Unit 13: Community Action In Responsible Tourism


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  • Unit 13: Community Action In Responsible Tourism

    2. 2. Unit outline Objectives By the end of the unit participants will be able to: • Describe how to develop responsible tourism products that are economically viable • Identify methods to safeguard the local community and environment from negative tourism impacts • Explain the importance of community, government and private sector participation and support in tourism • Identify opportunities to help create a skilled local tourism workforce • Describe how to monitor and evaluate environmental and social impacts of tourism on the community, environment and economy Topics 1. Developing responsible tourism products that are economically viable 2. Safeguarding the local community & environment 3. Promoting participation and support in tourism 4. Developing a skilled local tourism workforce 5. Community based sustainability impacts monitoring & evaluation
    4. 4. What are economically viable responsible tourism products? Economically viable RT products are tourism goods and services that are: Marketable and profitabe Satisfy visitor needs and wants Conserve and promote the local culture and environment
    5. 5. Economically viable RT products VS Economically unviable products Viable Unviable • Costs of production and operation do not outweigh income (profitable) • Product features meet the interests and needs of the tourist • Limited negative impact on the environment • Limited negative impact on the local culture • Costs exceed income (no profit) • Product is not of interest to the tourist (target market) • Product is of interest however features do not meet visitor’s needs and expectations • Product harms the natural environment • Product causes socio-cultural problems in the local community
    6. 6. 4 key requirements for economically viable RT products 1. Ensure available market demand 2. Available resources of sufficient quality exist 3. Products are matched to markets 4. Products meet government laws & regulations
    7. 7. 1. Ensuring market demand • For a tourism product to be economically viable there needs to be: – Size of market – Length of stay and seasonality – Willing to spend – Market trends 1. Ensure available market demand
    8. 8. Assessing market demand through market research • Market research can help understand: 1. The size of the market: How many people? 2. The nature or characteristics of the market: Who is doing what? 3. The value of the market: How much are they spending? 1. Ensure available market demand
    9. 9. 2 key factors when selecting viable tourism products Viable RT product Fills a gap in the marketplace Addresses a limitation on tourism growth 1. Ensure available market demand
    10. 10. Practical ways to conduct market research Discussions Observation In-depth research 1. Ensure available market demand
    11. 11. 2. Ensuring available resources of sufficient quality exist The success or failure of a tourism product depends on a range of factors, most importantly: 2. Available resources of sufficient quality exist Availability • Potential resources or assets exist and are available for use Accessibility • Potential resources can be easily reached by the market Condition • Quality of resources will satisfy visitor expectations & standards
    12. 12. Measuring viability through product assessment Undertaking a product assessment will help: Identify available and accessible tourism products (potential or existing) Determine the product quality or condition for business success 2. Available resources of sufficient quality exist
    13. 13. Common types of tourism products 2. Available resources of sufficient quality exist Socio-cultural •Historic buildings / sites •Traditional handicrafts •Folk songs, traditional dances etc Natural •Beaches •Mountains •Lakes •Plants and animals Activities & events •Festivals & celebrations •Spiritual ceremonies & events •Sporting competitions
    14. 14. Conducting a product assessment to determine the condition of a resource Product assessments help determine the condition or quality of a resource by quantifying: 2. Available resources of sufficient quality exist • Uniqueness & authenticity • Accessibility • Infrastructure • Supportive conditions • Market attractiveness • Sustainability
    15. 15. Example of a product assessment Product: Village homestay experience Score (1 Poor – 10 Strong) Weighting (% of 100) Total score Easily accessible 6 15% 0.90 Quality of nearby attractions 8 4% 0.32 Range of available activities 6 5% 0.30 Existing available services 4 3% 0.12 Authentic product 8 8% 0.64 Distinctiveness of product 8 5% 0.40 Easily accessible target markets 10 10% 1.00 Sufficient target market size 6 8% 0.48 Favourable target market trends 6 5% 0.30 Private sector existence 6 3% 0.18 Supportive regulatory context 10 4% 0.40 Available human resources & infrastructure 8 6% 0.48 Economically sustainable 8 10% 0.80 Environmentally sustainable 10 7% 0.70 Socio-culturally sustainable 8 7% 0.56 TOTAL 112 100% 7.58 10
    16. 16. 3. Ensuring products are matched to markets Tourist satisfaction depends on the ability of the supplier to satisfy customer needs at the right time with the right products; in other words, to match the supply of tourism products with the demand for those products 3. Products are matched to markets
    17. 17. Requirements for matching products and markets Matching supply (products) and demand (markets) requires: 3. Products are matched to markets A good understanding of consumer needs A good understanding of products & their features
    18. 18. The 3 key steps in matching products and markets 3. Products are matched to markets STEP 1 •Examine market segment characteristics STEP 2 •Categorise viable products STEP 3 •Compare market segment characteristics to viable products and link
    19. 19. Matching markets and products Why are these markets linked to these products?
    20. 20. 4. Ensuring products meet government laws & regulations It is important to ensure products meet government laws and regulations to avoid potential conflicts or restrictions and to gain the support of government to better ensure success. 4. Products meet government laws & regulations
    21. 21. Types of regulations and laws that may affect product viability 4. Products meet government laws & regulations Visitor permits Village entrance fees Business activity restrictions Pricing policies Business licensing requirements Joint venture contract conditions Codes of conduct Recording and reporting requirements
    22. 22. Government plans may also affect success 4. Products meet government laws & regulations Tourism master plans Development plans Conservation Plans Land use plans Coastal management plans
    24. 24. Potential negative social impacts of poorly planned & managed tourism Social tension resulting from shifts in domestic arrangements and gender roles Commodification of cultures and traditions Exacerbation of existing social inequalities and creation of new ones Cultural conflict Loss of traditional values & skills
    25. 25. Potential negative environmental impacts of poorly planned & managed tourism Over development Destruction of environment Disturbance to wildlife Overconsumption of natural resources Pollution
    26. 26. Potential negative economic impacts of poorly planned & managed tourism Inadequate sharing of tourism benefits Tension from wage and income disparities Increased economic dependency on one sector Inflated land and housing prices, and living costs Economic leakage
    27. 27. Factors that effect the level of tourism impact Level of impact Characteristics of the destination Characteristics of the tourists Characteristics of the type of tourism development
    28. 28. Strategies to minimise negative tourism impacts Policies & strategies Economic, financial & market instruments Awareness raising and capacity building Marketing and communication Employment
    29. 29. Use policies & strategies to minimise negative impacts Destination management & risk management plans Appropriate local-level policies Strategic tourism plans Tourism standards & guidelines Visitor & tour operator codes of conduct Tourism laws to regulate business operation Environmental & social impact assessments Laws on zoning, land- use, and tourism development
    30. 30. Use economic, financial & market instruments to minimise negative impacts Sustainable tourism certification Incentives for implementing responsible tourism initiatives Fees or charges to regulate tourism flows Voluntary environmental reporting, guidelines / codes of conduct
    31. 31. Use awareness raising & capacity building to minimise negative impacts of tourism Request local government for training in managing tourism impacts Request local tourism authorities to provide information on tourism best practice examples
    32. 32. Use marketing & communication to minimise negative impacts of tourism Inform visitors about your sustainability issues and initiatives Incorporate sustainability messages into interpretation of natural & cultural heritage values Governments highlight sustainable tourism ventures and destinations in marketing efforts
    33. 33. Use good employment practices to minimise negative impacts of tourism Promote equal opportunity Provide employment contracts for staff Pay minimum or higher wages Provide industry accepted employment benefits Provide incentives and bonuses Provide an adequate work space Follow responsible recruitment practices Provide appropriate skills training programmes
    34. 34. Tourist codes of conduct Are voluntary principles and practices that tourism host communities develop and request tourists to follow in order to limit the negative impacts of tourism activities and enhance the positive impacts
    35. 35. Examples of tourist codes of conduct • Respect the local culture and traditions • Consider the privacy and practices of the host community • Buy local goods and services • Do not damage cultural sites and monuments • Do not disturb wildlife and ecosystems • Respect local laws • Others?
    36. 36. A tourist code of conduct in Luang Prabang, Laos
    37. 37. Codes of conduct can also be applied to tourism businesses • Employ local staff and local guides • Patronise small locally owned businesses • Discourage visitors offering money to beggars • Support local social and environmental projects • Respect local and provincial laws, rules and regulations affecting business operation • Interpret the environment and culture authentically and accurately • Others?
    39. 39. Importance of participation in tourism Share the ownership, commitment and responsibility Maximise support and investment resources Ensure the market viability Avoid potential conflicts Reduce the investment time and related costs Sustainability
    40. 40. Areas of community participation in tourism Areas of community participation Feasibility studies Planning and business development Tourism operation and management Benefit sharing Providing labour Voluntary work Leasing of land/ buildings / sites for a venture
    41. 41. Types of community tourism entities Form Description Individual Business Households • A ‘household’ can be an individual person or a group of family members • Applicant/s must be Vietnamese citizen/s • Applicant/s must be at least 18 years of age • Applicant/s must have legal capacity • Applicant/s must have capacity to conduct full civil behaviors Service Groups • Work on the bases of co-operation • Three or more individuals • Members contribute assets and work together to create jobs and benefits • Based upon mutual responsibility Management Board • Operates on the basis of democracy, transparency, and volunteerism • Members elected by the local community • Has an organizational structure, duties, functions and powers (based on voluntary rules identified by the people in accordance with the law, local customs and practices) • No legal power • Activities rely heavily on funds contributed by the community, especially those directly providing services • Board receives direct support from Local Authorities and Central Agencies • Usually established to carry out a specific task over a defined period of time after which the Board normally moves to become a new type of organization or is dissolved Co-operatives • A type of economic organization established to conduct business activities • Have own assets financed by their sources of working capital contributed by their members (e.g. capital contributions, accumulative capital, and other funding sources) • Have charter and working regulations, a brand name and logo • Financially self-sufficiet (similar to other types of enterprises) Private enterprises • Includes limited liability companies and joint stock companies • Company owners and company are two legally separate entities (the company is a legal entity, and the company owner is the person with the rights and obligations corresponding to the ownership of the company) • Obtain legal status after being granted business registration certificates • Whilst joint stock companies are allowed to issue public shares, limited liability companies are not
    42. 42. Involvement of 3 key stakeholder groups required for good community based tourism 1. Working with the community 2. Working with the private sector 3. Working with the government
    43. 43. Resolve disputes Benefit sharing Enforce on planning, operation and development Intermediary: Government and Business with Community Using community management organisations to plan and manage tourism
    44. 44. Form: Related board operating informally Service providers (homestay, local guide etc) Security Head / vice head of village Commune stakeholders Women’s union and others Are service-oriented Act at the local level Voluntary contributions Non profit Implementing community management organisations
    45. 45. Good representation Capable and engaged …from the community (opinions, wants, needs etc) Well-organised, trust systems Success factors of good community management organisations in tourism Knowledgeable
    46. 46. Example: Cham Island Community Tourism Groups (CTGs) Tan Hiep People’s Committee Hoi An District Government Quang Nam Department Culture Sport & Tourism Bai Lang Tourism Management Board Bai Huong Tourism Management Board Transport CTG Accom. CTG Shops / Souvenirs CTG Transport CTG Accom. CTG Tours CTG Represent 3 villages Represent 1 village CTG Chair V.Chair 1 V.Chair 2.. Members
    47. 47. Example: Nam Dam CBT Management Board People Committee of Quan Ba Commune People Committee of Quan Ba District Nam Dam Community Based Tourism Management Board Homestay group Local guide group Culture performance & handicrafts group Transport CUM security group Community tourism fund Head of Nam Dam CBT MB V.Head Secretery 2 MB members (CUM fund /treasury management)
    48. 48. Working in co-operatives to deliver tourism services • A type of economic organisation established to conduct business activities • Have own assets financed by their sources of working capital contributed by their members • Have charter and working regulations, a brand name and logo • Financially self-sufficient
    49. 49. Working with the private sector • To ensure the right products are developed for the right markets  • To create business cooperation opportunities  • To facilitate the establishment of marketing channels 
    50. 50. Other service providers Working with the private sector through partnerships Tour operators & travel agencies Accommodation providers
    51. 51. Provide advice on product opportunities, business operation, and service improvement Bring tourists to the community Forms and benefits of partnering with the private sector Marketing support
    52. 52. Local infrastructure support Facilities and equipment support Forms and benefits of partnering with the private sector
    53. 53. Range of support Provide grants Encourage dispersion of tourism to local and regional areas, through infrastructural investment and marketing Ensure good policy is followed up with implementation Promote local tourism enterprises and products in marketing material Revise regulations that impede growth of small business Provide training in tourism occupational skills Working with government in community based tourism
    54. 54. Work with the government throughout the process Planning •Commune PPC (admin) •District PPC (licencing) •District Culture and Information Department / TIC (market advice) •Social policy bank / Bank for Agriculture & Rural Development (loans and investment opportunities) •Community Management Board •More? Development •Social policy bank / Bank for Agriculture & Rural Development (loans and investment) •Commune PPC (construction standards) •Police office (safety and security) •Community Management Board •More? Operation •Multi-Department Taskforce (police, tax, tourism) •Commune Security •TIC (marketing support) •Social policy bank / Bank for Agriculture & Rural Development (loan repayment) •Community Management Board •More?
    56. 56. Importance of skills training • Tourism is a highly competitive industry • Sustainable businesses require staff who have good understanding of how to do their job efficiently, effectively and to an industry accepted standard • As a result customer satisfaction will be met and repeat visitation and positive word of mouth promotion will result thereby further business
    57. 57. Recognising skill gaps • All community tourism ventures have jobs that have specific skills required • In many cases a worker may have skills to complete a job, but it might not be at an industry accepted standard. • Jobs and skills therefore need to be assessed to ensure workers can complete their jobs to a satisfactory standard.
    58. 58. JOB SKILLS REQUIRED Conducting a skills gap analysis SKILLS GAPSKILLS AVAILABLE Skills training required to fill the gap
    59. 59. Different skills are required at different levels of job position Cross-Cutting Skills: Environmental & cultural management skills, basic communication skills, leadership skills Business owner / Operator •Product development skills •Understanding dynamics of tourism industry •Understanding legal issues •Finance and accounting skills •Monitoring and analysis skills •Marketing management and pricing strategies •Marketing and communication skills Supervisory level •General management skills •Understanding of technical skills (e.g. F&B preparation / service, housekeeping, menu planning etc) •Monitoring & analysis skills •Leadership & training skills •Conflict management & cross- cultural communication Staff level •Technical skills (e.g. F&B preparation / service, housekeeping, menu planning etc) •Guide and interpretation skills •Good work ethic
    60. 60. Where to find training opportunities to fill skill gaps Existing skilled workers NGOs Volunteer organisations Tour operators Formal education and training providers
    62. 62. Importance of monitoring & evaluating tourism impacts Ensures positive impacts are maximised and negative impacts are minimised Maintains quality standards Ensures product suited to market
    63. 63. Key steps to developing a community based monitoring programme 1. Plan to monitor 2. Scope key issues 3. Develop indicators 4. Collect data 5. Evaluate results 6. Plan response 7. Communicate results 8. Review objectives & issues 9. Implement actions
    64. 64. Step 1. Plan to monitor Gaining the support from the community and being well organised is critical to the success of a tourism impacts monitoring plan Gain support Set objectives Resolve practical issues
    65. 65. Step 2. Scope key issues Social, economic and environmental issues from tourism must be identified and prioritised Research tourism issues in community Review and prioritise issues Agree on final list
    66. 66. Step 3. Develop indicators • Indicators are the tools used to monitor change • Indicators may be social, economic or environmental • Indicators can be developed from key issues (existing or potential) • E.g. if a key issue is “Incidence of social disturbance”, then the indicator could be “No. of reported complaints about tourists to the authorities per month” Review existing indicators Brainstorm new indicators Select most practical & relevant indicators
    67. 67. Examples of common economic indicators Employment level Local employment vs. immigrants ratio Income level Spend on community projects from tourism funds Number and types of local tourism businesses Tourism business revenue, profit & loss levels Occupancy rates
    68. 68. Examples of common social indicators Tourism training course participation Women in tourism workforce (e.g. number, income level, roles) Incidence of negative tourism related incidents reported to authorities Number of cultural events Level of protection of cultural heritage sites Level of formal complaints to authorities about tourism enterprises
    69. 69. Examples of common environmental indicators Number and types of conservation projects Level of pollution in the community and environment Level of destruction of local natural environment Environmental conservation training course participation Level of natural resource use / availability Level of waste management and treatment
    70. 70. Step 4. Collect data •Financial records •Visitation records •Surveys Identify data sources •Surveys •Questionnaires Design data collection methods •Indicator description •Indicator survey location •Indicator value Design simple database for results
    71. 71. Data sources Business financial records Community visitation records Visitor surveys Stakeholder discussions Physical assessment & observation
    72. 72. Step 5. Evaluate results • Benchmarks are quantifiable levels or targets of acceptable change for a chosen indicator • Benchmarks may already be available (e.g. national or international industry averages) • Thresholds of change are the point at which an indicator exceeds a set benchmark and may cause damage Establish benchmarks Identify thresholds of change
    73. 73. Examples of sustainability indicators and thresholds TYPE SUSTAINABLE TOURISM INDICATOR RESULT THRESHOLD PERFORMANCE ENVIRONMENT % of new hotels undertaking environmental impact assessments 33% 90 - 100% V. POOR % of hotels using sewage treatment 8% 30 - 50% V. POOR % of tourists participating in nature tourism 8% 20 - 40% V. POOR % of hotels composting their biodegradable waste 76% 60 - 80% ACCEPTABLE ECONOMIC Contribution of direct tourism businesses to GDP 4% 10 - 20% POOR Proportion of new businesses focused on tourism 4% 10-20% POOR Proportion of hotel jobs in rural areas 48% 40 - 60% ACCEPTABLE SOCIAL Villages included in tourism awareness programmes 28% 25 - 50% ACCEPTABLE Proportion of handicraft stalls out of all stalls in markets 21% 20 - 40% ACCEPTABLE Tourism operators informing visitors of village protocol 72% 50 - 70% GOOD
    74. 74. Step 6. Planning the response Identify poor performing areas •Which areas are the most problematic? Research possible causes •What might be the reason for their poor performance? Decide on a response •What can be done to improve the situation? Draw up action plan •How will we implement actions for improvement?
    75. 75. Example of management responses Source: SNV Asia Pro-Poor Sustainable Tourism Network, SNV Vietnam & the University of Hawaii, School of Travel Industry Management, A Toolkit for Monitoring and Managing Community-based Tourism.
    76. 76. Step 7. Communicate results • Indicator results need to be communicated to stakeholders because: – It allows the community to learn from past experiences and to improve their tourism products. – It helps ensure that tourism generates benefits for the poor. • Forms of communication will change according to the intended audience Design communication methods Publish results
    77. 77. Step 8. Review objectives and issues • Reviewing objectives and issues is important because: – Situations change – New data may become available – Thresholds may turn out to be unacceptable • Based on the results of the review, changes and improvements can be made to the indicators and benchmarks to make them more specific and realistic • Data collections methods should be reviewed and modified if they turn out not to be practical Review objectives and issues Review indicators and data collection
    78. 78. Step 9. Implement actions • Finally, instigate management responses according to the plan of action! Take action
    79. 79. Xin trân trọng cảm ơn! Thank you!