Unit 15: Responsible Tourism Good Practice For Protected Areas In Vietnam


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Unit 15: Responsible Tourism Good Practice For Protected Areas In Vietnam

  1. 1. UNIT 15. RESPONSIBLE TOURISM GOOD PRACTICES FOR PROTECTED AREAS IN VIETNAM Picture source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Portrait_of_a_Douc.jpg
  2. 2. Unit outline Objectives By the end of this unit, participants will be able to: • Understand the impacts of tourism in protected areas and the importance of responsible tourism • Explain how to integrate responsible tourism principles into protected area planning • Explain how responsible tourism principles should be considered in protected area infrastructure and services • Describe responsible tourism principles in visitor impact management in protected areas • Identify financing mechanisms for economic sustainability in protected areas • Explain how to communicate and interpret natural heritage responsibly • Identify how to involve local communities in protected area planning and management • Explain how to monitor and evaluate protected areas for sustainability Topics 1. Overview of protected areas and tourism in Vietnam 2. Integrating responsible tourism into planning 3. Responsible tourism considerations in infrastructure & services 4. Responsible tourism approach to visitor impact management 5. Responsible financing of protected areas 6. Responsible communication & interpretation 7. Protected area monitoring & evaluation for sustainability
  4. 4. Defining protected areas A clearly defined geographical space, recognised, dedicated and managed, through legal or other effective means, to achieve the long term conservation of nature with associated ecosystem services and cultural values Source: Dudley, N. (ed.) 2008, Guidelines for Appling Protected Areas Management Categories, IUCN, Gland, Switzerland
  5. 5. The six IUCN categories of protected areas E. Protect biodiversity and geological / geomorphical features or natural condition 1. Strict Nature Reserve (a) & Wilderness Area (b) 2. National Park 3. Natural Monument or Feature 4. Habitat / Species Management Area 5. Protected Landscape / Seascape 6. Protected Area with Sustainable Use of Natural Resources B. Protect large scale-ecological processes, species and ecosystems F. Protect a specific natural monument C. Protect a particular species or habitats A. Protect significant areas characterised by the interaction of people and nature D. Protect ecosystems, habitats and associated cultural values and traditional natural resource management systems ?
  6. 6. The six IUCN categories of protected areas E. Protect biodiversity and geological / geomorphical features or natural condition 1. Strict Nature Reserve (a) & Wilderness Area (b) 2. National Park 3. Natural Monument or Feature 4. Habitat / Species Management Area 5. Protected Landscape / Seascape 6. Protected Area with Sustainable Use of Natural Resources B. Protect large scale-ecological processes, species and ecosystems F. Protect a specific natural monument C. Protect a particular species or habitats A. Protect significant areas characterised by the interaction of people and nature D. Protect ecosystems, habitats and associated cultural values and traditional natural resource management systems !
  7. 7. Vietnam’s natural environment at a glance 128 More than forested protected areas 15 marine protected areas of the land under some form of environmental protection 18% wetlands of national importance 68 10% about of the world’s species
  8. 8. Bio- diversity & ecology Poverty reduction Fresh water & food security Medicines & genetics Natural barriers Regulates climate change Recreation al, spiritual Traditional lifestyles Social capital & solidarity The benefits of protected areas
  9. 9. The key administrators of Vietnam’s protected areas Ministry of Planning and Investment (MPI) Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development (MARD) Ministry of Fisheries (MOFI) Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment (MONRE) Ministry of Culture & Information Vietnam National Administration of Tourism (VNAT) Provincial People’s Committees (PPCs)
  10. 10. The growing importance of tourism in protected areas Protected areas play an important role in tourism by offering visitors places for: • Outdoor recreational • Education and learning • Solace, spiritualism, healing and renewal FINDINGS OF THE INTERNATIONAL ECOTOURISM SOCIETY • Ecotourism has been growing 20%- 34% per year since the 1990s • In the international market nature- based tourism has been growing at 10-12% per annum • Indications that tourism is expanding most in and around the word’s remaining natural areas • Eco-resorts and hotels are expected to boom faster than traditional forms of accommodation Source: The International Ecotourism Society 2006, Fact Sheet: Global Ecotourism, Available [online]: http://mekongtourism.org/website/wp- content/uploads/downloads/2011/02/Fact-Sheet-Global- Ecotourism-IETS.pdf (accessed May 2013)
  11. 11. The three key tourism market segments to protected areas Mass tourism • Largest component of international tourism market • Seek ‘sun, sea, sand’ and entertainment • Often on holiday packages • Take excursions to local attractions • Visit protected areas for soft leisure activities • Growing demand for excursions Adventure tourism • Growing segment • Involves strenuous outdoor activities • Often in protected areas • Adventure rather than nature • Potentially damaging activities Ecotourism / Nature- based tourism • Want to see attractive natural environments and their wildlife • Undertake specific nature based activities • Relatively high social bracket, well-educated, over 35, more women than men • A key segment that can benefit conservation
  12. 12. International vs. domestic markets to protected areas in Vietnam INTERNATIONAL MARKET DOMESTIC MARKET Travel independently, any group size Motivation is soft leisure activities Popular with ‘Phot’ High visitation rates Travel in small groups and / or organised tours Motivation is adventure and eco-tourism Stronger for first time visitors Mainly stick to 5H’s Source: Grunz, S. 2012, Responsible Tourism in and Around Protected Areas in Vietnam – Opportunities and Challenges for Businesses and Protected Areas [unpublished], GIZ/MARD Project “Preservation of biodiversity in forest ecosystems in Vietnam”, GIZ
  13. 13. The benefits of tourism in protected areas SOCIAL Supports revival and maintenance of local culture Supports cross cultural empathy Promotes preservation of historical heritage Training for communities Others? ECONOMIC Economic incentives for habitat protection Revenue raising for community projects Employment for local people Selling of local products Diversified livelihoods Funding for protected areas management Others? ENVIRONMENT Supports conservation of biodiversity Awareness raising for tourists and locals on importance of conservation Others?
  14. 14. Negative environmental impacts of tourism in protected areas (example) ACTIVITY ISSUE RESULT (WHY IT’S A PROBLEM) 1. Vegetation removal Tourists picking flowers to take home Interrupts reproduction processes of plants; Removes a food source for insects and other animals; Diminishes aesthetic values of protected area… 2. Trekking … … 3. … … … 4. … … … 5. … … …
  15. 15. Negative environmental impacts of tourism in protected areas • Vegetation removal • Animal disturbance • Elimination of animal habitats • Pollution • Changes to drainage patterns • Firewood over exploitation • Trampling / damage to vegetation • Introduction of alien species • Destruction of flora and fauna • Animal “road kills” • Changes to geological processes • Others? -VE ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS
  16. 16. Negative economic impacts of tourism in protected areas • Conflict over control of land • Conflict over control of resources • Conflict over tourism profits • Others? -VE ECONOMIC IMPACTS
  17. 17. Negative social impacts of tourism in protected areas • Threats to indigenous culture • Changes to social values • Changes to traditional livelihood practices • Loss of access to resources • Degradation of cultural sites • Visitor-host cultural conflict • Others? -VE SOCIAL IMPACTS
  18. 18. Responsible tourism: Building a sustainable future for protected areas Uses natural resources optimally whilst still conserving the natural heritage and biodiversity Respects and conserves socio- cultural authenticity including built and living cultural heritage and traditional values Ensures viable, long term economic benefits to all stakeholders including fair distribution of benefits
  19. 19. The responsible tourism approach ENVIRONMENT SOCIAL ECONOMIC SUSTAINABLE TOURISM 1. BE ACCOUNTABLE 3. TAKE ACTION 2. HAVE CAPACITY RESPONSIBLE TOURISM We must accept that every decision and action we make in our daily lives has an impact. We must take responsibility for our actions and acquire the knowledge, skills and resources to make change. Being responsible is not just an intent. It requires action. And that action must be for good - based upon the law, our ethics and morals.
  20. 20. More satisfied visitors The benefits of adopting a responsible tourism approach in protected areas Picture source: Pixabay, www.pixabay.com Greater ownership and accountability Enhanced biodiversity & ecosystem health Empowerment of local residents Enhanced contribution for conservation
  22. 22. What is the issue? • Many PAs in Vietnam have do not have comprehensive and up to date master plans • PA plans help ensure areas retain their values and benefits • PA plans address environmental compatibility, product quality and business aspects
  23. 23. The importance of effective PA planning and implementation “If there is no general management plan, preservation, development and use activities in a park will occur in a haphazard basis, often in response to political pressures with little consideration as to the implications for the future. The result is likely to be lost opportunities and irreversible damage to park resources and values.” Young & Young, 1993 Source: Young, C. & Young, B. 1993, Park Planning: A training manual (Instructors Guide), College of African Wildlife Management, Mweka, Tanzania
  24. 24. The challenge in protected area planning CONSERVATION Goal: Preserve biodiversity LOCAL PARTICIPATION Goal: Empowerment, poverty alleviation TOURISM BUSINESS Goal: Customer satisfaction, profitability - Preventing local development - Loss of financial resources - Environmental degradation - Exploitation- Unprofessional enterprises - Unsustainable use of natural resources + Joint product development & marketing + Joint ventures + Sustainable use of natural resources Source: Strasdas, W. 2002, The Ecotourism Training Manual for Protected Area Managers, German Foundation for International Development (DSE) & Centre for Food, Rural Development and the Environment (ZEL), Germany
  25. 25. Benefits of PA plans that follow responsible tourism principles • Better ensures objectives of all stakeholders can be met and funded • Fosters greater respect, co-operation and support • Creates a common understanding for the PA set within the broader framework of plans and policies • Fosters transparency and public accountability • Enables continued improvement
  26. 26. PROTECTED AREA PLANNING 1. Be guided by a comprehensive PA management plan 2. Embrace participation 3. Adopt a regional ecosystem approach 4. Plan zones for effective management Principles of good practice in PA planning and responsible tourism approaches
  27. 27. Principle 1: Be guided by a comprehensive PA management plan Develop a PA management plan that contains as a core: • Conservation targets • Vision, management objectives, and principles • Opportunities and constraints • Management zones • Monitoring and evaluation plan Picture source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Protected_areas_of_Vietnam
  28. 28. Key inclusions in protected area management plans Description Summarises natural, cultural, historical and socio-economic features, how it is used, and its legal and management framework Evaluation Identifies why the protected area is important. Explains the values associated with it. Issues & problems Analyses the constraints and opportunities affecting the area, in particular focusing on principal internal / external threats to conservation, management and maintenance Vision & objectives The broad, long-term vision for the protected area. May take the form of goals, and a vision statement. Objectives should be listed as specific statements outlining what is to be achieved within the plan’s timeframe. Objectives can be Limits of Acceptable Change (LACs). Zoning plan A summary of the more detailed Zoning Plan that illustrates the boundaries, classification and management and other activities allowed or prohibited in areas of the reserve. Management actions The specific actions to be carried out in order to achieve the objectives including: list of management actions required; action / activity plan (what, who, when), priority activities, and; staff and finances required Monitoring & review Outlines how implementation of the plan will be monitored (including indicators and targets), and when and how a review of the plan will be carried out.
  29. 29. Legislation Agency policies, strategies Regional plans, broad-scale land management plans Management plans for protected areas / reserves Subsidiary plans Operational / action plans, work programmes Ensure plan is integrated into broader context to ensure sustainability • The plan will not be sustainable unless it fits in with relevant higher level plans and policies • Critical to review legislation / formal agreements designating the area (e.g. IUCN category) and confirm their meaning • These set the overriding purpose and goals of the management plan Protected area management plans fit here
  30. 30. Principle 2: Embrace participation • Involving key stakeholders critical to success of PA plans • Key stakeholders may be external (local people, visitors, others) or internal (staff involved in implementation of the plan) • Participation creates sense of ownership and is more likely to generate action • The opportunity for the general public and stakeholders to review the draft Management Picture source: Pixabay, www.pixabay.com
  31. 31. Key stakeholders in protected area planning STAKEHOLDERS Government authorities Protected area planners Businesses Community leaders & groups Nearby residents Occupiers Researchers
  32. 32. Methods for involving stakeholders in PA planning METHOD TYPE OF INVOLVEMENT Press releases /advertisements inviting submissions Informing Radio / TV appearances to discuss planning issues Informing Publication of specialised pre-planning pamphlets / brochures which provide detailed discussion on specific issues Informing Publication of draft plans of management Informing Open forum public meetings to present and discuss planning documents Consulting Pre-arranged meetings of special interest groups to resolve conflicting requirements Deciding together Consultations between planners and individuals / organisations Consulting Analysis of written public submissions by agencies and third parties Deciding together Referral of public submissions to external advisory groups e.g. committees comprising community leaders / representatives Consulting Formal involvement of independent statutory advisory committees in assessing plans and public submissions Deciding together Input through political processes, particularly in regard to more difficult issues Deciding together Source: Thomas, L. & Middleton, J. 2003, Guidelines for Management Planning of Protected Areas, IUCN Gland, Switzerland & Cambridge, UK
  33. 33. Guidelines for consultation on PA management plans Adapted from: Phillips, A. 2002, Management Guidelines for IUCN Category V Protected Areas Protected Landscapes/seascapes, IUCN, Gland, Switzerland, & Cambridge, UK Record and document all comments and contacts Produce materials that are informative, clear and user- friendly Obtain comments using a variety of culturally appropriate methods Be open to revisiting any proposal Identify all stakeholders and approach them on the basis of equality and transparency Promptly respond to all requests for meetings, materials etc Consider every view - whether it is adopted or not Give stakeholders adequate time for input Feedback the results of consultation to all Treat stakeholders as respected and essential partners Picture source: Pixabay, www.pixabay.com
  34. 34. Involving the local community • PA authorities have a responsibility to support local communities because of socio-economic restrictions PA often place on them • Moreover, helping local communities in and around PAs can also help PA management by: – Decreasing destructive or damaging effects of natural resource extraction / use – Drawing on their local knowledge of the environment for planning – Promoting the development of sustainable tourism products Picture source: Pixabay, www.pixabay.com
  35. 35. Tips for involving the local community in PA planning Implement a participatory assessment of socio- economic development needs Ensure the local community is fairly represented in stakeholder forums Assist the local community develop a formal destination management organisation Train key community representatives in PA management and conservation
  36. 36. Types of local participation for consideration in PA planning Type of participation Level of skill required Level of empowerment Security of return (risk) Direction of benefits Contribution to local development Reception of PA user fees None None Secure Community as a whole Low Sale of land to investor None Low Very secure Individuals or community as a whole Low Rent of land or delegation of user rights None Low Secure Individuals or community as a whole Low Employment by outside investor Low to moderate Low Fairly secure Individuals (can include poorest) Moderate Supply of goods and services Low to moderate Low to moderate Fairly secure Individuals (favours more active members) Moderate Community – private sector joint venture Moderate Moderate to high Fairly secure Active individuals and community as a whole High Independent community enterprise High High Insecure Active individuals and community as a whole High Individual local enterprise High High Insecure Active individuals High Source: Strasdas, W. 2002, The Ecotourism Training Manual for Protected Area Managers, German Foundation for International Development (DSE) & Centre for Food, Rural Development and the Environment (ZEL), Germany
  37. 37. 7 tips for increasing “ownership” of PA management plans among staff 1. Secure a strong public commitment from senior personnel 5. Allocate members of staff with activities identified in the plan 2. Ensure real and visible linkages between plan and budgetary allocations 6. Provide work plans for staff 3. Hold meetings to inform staff about the plan at the outset and identify how staff can participate 7. Link the plan to annual performance assessments 4. Involve staff at key stages in the formulation of the plan Source: Thomas, L. & Middleton, J. 2003, Guidelines for Management Planning of Protected Areas, IUCN Gland, Switzerland & Cambridge, UK Picture source: Pixabay, www.pixabay.com
  38. 38. Principle 3. Adopt a regional ecosystem approach • Protected areas are impacted upon by external decisions, activities and ecological processes • PA management plans must consider resource use and impacts outside its boundaries • Particularly important when other administrations manage outside areas • For success, PA planning see itself as aiming to build more sustainable patterns of development in general Picture source: Pixabay, www.pixabay.com
  39. 39. Three focus areas for regional integration Integrate or link PA management plans with local development processes and the activities of other agencies and organisations working in the area. Identify and address the aspirations and needs of the local communities around the protected area (as well as those living in it) in the PA management plan Incorporate regional stakeholders in the planning of buffer zones and compatible uses, and in educational, interpretive and community involvement programmes
  40. 40. Principle 4. Plan zones for effective management • Zoning defines what can and cannot occur in different areas of a PA including: – Natural resource management – Cultural resources management – Human use and benefit – Visitor use and experience – Access – Facilities and park development – Maintenance and operations • Zones establish limits of acceptable use and development Picture sources: Pixabay, http://pixabay.com/
  41. 41. Typical functions of zones Separate conflicting human activities Enable damaged areas to be set aside to recover or be restored Provide protection for critical habitats, ecosystems and ecological processes Protect the natural and / or cultural qualities while allowing a range of reasonable human uses Picture sources: Pixabay, http://pixabay.com/
  42. 42. Types of protected area zones Non-use zones •Extremely sensitive eco-systems •Closed to visitors or use not encouraged Backcountry / wilderness •Pristine, sensitive ecosystems •No infrastructure except for primitive trails •Low visitor numbers •Guides may be required Moderate / quiet zone •Moderately sensitive ecosystems •Basic infrastructure possibly including improved trails, viewpoints and simple campgrounds at some places •Moderate visitor numbers Intensive use zone •Less sensitive ecosystems •Hardened surfaces and improved infrastructure including roads, trails, viewpoints and rest areas •High visitor numbers, adjacent to infrastructure zone Infrastructure zone •Less sensitive ecosystems •Concentrating buildings, services, parking lots and general park maintenance •Located on the periphery or outside of parks and not too close to non-use or wilderness zones Sports fishing and hunting zones •Fishing may be allowed through a special licence in some of the zones (except for non-use zones) •Hunting is not compatible with other types of tourism and has to be restricted to specially managed hunting blocks, often in buffer zones adjacent to the actual PA Source: Strasdas, W. 2002, The Ecotourism Training Manual for Protected Area Managers, German Foundation for International Development (DSE) & Centre for Food, Rural Development and the Environment (ZEL), Germany
  43. 43. Example of a protected area zoning plan Ocean Attraction Guard post Walking trail Ocean Ocean There are 4 zones in this plan. What are they? Ocean Road, entrance 1. 2. 4. 3.
  44. 44. Ocean Ocean BUFFER ZONE INTENSIVE USE ZONE NON-USE ZONE WILDERNESS ZONE Ocean Road, entrance Attraction Guard post Walking trail Example of a protected area zoning plan
  45. 45. Guiding principle: Keep zoning plans simple 1. Don’t create too complex a pattern of zoning 2. Using multiple zones with only slight differences between them can be confusing to the public and management 3. The aim is to use the minimum number of zones needed to achieve the management objectives 4. Zones should be able to be easily identified by visitors and enable them to know what zone they are in and therefore what constraints apply Picture source: Pixabay, www.pixabay.com
  47. 47. What is the issue? • Many PA’s in Vietnam lack, or have insufficient or low quality infrastructure and services • Trails, signs, roads, and services are generally limited or low quality • As a result: – More adverse environmental impacts from limited visitor and business controls – Compromises to visitor health and safety – Low visitor satisfaction resulting in less revenue from entrance fees and use of services
  48. 48. Poor / limited infrastructure & services Visitor has unsatisfactory experience Unlikely to return; Negative word of mouth Less visitors and revenue from visitor fees Less finance for conservation and management The effect of poor infrastructure and services in PAs VICIOUS CYCLE Picture source: Pixabay, www.pixabay.com
  49. 49. The link between infrastructure and services and responsible tourism in PAs SOCIAL •Compromises visitor health and safety •Less ability to inform and educate visitors on importance of PAs ENVIRONMENTAL •Restricted controls over visitor and business impacts on the environment ECONOMIC •Less revenue for conservation and management – PA is not economically sustainable RESPONSIBLE TOURISM Impact of limited or inadequate infrastructure & services = Compromised social, economic & environmental sustainability RT Pillars
  50. 50. The importance and benefits of providing adequate infrastructure Visitor satisfaction, referrals, repeat visitation Reduced health and safety incidents Healthier ecosystems Better managed tourism behaviour Opportunities to increase fees and revenue Picture source: Pixabay, www.pixabay.com
  51. 51. INFRASTRUCTURE & SERVICES 1. Reflect PA values and policies 2. Situate strategically 3. Design appropriately Principles of good practice in infrastructure & service provision in PAs
  52. 52. Principle 1: Reflect PA values and policies in infrastructure and services • Infrastructure and services must be consistent with protected area values • Infrastructure and services must also be appropriate to the zone it is situated in • General principle: All facilities must provide a net benefit for conservation
  53. 53. What is appropriate and why? Picture source: Pixabay, www.pixabay.com
  54. 54. Attractiveness of protected areas as perceived by visitors Natural attractions •Grand / diverse landscapes (mountains, lakes, rivers, waterfalls etc) •High biodiversity •Interesting flora and fauna •Pristine ecosystems Accessibility •Proximity to major transport hubs (airport, bus, train, highway) •Ease of travel (e.g. condition of roads) Accommodation and F&B •Adequate lodgings •Adequate quality meals Recreation •Opportunities for: •Swimming •Hiking •Climbing •Kayaking •Picnicing and camping Cultural attractions •Archaeological or historic sites •Traditional cultures •Paleontological sites •Complementary attractions nearby Ancillary services •Information centre •Emergency services •Medical care •Toilets What infrastructure and services are required to help meet the visitor needs above?
  55. 55. Principle 2: Situate infrastructure and services strategically • Infrastructure must be situated appropriately in order to not compromise the ecological processes and to have best use and effect • Zoning system should provide guide on what should go where • The location of infrastructure and services can also be a strategy to manage visitor and business impacts Picture source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Protected_areas_of_Vietnam
  56. 56. Infrastructure and service types, functions, impacts and location considerations INFRASTRUCTURE / SERVICE FUNCTION IMPACTS LOCATION Paved roads Enables good accessibility Should be kept to a minimum Impacts on peace and tranquillity, safety, harm wildlife / habitats Intensive use zone Trails Provide a range of trails to facilitate visitor enjoyment Requires careful grading, maintenance, careful siting, supported by good and available maps and directional signs Impacts on safety, harm wildlife / habitats, litter, fires Intensive use zone, Wilderness zone (more basic, difficult trails) Waterway facilities Piers and jetties facilitate enjoyment of water areas and are needed for boating Should only be provided in accessible transport hub locations Impacts on peace and tranquillity, safety, harm wildlife / habitats Intensive use zone Information and interpretation Facilitate learning about the PA values, and communicates rules and regulations Should be located beside various attractions / features Large facilities can impact on peace and tranquillity, effective use and impact if located in high traffic areas Entrance to PA, Buffer Zone, at attractions Recreational facilities Facilitates leisure needs of visitors, toilets, picnic areas, taps, shelters etc Should be located away from wilderness areas Impacts on peace and tranquillity, safety, harm wildlife / habitats, litter, fires Intensive use zone Accommodation, F&B Hotels, resorts, restaurants, cafes etc increase length of stay, visitor spend, and increase enjoyment Should be situated away from sensitive areas Impacts on peace and tranquillity, harm wildlife / habitats in construction, environmental, affects visual aesthetics Outside the PA or in Buffer Zone
  57. 57. Principle 3: Design infrastructure and services appropriately • The objective in the design of infrastructure is to: – Provide a variety of attractive opportunities to experience nature – Respect the natural environment – Be practical and user-friendly • Should also be continually improved according to visitor feedback Picture source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Protected_areas_of_Vietnam
  58. 58. Good design principles for trails in PAs Should access the PA’s most interesting features Should avoid highly sensitive ecosystems / habitats Should use good design to reduce impacts (e.g. boardwalks, steps) Should incorporate loops / circuits to manage traffic and maintain interest Should have a range of difficulty levels and durations Should be kept simple, natural and easily identified Should be widened and hardened in high use areas Picture source: Pixabay, www.pixabay.com
  59. 59. Good design principles for buildings in PAs Siting should consider construction impacts on ecosystem processes and wildlife habitats Should create a ‘sense of place’, reflect the surrounding nature and create a unique experience Should reflect local culture / architecture Should incorporate green principles Should be open to the natural environment Should not be higher than surrounding trees Should use colours that blend with surrounding environment Should involve respectfully preserving, restoring or repairing any existing built heritage Picture source: Pixabay, www.pixabay.com
  60. 60. Good design principles for gardens and grounds Should use natural materials for any constructed facilities Should integrate prominent trees, rocks, waterways Gardens should use native plants Should use natural barriers rather than man-made barriers Picture source: Pixabay, www.pixabay.com
  62. 62. What is the issue? • Protected areas can only achieve their purpose if the natural features and processes of the reserve remain in good condition • However, impacts on the natural environment can occur even under relatively low levels of use • Effective tourism impact management is therefore critical to the sustainability of PAs Picture source: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Damage_to_All_Ability_Trail_caused_by_logging._-_geograph.org.uk_-_1192344.jpg
  63. 63. Managing visitor impacts is also about managing visitor safety Recreation Personal injury Potential claims and pay outs Picture source: Pixabay, www.pixabay.com
  64. 64. Causes of tourism impacts in PAs • Visitor activities and associated infrastructure  • Transportation  • Operation of tourism service providers  • Accommodation, F&B operation • Associated infrastructure • Indirect developments Source: Strasdas, W. 2002, The Ecotourism Training Manual for Protected Area Managers, German Foundation for International Development (DSE) & Centre for Food, Rural Development and the Environment (ZEL), Germany
  65. 65. Factors which affect the level of tourism impact Characteristics of the site Intensity and type of use Interactions of PA management Source: Strasdas, W. 2002, The Ecotourism Training Manual for Protected Area Managers, German Foundation for International Development (DSE) & Centre for Food, Rural Development and the Environment (ZEL), Germany Picture source: Pixabay, www.pixabay.com
  66. 66. Benefits of effective tourism impact management Safeguards the health of important ecosystemsGains the support and participation of the public Controls and contains visitor and tourism business activities Reduces the number and extent of health and safety incidents Picture source: Pixabay, www.pixabay.com
  67. 67. Impacts of tourism in PAs TYPE ACTIVITY ISSUE IMPACT Tourist activities Hiking / walking Construction of trails, trampling Destruction of vegetation, damage to vegetation, soil erosion and compaction Boat / canoe / kayak trips Camping / picnic Sale / extraction of souvenirs Mountaineering / trekking Diving Hunting Sport fishing Tourism services & infrastructure Infrastructure construction Vehicles Boats Accommodation, F&B Building construction Accommodation & F&B operation Source: Strasdas, W. 2002, The Ecotourism Training Manual for Protected Area Managers, German Foundation for International Development (DSE) & Centre for Food, Rural Development and the Environment (ZEL), Germany
  68. 68. Impacts of tourism in PAs TYPE ACTIVITY ISSUE IMPACT Touristactivities Hiking / walking Construction of trails, trampling Destruction of vegetation, damage to vegetation, soil erosion and compaction Boat / canoe / kayak trips Physical presence Disturbance to sea life, damage to aquatic vegetation Camping / picnic Construction of camp sites, noise, litter, fires, trampling Soil erosion and compaction, damage to vegetation, disturbance to wildlife, pollution, risk of bush fires Sale / extraction of souvenirs Sale of animals / animal parts, extraction of coral, shells etc Decimation of rare species, damage to reefs, species decimation Mountaineering / trekking Physical presence, trampling, spike fixing Trample damage to vegetation, disturbance to animals, damage to rocks, visual pollution Diving Breaking coral, underwater hunting Damage to reefs, decimation of certain species Hunting Infringing ethical hunting principles Decimation of certain species, disturbance, affect food chain Sport fishing Over fishing, fishing with dynamite, cutting new trails Decimation of species, disturbance, affects food chain, destruction of entire ecosystems Tourismservices& infrastructure Infrastructure construction Land consumption, logging Deforestation, damage to vegetation, splitting up integral ecosystems Vehicles Driving off road, noise, pollution Soil erosion and compaction, damage to vegetation, road kills, air / soil / water contamination Boats Noise, pollution, wave impacts Disturbance to wildlife, air and water pollution, shoreline erosion and damage to vegetation and nests Accommodat ion,F&B Building construction Logging, noise, drainage, exposed sites, inappropriate architecture Deforestation, animal disturbance, impairment of landscape Accommodation & F&B operation Presence of people, power use, water consumption, poor waste disposal, untreated sewage Animal disturbance, land / water / air contamination, lowering of water table, litter Source: Strasdas, W. 2002, The Ecotourism Training Manual for Protected Area Managers, German Foundation for International Development (DSE) & Centre for Food, Rural Development and the Environment (ZEL), Germany
  69. 69. TOURISM IMPACT MANAGEMENT 1: Enforce PA zones 2: Offer incentives and enforce regulations 3: Inform and educate 4: Implement visitor safety provisions Principles of good practice in tourism impact management in PAs
  70. 70. Principle 1: Enforce PA zoning system • Ensure the PA zoning plan is effectively implemented • The zones will allocate geographical areas for specific levels and intensities of activities and of conservation • Zones can also be implemented temporally • Further formalise zones by developing and implementing policies • The policies should detail: – Use of natural and cultural resources – Access – Facilities – Protected area development – Maintenance and operations Picture source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pendjari_National_Park
  71. 71. Principle 2: Offer incentives and enforce regulations INCENTIVES Encourage appropriate behaviour in PAs by offering rewards REGULATIONS Enforce acceptable behaviour in PAs by giving penalties for doing the wrong thing
  72. 72. Regulations to minimise impacts by reducing tourism volume Access Number of visitors Length of stay Tour group size Skills and / or equipment Extent of facilities Timing Barriers Picture source: Pixabay, www.pixabay.com
  73. 73. Regulations to minimise impacts by changing tourism behaviour Types of activities Frequency of use Impact appraisals Travel Conditions of use Park rangers Guides Information and education Qualifications and standards Picture source: Pixabay, www.pixabay.com
  74. 74. Incentives to minimise impacts • Offer specific benefits for communities and businesses operating in the protected area to behave in an environmentally / socially / economically sensitive way. • Two examples are: VISITORS • Provide a gift / souvenir for visitors who donate to a PA environmental project • What else can you think of? SERVICES • Develop a “preferred supplier” scheme for suppliers that meet sustainability goals which offers benefits such as: higher rates, longer- term contracts, committed guarantees, joint marketing agreements, more brochure space, joint promotional activities • What else can you think of?
  75. 75. Principle 3: Inform and educate to minimise tourism impacts • “Soft” management tools • Aim to reduce negative impacts of tourism by: – Educating tourists and tourism businesses – Influencing behaviour • Two key options are: A. Educating visitors about importance of the natural environment and ecosystem processes B. Communicating expected codes of conduct on visitor and business behaviour in the PA Picture source: Pixabay, www.pixabay.com
  76. 76. A. Educate visitors about the importance of the natural environment • Most visitors mean well but simply do not know what the problem is • Providing simple information about the values of the protected area, important species, and important ecological processes can be enough to encourage sensitive behaviour in PAs • Communicating PA values, and management’s goals and policies can be achieved through well- placed signs, brochures, posters and flyers • Visitor information centres / interpretation centres are also very effective
  77. 77. Examples of interpretation of natural values
  78. 78. Good practice tip: Interpretation should engage 1. Visitors enjoy activities requiring some form of participation 2. People remember activities with interactive elements 3. Make the experience more meaningful by enabling visitors to smell, taste, feel, explore, lift, push 4. Provide field guides, photographs of local events or interesting people; or plant and animal specimens Picture source: Pixabay, www.pixabay.com
  79. 79. Examples of engaging interpretive displays
  80. 80. B. Communicate tourism codes of conduct • Voluntary principles and practices that visitors are requested to follow • Codes of conduct can be developed to both limit negative impacts of tourism activities and also enhance positive impacts • Codes of conduct must be well- communicated in order to be effective Picture source: Pixabay, www.pixabay.com
  81. 81. Example of a visitor code of conduct 1/2 Source: VNAT, Do’s and Don'ts in Vietnam for Community-based Tourists, VNAT, Vietnam
  82. 82. Example of a visitor code of conduct 2/2 Source: VNAT, Do’s and Don'ts in Vietnam for Community-based Tourists, VNAT, Vietnam
  83. 83. Good practice in developing effective tourism codes of conduct Sustainability. Do the criteria consider the environment, economy and people? Equity. Do the criteria reflect the interests of everyone? Efficiency & effectiveness. Are the criteria practical and follow best practice in sustainable management? Relevance. Do the criteria directly connect to the destination’s own sustainability goals?
  84. 84. Responsibilities of businesses and host communities in local tourism destinations AS THE HOST COMMUNITY WE AGREE TO: •Provide quality tourist products and experiences •Provide a safe and secure environment for tourists to visit •Be welcoming and friendly to visitors •Protect local cultures and traditions •Raise local awareness about the importance of balancing conservation and economic development •…what else? AS A TOURISM ORGANISATION WE AGREE TO: •Employ local staff and local guides •Patronise small locally owned businesses •Discourage our customers offering money to beggars •Discourage our customers from littering •Discourage our customers from damaging the natural environment •Discourage our customers from purchasing protected animals •Support local social and environmental projects •Respect local and provincial laws, rules and regulations affecting business operation •Interpret the environment and culture authentically and accurately •…what else?
  85. 85. The responsibility of visitors in local tourism destinations As a visitor I agree to: Help the local economy by… • Using accredited operators • Buying locally made souvenirs • Eating at local restaurants • Staying in locally-owned places • Purchasing fair trade products • Supporting responsible tourism operators.. Help the local environment by… • Not littering • Avoiding excessive waste • Leaving nature as it is • Not disturbing wildlife • Putting out cigarettes properly • Carbon offseting • Saving energy • Not purchasing or eating endangered species… Help the local people by… • Being considerate of the communities I visit • Donating via reputable institutions • Not giving money to children and beggars • Respecting cultural difference • Not supporting the illegal drug or sex trade • Using responsible travel providers • Using operators with responsible tourism policies. Picture source: Pixabay, www.pixabay.com
  86. 86. Principle 4: Implement visitor safety provisions • Recreation carries risks to the health and safety of the visitor and may indirectly impact on the PA authority • Visitor safety, accidents, liability and search and rescue must be considered • Staff should be trained in how to react to accidents and other emergency situations • A risk and emergency management plan should be developed Picture source: Pixabay, www.pixabay.com
  87. 87. What is a risk? Risk Frequency of incident Severity of consequences
  88. 88. Guidelines for the risk management process Is the process working effectively to identify and manage risks? - Develop a list of risks associated with an area or activity; Develop checklists to use when inspecting the area; Inspect the area and talk to visitors; Record all risks identified Have the control measures eliminated or reduced the risks to an acceptable level? Have the control measures introduced any new risks? - Gather information about each risk identified; Think about the likelihood of an event (e.g. frequency of exposure to risk and probability that an accident will occur); Assess probable consequences (number of people at risk and likely severity of an injury); Use exposure, probability and consequence to calculate level or risk Determine control measures - Eliminate risk; Transfer risk; Reduce risk probability; Reduce risk impact; Accept risk Assess effectiveness of control measures - Review proposed measures; Apply control measures; Monitor effectiveness through regular assessments and documentation 1. IDENTIFY THE RISKS Identify all risks associated with an area or activity 2. ASSESS THE RISKS Assess the level of each risk 3. MANAGE THE RISKS Decide on and use the appropriate control measures 4. MONITOR & REVIEW Monitor residual risks and review Source: Eagles, P., McCool, S. & Haynes, C. 2002, Sustainable Tourism in Protected Areas: Guidelines for Planning and Management, IUCN, Gland, Switzerland & Cambridge, UK
  89. 89. TOPIC 5. FINANCING PROTECTED AREAS FOR ECONOMIC SUSTAINABILITY RESPONSIBLE TOURISM GOOD PRACTICES FOR PROTECTED AREAS IN VIETNAM Picture source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Greater_Rufous-headed_Parrotbill_(Paradoxornis_ruficeps).jpg
  90. 90. What is the issue? • Around the world government funding of PAs is becoming increasingly limited • With out adequate funding for PAs:  The ability of authorities to maintain the PA’s natural values is compromised  Alternative land uses and even destructive practices may become more prevalent  Livelihood options for communities will become even more limited • To achieve economic sustainability public funding needs to be supported by a diverse mix of supplementary revenue raising strategies Picture source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/User:Maky/ProjectRosewoodLogging/Archive1
  91. 91. The evolution of protected areas: Increasing value but increasing pressure Before Now • Funded by governments • Maintained as assets for the nation • National populations relatively small • Accessibility limited • Limited population pressure • Government funding more limited • Recognition of importance of biodiversity • Large population • Highly accessible • Increasing pressure on environment and wildlife • More competing interests on exploitation of natural resources Picture source: Pixabay, www.pixabay.com
  92. 92. Typical economic model of tourism in PAs Government funding Entrance fees Return of income over budget Departure & hotel taxes Business & sales tax Employment & income tax Employment & wages Licences & user fees Infrastructure & management costs Employment & wages Payments for goods & services Tourists National government – Local government Businesses Local communities Protected areas Source: Font, X., Cochrane, J., and Tapper, R. 2004, Tourism for Protected Area Financing: Understanding tourism revenues for effective management plans, Leeds Metropolitan University, Leeds, UK
  93. 93. Benefits of supplementary revenue raising strategies in PAs Better enable the implementation of prioritised protected area management activities Provide increased stability and confidence in budgeting Reduce the potential for conflicting or damaging forms of resource use such as logging and hunting Reduce the financial strain on provincial and national budgets Picture source: Pixabay, www.pixabay.com
  94. 94. RESPONSIBLE FINANCING 1. Review financing mechanisms to identify opportunities 2. Implement innovative fund raising strategies 3. Support the local economy Principles of good practice in responsible financing of PAs
  95. 95. Principle 1: Review financing mechanisms to identify opportunities • Existing funding and revenue making structures and systems may be inefficient or ineffective providing • Analysing current financing systems can sometimes reveal opportunities to cut costs or increase revenue Picture source: Pixabay, www.pixabay.com
  96. 96. Four areas to look for financial opportunities 1 FINANCIAL PLANNING Consistencies / inconsistencies with government financial planning timeframes. Ensure up to date. Specification / allocation of funding requirements. 3BOARDS Role and responsibilities. Financial autonomy. 2 REVENUE GENERATION Range of user charges. Account for inflation, current day costs, changes in disposable income, increasing demand. Examine opportunities for non-tourism charges. 4INVESTMENT Range of existing incentives. Examine opportunities to implement new or increase existing incentives. Source: PARC Project 2006, Policy Brief: Building Viet Nam’s National ProtectedAreas System – policy and institutional innovations requiredfor progress, Creating Protected Areas for Resource Conservation using Landscape Ecology (PARC) Project, Government of Viet Nam, (FPD) / UNOPS, UNDP, IUCN, Ha Noi, Vietnam
  97. 97. Principle 2: Implement innovative fund raising strategies • Reducing reliance on government funding by generating revenue from additional fund raising strategies is an increasing worldwide trend • To be most effective a range of strategies should be pursued to target different stakeholders and generate the maximum amount of revenue • Strategies may include entrance fees, user fees, concessions and leases, taxes and donations
  98. 98. Entrance fees Fees charged to visitors to enter the PA CHALLENGES • Inefficient fee collection resulting in losses of entrance fee revenue • Scarce human resources for fee collection / reducing conservation activities • Corruption / bribery CHARACTERISTICS • Fees charged to visitors to enter the PA • Most effective in high visitation PAs or where unique species or ecosystems can be found • Rate should aim to cover capital and operating costs, reflect quality of service and product offering, and market demand / willingness to pay • Visitors pay more if they know the money will be used to enhance the experience or conserve nature • Tiered pricing can maximise revenue Source: Font, X., Cochrane, J., & Tapper, R. 2004, Tourism for Protected Area Financing: Understanding tourism revenues for effective management plans, Leeds Metropolitan University, Leeds, UK
  99. 99. User fees Fees charged for undertaking specific activities or using PA facilities CHALLENGES • Maintaining fee collection system • Political and socio- economic factors CHARACTERISTICS • Examples include parking fee, camping fee, fishing fee, hunting fee, boating fee, diving fee, hiking fee • Willing to pay if they know funds are used for conservation and management of PA • Common with diving, e.g. $2-3 / dive Source: Font, X., Cochrane, J., & Tapper, R. 2004, Tourism for Protected Area Financing: Understanding tourism revenues for effective management plans, Leeds Metropolitan University, Leeds, UK
  100. 100. Permits, leases and licences Contracts between PAs and businesses allowing them to operate a commercial activity in exchange for a fee CHALLENGES • Unsuccessful businesses = less revenue • Business not respecting contractual obligations • Business not controlling visitor behaviour • Profit made by business = income lost by PA CHARACTERISTICS • Private sector more critical due to limited government funding • Examples: tour guiding, trekking, diving, accommodation, restaurants, boating • Requires good control • PA benefit: business has the knowledge, experience, equipment etc • Business benefit: access to attractive location, limited competition Source: Font, X., Cochrane, J., & Tapper, R. 2004, Tourism for Protected Area Financing: Understanding tourism revenues for effective management plans, Leeds Metropolitan University, Leeds, UK
  101. 101. Direct commercial operation PA authority provides commercial goods and services CHALLENGES • Human resources, knowledge, skills, financial resources • Ensuring businesses are not owned by PA personnel who receive all the profits and no benefit to the PA CHARACTERISTICS • Can cover same activities as private sector • Can be wholly-state owner or Public-Private Partnership (PPP) / joint venture • Ensures all / more money is obtained by the PA • Should include local labour and goods / services Source: Font, X., Cochrane, J., & Tapper, R. 2004, Tourism for Protected Area Financing: Understanding tourism revenues for effective management plans, Leeds Metropolitan University, Leeds, UK
  102. 102. Taxes Charges on goods and services that generate funds for the government and can be used to support PA management CHALLENGES • Not popular with locals or visitors • Ensuring money goes back into conservation • Costs of managing the system • Hard to manage “small” taxes (same administration as larger taxes) CHARACTERISTICS • Allows for generating funds nationally and on a long- term basis and to use the funds to suit needs • Examples: Local tax on users of a protected area or use of equipment, bed levies on accommodation Source: Font, X., Cochrane, J., & Tapper, R. 2004, Tourism for Protected Area Financing: Understanding tourism revenues for effective management plans, Leeds Metropolitan University, Leeds, UK
  103. 103. Donations Gifts of money, goods or services, offered free of charge to support PAs CHALLENGES • Requires good communication to visitors by guides and print material etc • Good transparency and accountability in management and use of money CHARACTERISTICS • Can use trust funds to hold and manage the donations • Can encourage businesses to donate a small % of sales to support a PA project (e.g. developing trails, bridges, environmental research) • Can use donation boxes Source: Font, X., Cochrane, J., & Tapper, R. 2004, Tourism for Protected Area Financing: Understanding tourism revenues for effective management plans, Leeds Metropolitan University, Leeds, UK
  104. 104. WCPA recommendations for reducing public resistance to fees 1 Use fee revenues for quality improvements to trails, toilets, maps, and other facilities 4 Retain and use money for specific, known, park purposes, rather than for general revenues 2 Make small fee increases rather than making them in large jumps 5 Use extra money for conservation of the area visited 3 Use money for operational costs rather than as a control mechanism for visitor entry 6 Provide abundant information to the public about the income earned and the actions funded through it Source: Eagles, P., McCool, S. & Haynes, C. 2002, Sustainable Tourism in Protected Areas: Guidelines for Planning and Management, IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK
  105. 105. Principle 3: Support the local economy • Responsible tourism requires socio-economic benefits are received by the local people • If local communities only see the cost of the PA and no benefits, they are unlikely to support PA management or tourism Picture source: Pixabay, www.pixabay.com
  106. 106. The PA’s obligation to help local communities in and around PAs Local communities in and around PAs are relatively poor PAs sometimes ask local communities to relocate PAs often require restrictions on traditional livelihoods Local community livelihoods disrupted and restricted Diminished local community support for conservation PA authorities have obligation to help
  107. 107. Understanding the local communities’ views of tourism in PAs Create income Create employment Create opportunities for local businesses Assist community development Protect culture Access to better services Source: Eagles, P., McCool, S. & Haynes, C. 2002, Sustainable Tourism in Protected Areas: Guidelines for Planning and Management, IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK
  108. 108. Six simple opportunities to support the local economy in and around PAs Provide product development assistance Facilitate CBT joint ventures Introduce local investment incentives Implement responsible employment & supply chain policies Build capacity and provide occupational skills training Establish a community fund Picture source: Pixabay, www.pixabay.com
  110. 110. The role and importance of communication and interpretation in PAs • Communication mostly relates to the delivery of information about PA facilities, features, accessibility and codes of conduct • Interpretation relates to informing about the PA’s natural and cultural heritage (species, ecosystems, people) and issues around it to raise awareness and appreciation for conservation • Good communication and interpretation greatly increases visitor satisfaction
  111. 111. What is the issue? Limited or poor communication of the PA increases the chance of disturbance and damage to the PA Limited or poor interpretation of natural values and its importance to visitors and residents reduces support and action in conservation
  112. 112. The objectives of communication and interpretation in PAs COMMUNICATION • To increase awareness about the resources and attractions in the PA • To alter behaviour of visitors and residents in the PA • To orient visitors to the PA • To explain about the community and PA authority’s goals and objectives INTERPRETATION • To increase understanding about the role and importance of special species in the PA and issues in conservation • To increase understanding about the role and importance of important ecosystems in the PA and issues in conservation • To increase understanding and respect for local culture and heritage sites in the PA and socio-cultural issues in sympathetic preservation and promotion
  113. 113. The benefits of responsible communication and interpretation in PAs Builds understanding and support for conservation Increases repeat visitation and positive referrals Increases visitor satisfaction and reduces complaints
  114. 114. RESPONSIBLE COMMUNICATION & INTERPRETATION 1. Inform and educate visitors about the importance of the PA 2. Communicate messages accurately and authentically 3. Raise awareness of PA zones and facilities Principles of good practice in responsible communication and interpretation
  115. 115. Principle 1: Inform and educate visitors about the importance of the PA • The tourism code of conduct is central • Ensure the code of conduct is based upon the objectives of the zoning system • Ensure codes of conduct are developed for both visitors and business operators (services) • Ensure codes of conduct are easy to understand and easily accessible • Ensure regulations and associated penalties for breeches are also clearly stated and easily identified / accessible
  116. 116. The key steps in developing tourism codes of conduct Get support •Who will the code affect? Identify issues •What are we trying to protect or promote? Define responsibilities •Who will do what? Draft code of conduct •What will we communicate?
  117. 117. Communicating codes of conduct to visitors VISITORS SERVICES • Before booking – What? Destination’s people, culture and environment – Where? Website, social media, brochures… • Between booking & arrival – What? How to prepare – Where? Tour pre-departure packs • During the visit – What? Print information and displays about destination’s people, culture and environment – Where? Meet and greet, signs / displays in prominent places, tour guides • What? Expected operational behaviour including that of guests • Where? Formal licencing contracts, agreements, permits.. Strategically located warning / penalty notices around PA Picture source: Pixabay, www.pixabay.com
  118. 118. Interpretation through signs and exhibits • Interpretational signs and exhibits use stories and messages to inform visitors about places, objects or events • Properly planned and designed interpretive programs relay a theme / message to visitors • Common topics can include unique animal species, unique flora, important ecosystems, built heritage, local culture, activities, events • Interpretation principles can also be applied to communicating codes of conduct • Interpretation should incorporate 3 components: education, emotion, behaviour Educational component Emotional component Behavioural component
  119. 119. Examples of interpretive exhibits
  120. 120. Three tips for detailed interpretive signs 1 Deliver information using themes that are strong and provocative. 3 Structure theme into topics easily identified by sub- headings. 2Create titles that are eye-catching and interesting.
  121. 121. Examples of detailed interpretive signs Eye catching title (theme) Sub-headings (well structured) Good use of images
  122. 122. Principle 2: Communicate messages accurately and authentically • Poor marketing of PA values can result in loss of meaning and significance and erosion of the integrity of the natural (and cultural) heritage • Communicating messages accurately and authentically promotes greater understanding and respect Picture source: http://www.flickr.com/photos/mynameisharsha/4344995931/
  123. 123. Authenticity in tourism experiences • As with tourism in general, promotion of messages in PAs is often based upon selling “authentic experiences” • While authenticity is perceived it remains highly connected to marketing and should display as accurately as possible meanings that reflect the reality • If messages are exaggerated in order to make them more attractive to consumers they will become disappointed when their expectations are not met
  124. 124. Examples of inauthentic advertising from around the world Picture sources: http://www.dailymail.co.uk/travel/article-2128151/France-tourism-advertising-campaign-left-red-faced-allegations-using-false-photos.html http://www.adnews.com.au/adnews/tourism-australia-s-250m-push-labelled-false-advertising http://travel.ninemsn.com.au/blog.aspx?blogentryid=335279&showcomments=true  Sharing a bottle of wine on the beach…really? Are we in Spain or the Carribbean!? The Mediterranean Sea has never looked this good!
  125. 125. Cultural commodification in PAs • Communication about the culture of local communities and cultural heritage sites in PAs should be respectful and accurate • Commercialisation and commodification of the local culture should be avoided not only in the products sold but in the language used and messages communicated • Cultural commercialisation and commodification may result in the loss of original meaning • The involvement and determination of local people of how to interpret their culture is critical
  126. 126. 4 examples of cultural commodification in tourism Redeveloping places to make them more attractive for tourist consumption Creating staged and reshaped traditional performances for tourists Adaptive reuse of historical buildings without interpretation Sale and / or reproduction of artefacts of cultural or spiritual significance as souvenirs Picture sources: http://www.flickr.com/photos/rachelf2sea/6125215016/ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Kangeelu_Kunita.jpg http://www.flickr.com/photos/jeremylim/4263274405/sizes/m/in/photostream/ http://blog.mailasail.com/kanaloa/104
  127. 127. Principle 3: Raise awareness of PA zones and facilities • Services and infrastructure is of no benefit if visitors don’t know about what is available, where to find it, and how to get there • Visitors exploring PAs will also continue to cause damage if they don’t know where they can / cannot go and why • Visitors need information about what is available, where to access it, and how to interact with the PA in a sustainable way Picture source: http://www.flickr.com/photos/sharpteam/2783062374/
  128. 128. Basic requirements for communicating how visitors should interact with the PA • Visitors should have access to a protected map at a minimum • The map should details the trails, roads, facilities, attractions etc • Zones should be clearly identified and terms of use explained WHERE?  PA website  Print brochures / leaflets at entrance, Information centres, local tourism service providers  Large fixed signs at key locations in PA
  129. 129. Example of PA visitor map Facilities and locations clearly identified Trails, roads, parking marked Non-use areas, boundaries clearly indicated
  130. 130. Example: Zoning map for Great Barrier Reef MPA (Townsville) Each colour represents a different zone
  131. 131. Example: Zoning guide for Great Barrier Reef MPA (Townsville) ACTIVITY GUIDE Generalusezone Habitatprotection zone Conservationpark zone Bufferzone Scientificresearch zone Marinenational parkzone Preservationzone Aquaculture P P P     Bait netting        Boating, diving        Crabbing        Harvest fishing for aquariums P P P     Limited collecting P P      Limited spearfishing        Line fishing        Netting        Research P P P P P P P Shipping  P P P P P  Tourism programme P P P P P P  Traditional use of marine resources        Trawling        Trolling        P = Permit
  133. 133. The role and importance of monitoring and evaluation in PAs • Monitoring is the routine process of data collection and measurement of progress toward programme objectives • Evaluation is the use of social research methods to systematically investigate the achievement of programme results • Monitoring and evaluation (M&E) provides the information needed to guide and prioritise PA management activities to accepted standards
  134. 134. What is the issue? • Without data of PA tourism conditions and trends that monitoring provides, planners and managers: – Cannot assure stakeholders of the reliability of their decisions; – Cannot respond to public concerns and criticisms; and – Cannot properly fulfil their responsibilities or judge the effectiveness of their actions. • Moreover, if planners and managers do not undertake the monitoring, someone else will – and such monitoring may well be biased Adapted from: Eagles, P., McCool, S. & Haynes, C. 2002, Sustainable Tourism in Protected Areas: Guidelines for Planning and Management, IUCN Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK Picture source: http://www.flickr.com/photos/stevendepolo/4605621230/
  135. 135. The benefits of monitoring and evaluation of PAs for sustainability Provides data on management progress and effectiveness Improves conservation management and decision-making Allows accountability to stakeholders, including funders Provides data to plan future resource needs Provides data useful for policy-making and advocacy Picture source: Pixabay, www.pixabay.com
  136. 136. Monitor tourism impacts because prevention and early intervention is always better than cure! In tourism, symptoms of negative impacts can be gradual… After a negative impact has been identified opportunities to manage become more limited… …and problems can be difficult to spot. …and in many cases returning to the original state can be impossible “Gosh where did all these tourists come from? I don’t remember seeing so many a few years ago!” “I thought we were able to handle all the tourists unit I saw some kids acting like foreigners and it occurred to me just how much our culture has changed!” “When we started running tours to the nearby cave some tourists damaged the beautiful rock formations. Now we have lost them forever” “We really have too many tourists here but with so many businesses now depending on them reducing the volume would never be supported”
  137. 137. MONITORING & EVALUATION FOR SUSTAINABILITY 1. Ensure integration of sustainability criteria indicators 2. Evaluate indicators using baselines, benchmarks and limits of acceptable change 3. Ensure results are clearly communicated Principles of good practice in monitoring and evaluation for sustainability in PAs
  138. 138. Principle 1: Ensure integration of sustainability criteria • In PA’s there is a tendency to focus most attention on environmental impacts and management related impacts • To ensure comprehensive sustainability of the PA social and economic impacts must also be considered Environmental impacts Economic impacts Social impacts Experiential impacts Managerial / infrastructure impacts
  139. 139. Examples of key issues to consider when scoping PA sustainability Gender equity & social inclusion • Family well-being, equal employment opportunities, gender roles in traditional communities, access to loans and credit, control over tourism-related income… Poverty reduction / economic development • Income, employment, entrepreneurship, quality of life… Capacity development • Tourism awareness, tourism business training, local control of tourism operations, participation in local governance… Environmental protection • Endangered species, water quality, litter, loss / changes in vegetation structure, habitat loss, erosion, disturbance to animals, trail widening / changes… Cultural preservation and promotion • Preservation of traditions and values, maintenance of cultural significance and meaning, maintenance of cultural heritage sites… Social gains • Quality of life, crime, access to resources, access to heath care, access to education, limitation of rural to urban migration…
  140. 140. Turning sustainability impacts and issues into monitoring indicators • An “indication” of the state of a particular issue • Formally selected and used on a regular basis to measure changes • Conventional tourism indicators include arrival numbers, length of stay, and expenditure • Sustainable tourism indicators focus on the link between tourism and sustainability issues FOCUS OF INDICATORS FOR MONITORING SUSTAINABLE TOURISM • Issues concerning the natural resources and environment of a destination • Concerns relating to economic sustainability • Issues relating to cultural assets and social values • Broad organisation and management issues within the tourism sector and broader destination
  141. 141. Types of indicators • Early warning indicators • Indicators of stresses on the system • Measures of the current state of industry • Measures of tourism development sustainability impacts • Measures of management effort • Measures of management effects INDICATORS MEASURE Impacts OutcomesOutputs
  142. 142. Impact type vs. Indicator type Environmental impacts Social impacts Economic impacts Quantitative indicators Qualitative indicators IMPACT Category indices Normative indicators Nominal indicators Opinion-based indicators Raw data Ratio Percentage TYPE OF INDICATOR TYPE OF MEASURE
  144. 144. Example of tourism indicator development process for sustainability INDICATORS COMPONENTS OF ISSUE KEY SUSTAINABILITY ISSUE Environmental protection Waste management Number hotels with a recycling programme Biodiversity protection Number of threatened or extinct species as percentage of all known species Perceived value of forest resources to tourism
  145. 145. Don’t reinvent the wheel! Use and / or adapt existing indicators Many organisations have already developed and refined useful indicators for monitoring tourism impacts on sustainability World Tourism Organisation Indicator Guidebook Pressure, State, Response Indicators UNEP Environmental Indicators IUCN Indicators of Resources Management
  146. 146. Example of environmental and economic sustainability indicators in tourism ENVIRONMENTAL Number of threatened or extinct species as percentage of all known species Perceived value of forest resources to tourism Number of days tourists spend on nature tourism activities out of total number of days Number of hotels with environmental policy Environmental awareness campaigns conducted Number hotels recycling 25% or more of their waste products Demand/supply ratio for water Number of hotels with 50% or more of total toilets as dual flush % of energy consumption from renewable resources ECONOMIC Average wage rates in tourism jobs rural/ urban Number of local people employed in tourism (men and women) Revenues generated by tourism as % of all revenues generated in the community % of visitors who overnight in local tourist accommodation % of hotels with a majority local staff % of GDP provided by tourism Change in number of visitor arrivals Average tourist length of stay New tourism businesses as a percentage of all new businesses
  147. 147. Example of social and project / business sustainability indicators in tourism SOCIAL % of tourism operators who provide day care to employees with children % of tourism operators who have commitments regarding equal gender opportunity Women/men as a % of all tourism employment % women/men employees sent on training programmes Satisfaction with volume of tourists visiting the destination PROJECT / BUSINESS PERFORMANCE PA Management Plan exists All personnel receive periodic tourism impact management training % of purchases of services and goods from local providers % of purchases that are fair trade purchases Number of facilities built using local material Code of conduct developed with local community % of women and local minority employees
  148. 148. Good practice in setting effective tourism indicators Ensure indicators identify conditions or outputs of tourism development Ensure indicators are descriptive rather than evaluative Ensure indicators are easy to measure Ensure you start with only a few key variables
  149. 149. Principle 2: Evaluate indicators using baselines, benchmarks and limits of acceptable change •The first “foundation” study from which future studies follow BASELINES •Comparison of data against baseline •Can also use industry averages BENCHMARKS •Helps establish if results are positive or negative in local situation LIMITS OF ACCEPTABLE CHANGE (THRESHOLDS) Effective monitoring systems often incorporate at a number of different tools to assist in the analysis of results:
  150. 150. Examples of baselines, benchmarks and thresholds Establishing a baseline •A survey was conducted in 2014 which established that 15% of households in a village had running water •This forms the baseline for household access to running water in the destination Using a benchmark •In 2015 a repeat survey was conducted which recorded that 25% of households had running water •This shows a positive change of 10% against the Year 1 baseline Comparing to thresholds •In terms of access to running water, anything less than 100% requires action •If however, the study was of the amount of protected forest in a community, 40% might be an acceptable target depending on the year 1 benchmark
  151. 151. Limits of acceptable change process and guidelines 1/2 STEPS GUIDELINES COMMENT ON PURPOSE 1. Identify special values, issues, and concerns attributed to the area Citizens and managers: • Identify special features or qualities that require attention • Identify existing management problems and concerns • Identify public issues: economic, social, environmental • Identify role the area plays in a regional and national context and political/institutional constraints Encourages a better understanding of the natural resource base, a general concept of how the resource could be managed, and a focus on principal management issues. 2. Identify and describe recreation opportunity classes or zones Opportunity classes describe subdivisions or zones of the natural resource where different social, resource, or managerial conditions will be maintained • Identify opportunity classes for the natural resources • Describe different conditions to be maintained (Bob Marshall Wilderness Complex case study, Box 6.2 below illustrates the opportunity classes used there) Developing classes (or zones) provides a way of defining a range of diverse conditions within the protected area. 3. Select indicators of resource and social conditions Indicators are specific elements of the resource or social setting selected to be indicative of the conditions deemed appropriate and acceptable in each opportunity class • Select a few indicators as indicative measures of overall health • Use economic, social, environmental, political indicators • Ensure indicators are easy to measure, relate to conditions in opportunity classes, and reflect changes in recreational use Indicators are essential to LAC because their condition as a group reflects the overall condition of the opportunity class and guides the inventory. 4. Inventory existing resource and social conditions • Use chosen indicators to guide the inventory of resource and social conditions • Use inventory data to provide a better understanding of area constraints and opportunities • Map inventories to establish status (location and condition) of indicators By placing the inventory as step 4, rather than the first step as is often done, planners avoid unnecessary data collection and ensure that the data collected is useful Inventory data are mapped so both the condition and location of the indicators are known. Helps managers establish realistic standards, and used later to evaluate the consequences of alternatives.
  152. 152. Limits of acceptable change process and guidelines 2/2 STEPS GUIDELINES COMMENT ON PURPOSE 5. Specify standards for resource and social conditions in each opportunity class • Identify the range of conditions for each indicator considered desirable or acceptable for each opportunity class • Define conditions in measurable terms, to represent the maximum permissible conditions allowed (limits) • Ensure conditions are attainable and realistic Provides the basis for establishing a distinctive and diverse range of protected area settings, serving to define the “limits of acceptable change.” 6. Identify alternative opportunity class allocations This stage identifies alternative allocations of opportunities • Identify different types/location/timing of alternatives, using steps 1 and 4 to explore how well the different opportunity classes meet the various interests and values Provides alternative ways of managing the area to best meet the needs, interests, and concerns. 7. Identify management actions for each alternative • Analyse broad costs and benefits of each alternative • Identify the kinds of management actions needed to achieve the desired conditions (direct or indirect) This step involves an analysis of the costs and benefits of each alternative. 8. Evaluation and selection of a preferred alternative • Review costs vs. benefits of alternatives with managers, stakeholders and public • Examine the responsiveness of each alternative to the issues • Explicitly state the factors considered, and their weight in decision-making • Select a preferred alternative Builds consensus and selects the best alternative. 9. Implement actions and monitor conditions • Develop implementation plan with actions, costs, timetable, and responsibilities • Develop a monitoring programme, focusing on the indicators developed in step 3 • Compare indicator conditions with standards to evaluate the success of actions If conditions do not correspond with standards the intensity of the management effort might need to be increased or new actions implemented Ensures timely implementation and adjustment of management strategies. Monitoring ensures that effectiveness of implementation is known. If monitoring shows problems, actions can be taken
  153. 153. Example: Acceptable thresholds of change for a national sustainable tourism programme in Samoa INDICATOR RESULT THRESHOLD PERFORMANCE ENVIRONMENTAL % of new hotels undertaking environmental impact assessments 33% 90-100% V.POOR % of hotels using secondary or tertiary sewage treatment 8% 30-50% V.POOR % of tourists participating in nature tourism 8% 20-40% V.POOR % of tourist sites passing water quality tests 50% 70-90% POOR % of hotels composting their biodegradable waste 76% 60-80% ACCEPTABLE Water usage per guest night in hotels (in litres) 928 500-1000 ACCEPTABLE ECONOMIC Contribution of direct tourism businesses to GDP 4% 10-20% POOR Proportion of new businesses focused on tourism 4% 10-20% POOR Proportion of hotel jobs in rural areas 48% 40-60% ACCEPTABLE SOCIAL Hotel staff participating in training courses 27% 25-50% ACCEPTABLE Villages included in tourism awareness programmes 28% 25-50% ACCEPTABLE Proportion of traditional events in Tourism Festivals 50% 50-70% ACCEPTABLE Proportion of handicraft stalls out of all stalls in markets 21% 20-40% ACCEPTABLE Tourism operators informing visitors of village protocol 72% 50-70% GOOD Source: SNV Vietnam & the University of Hawaii, School of Travel Industry Management 2007, A Toolkit for Monitoring and Managing Community-based Tourism, SNV Vietnam & the University of Hawaii, USA
  154. 154. Principle 3: Ensure results are clearly communicated • There is no point in doing a monitoring programme if no one finds out about the results • Stakeholders and decision makers need to hear about the results so they can take action • Results should presented to help stakeholders reinforce positive actions or remedy problem situations Consider the needs of the potential user Portray the results as simply as possible PRINCIPLES IN COMMUNICATING RESULTS
  155. 155. Options for getting the message out Meetings and workshops Provide an analysis of the monitoring programme results in a practical and “hands-on” workshop or meeting. It also in-depth analysis and detailed clarification of issues. Newsletters & reports Provide details of the results within the organisation newsletter or alternatively create a newsletter specifically for communicating the results. Include results in the organisation’s annual report. Website Create a section on the organisation’s website that provides details of the progress being made in sustainability performance. Email Deliver information about the sustainability monitoring program directly into the mailbox of the stakeholders. Coming from senior management can add a level of authority. Quick and direct. Picture sources: Pixabay, http://pixabay.com/
  156. 156. Xin trân trọng cảm ơn! Thank you!