tariffs & taxes Provide tourism goods & services (enable the “tourism experience”) Purchase component goods & services to create tourism products Promote and / or provide trade to local businesses Influence Influence Influence
    136. 136. 3 ways the private sector can influence sustainable tourism in destinations 1. Engagement with tourism authorities 2. Working with like-minded organisations 3. Raising awareness in local communities
    137. 137. 1. Private sector engagement with destination tourism authorities A. Participate in public sector organised conferences, meetings & fourms C. Participate in public sector surveys / research B. Participate in destination policy & planning processes D. Engage in public-private partnerships Picture sources: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Handshake http://rmbr.nus.edu.sg/news/index.php?phrase=heok%20hui&start=10&category= http://www.flickr.com/photos/mhcseattle/1111568504/ http://www.flickr.com/photos/ilri/7549725204/
    138. 138. 2. Working with like-minded organisations The tourism private sector can indirectly influence destination development and sustainability by: Work with business • Join an industry association or group and lobby internally and externally for greater sustainability Work with NGOs • Collaborate with NGOs engaging in sustainable tourism projects to foster positive change.
    139. 139. Pro-Poor Tourism Project in Quan Ba, Ha Giang Province, Vietnam Location Quan Ba District, Ha Giang, Viet Nam Duration 48 months Funding Caritas Luxembourg, Caritas Switzerland and Misereor Objectives Overall Objective: reduce poverty of local communities through establishing an income- generating activity by -and for the villagers based on available and unique cultural and natural resources, its sustainable management and fostering their cultural identity. Specific Objectives:  By 2013, each commune has 2-3 villages that generate income from pro-poor tourism (homestay, services, local products, fees, and others);  On average each village receives minimum 150-200 tourists a year (maximum 720 tourists a year) for 1 night by 2013;  At least 40 households (5 per village) have regular employment and income from PPT activities and 10% belong to the poorest category;  Villages and tourist companies (8-10 in total) work together based on a MoU of PPT (2010).
    140. 140. 3. Helping raise awareness in local communities about the importance of sustainable tourism RAISING AWARENESS ABOUT SUSTAINABLE TOURISM Schools, universities & colleges Seminars & conferences Scholarships & donations • Speaking opportunities • Course input • As a presenter • As a delegate • Sustainability scholarships • Sustainability resources
    141. 141. D. Help fund sustainable tourism in destinations
    142. 142. How the private sector can help finance sustainable tourism destinations 1.Send business to heritage sites 2. Help with business plans & funding proposals 3. Partner, sponsor & fundraise 4. Promote & gain customer support 5. Encourage donations Picture sources: http://www.flickr.com/photos/wonderlane/4284011682/ http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Internet1.jpg http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oxfam http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Looseleaf.jpg http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nature
    143. 143. 1. Sending business to heritage sites • In Vietnam market analyses highlight significance of nature and culture as key motivations for travel • Promoting heritage sites also fosters greater appreciation of nature and culture and helps develop revenue to finance protection and promotion • How? – Tour operators. Incorporate natural and cultural heritage sites into range of tour packages – Hotels, restaurants etc. Recommend visiting heritage sites to customers if asked by customers ACTIVITIES & ATTRACTIONS OF HERITAGE SITES • Hiking • Cycling • Observing wildlife • Boating • Homestay experiences • Traditional art and crafts • Viewing historical relics • Observing cultural performances • Appreciating architecture • Observing religious traditions
    144. 144. 2. Assisting local organisations to prepare business plans and funding proposals What? • Local organisations working in sustainability frequently lack the knowledge and skills to strategically develop their organisations. • Two key activities that can help strengthen institutions to be more economically sustainable are strategic business planning and financing Why? • To help support organisations that are building a destination that is socially, environmentally and economically healthier and happier and more attractive for tourists to visit How? 1. Assist organisations doing good work to prepare simple business plans 2. Assist social and environmental organisations identify funding opportunities and to develop funding proposals
    145. 145. 3. Partnering, sponsoring or fundraising to support environmental and social causes Picture sources: http://www.itu.int/osg/csd/cybersecurity/gca/cop/together.html • Directly support sustainability activities in destinations by: – Helping finance NGO or community development activities – Donate unneeded equipment to needy organisations – Sponsor internships – Provide prizes of company goods or services at fundraising events – Give staff time off to participate in volunteering activities
    146. 146. 4. Promoting and gaining customer support in sustainability activities • Visitors often learn about sustainability issues after they get to the destination • Providing opportunities to support sustainability activities in the destination can tap into the good- will that is aroused • Businesses can link heritage sites with visitor support • Some common types of visitor support for sustainable development include donations, volunteering and advocacy Print material. Include information about how to support conservation and social development in the company brochure, flyer and displays around common areas Digital communication. Put on your website info about sustainability issues, support activities and how to get involved. Enable electronic donations. Play a video on the way to heritage sites. Personal recommendations. Inform tour guides and service staff about how visitors can support heritage conservation and get them to communicate this to guests
    147. 147. 5. Encouraging customers to donate to sustainability activities • Encouraging donations means providing ways for customers to directly provide finance for sustainability activities • Three key requirements: 1. Make it easy for customers to learn about a particular sustainability issue, activity, or organisation (who, what, why, how) 2. Be able to respond to questions 3. Provide clear ways for people to make contributions • How? – Provide a donations “drop box” – Add a certain amount to the holiday price – Add a fee or donation to a guests’ bill – Send a % of profits to a charity Picture sources: http://www.freefoto.com/preview/04-28-50/US-Dollar-Bills
    148. 148. Xin trân trọng cảm ơn! Thank you!

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