Unit 12: Responsible Tourism Policy And Planning For Tourism Authorities

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Unit 12: Responsible Tourism Policy And Planning For Tourism Authorities

  1. 1. UNIT 12. RESPONSIBLE TOURISM POLICY AND PLANNING FOR TOURISM AUTHORITIES Picture source: Pixabay, www.pixabay.com
  2. 2. Unit outline Objectives By the end of this unit, participants will be able to: • Explain the importance of tourism to governments and the challenge of sustainable growth • Describe how to incorporate sustainability into tourism plans • Explain the importance of adopting a participatory planning approach in policy and planning • Explain the function of impact appraisals in tourism planning • Identify policy areas to create an enabling environment for Responsible Tourism • Identify instruments for achieving Responsible Tourism policies Topics 1. Tourism and its importance to government 2. The challenge of sustainable growth 3. Incorporating sustainability into tourism plans 4. Using impact appraisals in tourism planning for sustainability 5. Identifying policy areas to create an enabling environment for Responsible Tourism
  3. 3. TOPIC 1. TOURISM AND ITS IMPORTANCE TO GOVERNMENT RESPONSIBLE TOURISM POLICY & PLANNING FOR TOURISM AUTHORITIES Picture source: Pixabay, www.pixabay.com
  4. 4. Seminar overview: the role of governments in building responsible tourism How can we use impacts appraisals to achieve responsible tourism objectives? TOPIC 4 What is the current importance of tourism to governments and why should we change what we are doing? TOPIC 1 How can responsible tourism help maintain growth but create greater sustainability? TOPIC 2 How can we best incorporate responsible tourism into tourism planning? TOPIC 3 What policy areas should we address to make tourism responsible and what instruments are relevant? TOPIC 5 Picture source: Pixabay, www.pixabay.com
  5. 5. Tourism’s contribution to the economy of Vietnam VND129,969.0bn VND140,179.0bn VND268,761.0bn 2012 2013 2023 DIRECT CONTRIBUTIONS OF TOURISM TO GDP IN VIETNAM: CONSTANT VND Source: World Travel & Tourism Council 2013, Travel & Tourism Economic Impact 2013: Vietnam, WTTC, UK
  6. 6. Tourism’s contribution to the economy of Vietnam TOTAL CONTRIBUTION OF TRAVEL & TOURISM TO GDP CONSTANT VNDbn % WHOLE ECONOMY GDP Source: World Travel & Tourism Council 2013, Travel & Tourism Economic Impact 2013: Vietnam, WTTC, UK
  7. 7. Tourism’s contribution to employment in Vietnam ‘000 JOBS % WHOLE ECONOMY EMPLOYMENT Source: World Travel & Tourism Council 2013, Travel & Tourism Economic Impact 2013: Vietnam, WTTC, UK
  8. 8. The total economic value of tourism to Vietnam in 2013 US$3.7bn in capital investment or 8.3% of total visitor exports or 4.6% of total US$5.9bn DIRECT JOBSor 3.8% of total 1,831,300 US$6.2bn in direct GDP or 4.5% of total Source: World Travel & Tourism Council 2013, Travel & Tourism Economic Impact 2013: Vietnam, WTTC, UK Picture source: Pixabay, www.pixabay.com
  9. 9. Tourism is spurring on infrastructure development in Vietnam Picture source: Pixabay, www.pixabay.com
  10. 10. Tourism is driving investment in Vietnam “Hue invests 9 billion VND in restoring traditional trade villages” (09/10/13) “HA GIANG INVESTS VND 66 BILLION IN RESTORING DONG VAN ANCIENT QUARTER” (03/10/13) “Vingroup builds major ecotourism hub in Binh Dinh” (19/09/13) “POLAND HELPS PRESERVE HUE’S KING TU DUC TOMB” (12/08/13) “VND47 billion to upgrade dock station on Titov island” (24/07/13) “Australia helps protect Ba Be National Park” (16/09/11) “PHU YEN LICENSES TWO TOURISM PROJECTS” (07/09/11) Picture source: Pixabay, www.pixabay.com
  11. 11. Tourism is contributing to local economies and rural development in Vietnam Picture sources: http://www.flickr.com/photos/calflier001/6943300353/; http://www.flickr.com/photos/dalbera/4411151036/; http://www.fotopedia.com/items/flickr-197185820; http://www.flickr.com/photos/marfis75/404877169/; http://www.flickr.com/photos/breweruk/6464624651/; http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Stilt_house_by_Muong_people_in_Mai_Chau-Hoa_Binh-Viet_Nam.jpg Homestay families
  12. 12. Tourism is also contributing to the protection of natural & cultural heritage in Vietnam
  13. 13. TOPIC 2. THE CHALLENGE OF SUSTAINABLE GROWTH IN TOURISM RESPONSIBLE TOURISM POLICY & PLANNING FOR TOURISM AUTHORITIES Picture source: Pixabay, www.pixabay.com
  14. 14. Compromising sustainability compromises tourism’s competitiveness ? Picture source: Pixabay, www.pixabay.com
  15. 15. The challenge of balancing sustainability and growth GROWTH SUSTAINABILITY
  16. 16. Some reasons why sustainable tourism has been hard to achieve 1/2 Economic growth prioritised Misconceptions about value of investment and foreign exchange in sustainability Limited funds for maintenance Limited sustainable development frameworks Inadequate control mechanisms Insufficient rural planning Tourism in the wrong place and reason Limited awareness Lack of commitment Limited local community influence Picture source: Pixabay, www.pixabay.com
  17. 17. Some reasons why sustainable tourism has been hard to achieve 2/2 …and… sustainable tourism did not ask anyone to do anything! Picture source: Pixabay, www.pixabay.com
  18. 18. The evolution from sustainable tourism… ENVIRONMENT SOCIAL ECONOMIC SUSTAINABLE TOURISM 1. BE ACCOUNTABLE 2. HAVE CAPACITY
  19. 19. …to responsible tourism ENVIRONMENT SOCIAL ECONOMIC SUSTAINABLE TOURISM 1. BE ACCOUNTABLE 3. TAKE ACTION 2. HAVE CAPACITY RESPONSIBLE TOURISM We must accept that every decision and action we make in our daily lives has an impact. We must take responsibility for our actions and acquire the knowledge, skills and resources to make change. Being responsible is not just an intent. It requires action. And that action must be for good - based upon the law, our ethics and morals.
  20. 20. Responds to market demand The benefits for governments in adopting a responsible tourism approach More attractive destinations Better use of natural and cultural resources Creates viable, long-term economic benefits for all Picture source: Pixabay, www.pixabay.com
  21. 21. The influence of government in tourism destination development Exploration Involvement Development Consolidation Stagnation (Rejuvenate) (Stable) (Decline) Development threshold TIME NUMBEROFVISITORS MY SON SANCTUARY HUE HOI AN HA LONG BAY Conceptual diagram of stage of development for key heritage sites in Vietnam Implementing responsible tourism will keep destinations stable or even rejuvenate
  22. 22. 7 key areas where governments can foster responsible tourism 41Co-ordinating sector activities to enable responsible tourism 2Managing natural and cultural resources responsibly 3Setting responsible tourism standards Building capacity in responsible tourism 5Implementing responsible tourism legislation 6Providing leadership in responsible tourism 7Promoting responsible tourism activities
  23. 23. Increasing seasonality in tourism Picture source: Pixabay, www.pixabay.com http://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/818858
  24. 24. Tourism hot spots / benefits not reaching poor Picture source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Slum
  25. 25. Reduction in the quality of local amenities and services, and compromises safety Picture sources: www.pixabay.com http://www.flickr.com/photos/j-cornelius/2989147380/ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abbey_Road_Studios http://www.flickr.com/photos/archer10/5187399563/
  26. 26. Cultural commodification and loss of authenticity Picture sources: http://www.flickr.com/photos/runran/6885362990/ www.pixabay.com http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Vietnamese_Dancers.jpg http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Portal:Vietnam …is that dance really traditional? …water puppets are now souvenirs but do the tourists understand the cultural significance?
  27. 27. Tourism development and changes to natural and social systems …but who lived there before? Looks nice… …and what about the importance of coastal areas for protection from extreme weather events? Picture sources: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Benidorm http://www.flickr.com/photos/jurvetson/5314774452/ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Earthquake_engineering http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Hoi_An_Fish_Market,_Vietnam).jpg http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:House_of_fisherman_Vietnam.jpg http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Lecount_Hollow_Private_Beach_Access_Sign.jpg
  28. 28. Pollution affects important ecological processes and human health Picture sources: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Smoking_cruise_ships_Nile.JPG http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Boeing_B-47_Stratojet http://www.flickr.com/photos/kk/4712861851/ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Landfill
  29. 29. TOPIC 3. INCORPORATING SUSTAINABILITY INTO TOURISM PLANS RESPONSIBLE TOURISM POLICY & PLANNING FOR TOURISM AUTHORITIES Picture source: Pixabay, www.pixabay.com
  30. 30. The old days of tourism planning – localised, site specific HOTEL Transport MARKET GOVERNMENT Promotion Site selection Apply site planning, landscaping, & engineering design standards
  31. 31. Today’s tourism planning – integrated, strategic HOTEL Transport MARKET A GOVERNMENT Promotion Site impacts AND impacts on surrounding environment, community & economy Community Environment Economy MARKET B MARKET C
  32. 32. The role and importance of tourism planning in responsible tourism development TOURISM PLANNING Beneficiaries Types Form Timing Location
  33. 33. Effects of not incorporating sustainability into tourism planning process lostopportunities to maximise positive impacts activities and processes CONFLICTING more to find support more challengingon the environment, community and economy ADVERSE IMPACTS Greater
  34. 34. Why traditional tourism plans often fail Lack of flexibility Lack of strategic thinking and vision Ineffective top- down planning Poor linking of formulation and implementation The logical and rational plans are often too rigorous and unable to adapt to changing conditions Logical and rational plans often lack leadership vision in formulation processes Only involving planning officials or outside planning experts may not represent the needs of all stakeholders Traditional planning often fails to link plan formulation to the outcomes to ensure accountability and measure success
  35. 35. Key principles for integrating sustainability into tourism plans ACHIEVING SUSTAINABILITY IN TOURISM PLANNING Economic objectives Social objectives Environmental objectives Political objectives Tourism vs development goals Plan integration Top-down vs. local Ecological balance Development pace Environmentally costed Impacts assessed Costs vs. benefits Benefit distribution Community compatibility Benefit balance Tourism seasonality Employment Living standard Cultural appreciation Compatible designs Visitor-community needs
  36. 36. Integrating sustainability into tourism plans NATIONAL REGIONAL DESTINATION TOURISM PLANS Principal organisations Legislative framework Stakeholder roles & functions Market environment BACKGROUND ANALYSIS IMPLEMENTATION REQUIREMENTS Financing Marketing Human resources PRINCIPAL ELEMENTS Infrastructure Facilities and services Attractions
  37. 37. TOURISM PLANS Principal organisations Legislative framework Stakeholder roles & functions Market environment BACKGROUND ANALYSIS IMPLEMENTATION REQUIREMENTS Financing Marketing Human resources PRINCIPAL ELEMENTS Infrastructure Facilities and services Attractions Integrating sustainability into tourism plans NATIONAL REGIONAL DESTINATION integrate sustainability here
  38. 38. TOURISM INFRASTRUCTURE Planning for sustainability in tourism infrastructure A. Transport C. Waste management D. Recreation & entertainment E. Health & safety B. Utilities
  39. 39. A. Key principles for tourism transport planning Well connected international air services Provision of water transport options and experiences Development of major land transport circulation systems linking attractions Comprehensive network of domestic airports
  40. 40. Sustainability issues to consider in planning tourism transport Destruction of natural areas in infrastructure construction and operation Tourism volume vs destination carrying capacity Creation of new adverse social quality of life impacts Others? Picture source: Pixabay, www.pixabay.com
  41. 41. B. Key principles in tourism utilities planning Ensuring sufficient water to meet demand Ensuring sufficient electricity supply to meet demand Ensuring effective water storage and distribution Collecting water appropriately according to location
  42. 42. Sustainability issues to consider in planning tourism utilities Overuse of water to maintain high visitation sites Environmental impacts from construction & operation Adequate and continuous supply of safe drinking water and electricity High water use by holiday-makers Others? Picture source: Pixabay, www.pixabay.com
  43. 43. C. Key principles in tourism waste management Minimising the volume of liquid waste and ensuring proper treatment before discharge Developing structures and systems to monitor waste management practices Implementing recycling systems for paper, plastic, glass and metals Ensuring treatment of solid waste and proper disposal
  44. 44. Sustainability issues to consider in planning tourism waste management Impact of water and land pollution on visitor satisfaction Impact of poor waste storage, collection, treatment, and disposal on human and ecosystem health Ability of waste management facilities to deal with additional tourism related waste Others? Picture source: Pixabay, www.pixabay.com
  45. 45. D. Key principles in planning of recreation & entertainment facilities Providing a range of recreational and entertainment options Development of effective recreation and entertainment areas
  46. 46. Sustainability issues to consider in planning recreation and entertainment facilities Impact of large- scale facilities on the local environment Social disturbance from traffic, noise, crowding and anti-sociable behaviour Creation of new social problems from local participation in new recreational activities Others? Picture source: Pixabay, www.pixabay.com
  47. 47. E. Key principles in planning tourism health & safety services Ensuring provision of full range of health care and safety services Ensuring health care and safety services are easily accessible Ensuring good systems are in place to ensure proper hygiene and sanitary standards in F&B outlets
  48. 48. Sustainability issues to consider in planning health & safety services Impacts of mass tourism on accessibility of services to locals Ability of local services to handle demand from additional visitors Impact of social services taxes on local community’s standard of living Others? Picture source: Pixabay, www.pixabay.com
  49. 49. FACILITIES AND SERVICES Planning for sustainability in tourism facilities and services A. Accommodation C. Shopping D. Travel and tour services B. Food and beverage facilities
  50. 50. A. Key principles for accommodation planning Understand existing offer Ensuring suitable accommodation development Understand projected demand needs
  51. 51. Sustainability issues to consider in planning accommodation Geographical positioning impacts Tourists’ demands vs community’s interests Oversupply / undersupply impacts Scale, height and concentration impacts Waste, power and water use impacts Design impacts Others? Picture source: Pixabay, www.pixabay.com
  52. 52. Promoting supply of a range of F&B outlets Promoting design parameters Encouraging sector development through incentives and supporting services Enforcing standards of hygiene, service and quality Determining suitable locations B. Key principles for F&B services planning
  53. 53. Sustainability issues to consider in planning F&B services Standards in service and meal quality Standards of hygiene Scale, height and concentration impacts Oversupply / undersupply impacts Design impacts Waste, power and water use impacts Others? Picture source: Pixabay, www.pixabay.com
  54. 54. C. Key principles for shopping facilities planning Improving shopping attractiveness and encouraging diversity Linking tourism nodes via shopping “corridors” Promoting off- season activities to support retailers Regulating to protect authentic locally- made goods Establishing premises for locally- produced goods
  55. 55. Sustainability issues to consider in planning of shopping facilities Oversupply / seasonality impacts Location and distribution social & environmental impacts Economic leakage from imported products Waste from products and packaging Economic related dislocation due to inflated retail land prices and retail tax Others? Picture source: Pixabay, www.pixabay.com
  56. 56. D. Principles for travel and tour services planning Ensuring tourist information services are suitably located Supporting local guides Ensuring accessible training and certification for tour guides Ensuring tour operators are licenced and meet required standards Fostering implementation of codes of conduct
  57. 57. Sustainability issues to consider in planning of travel and tour services Standards in tour guiding and tour operation Standards in transportation provision and environmental impacts Safety and security of tour groups Impacts of tourists’ behaviour on communities and sites Others? Picture source: Pixabay, www.pixabay.com
  58. 58. TOURIST ATTRACTIONS Planning for sustainability in tourist attractions A. Natural attractions C. Special events & activities B. Cultural attractions
  59. 59. A. Key principles for natural tourism attractions planning Developing natural resources information base Providing natural resource interpretation Implementing policies and practices for visitor satisfaction and conservation Creating facilities for viewing and experiencing natural environment
  60. 60. Sustainability issues to consider in planning natural tourism attractions Impacts of activities and infrastructure on ecosystems Limited understanding of biodiversity and landscapes Limited resources for conservation and visitor safety Others? Picture source: Pixabay, www.pixabay.com
  61. 61. B. Key principles for cultural tourism attractions planning Understanding cultural resources Retaining authenticity Controlling visitor impacts Provision of cultural information and interpretation
  62. 62. Sustainability issues to consider in planning cultural tourism attractions Eroding of traditions and anti-social behaviour Commodification of culture and loss of authenticity Limited resources to understand function of local culture Cultural conflict Limited resources to protect cultural heritage sites Others? Picture source: Pixabay, www.pixabay.com
  63. 63. C. Key principles for tourism activities and events planning Understanding existing offer Provision of Infrastructure and services Provision of information / interpretation Developing and promoting activities and events calendar
  64. 64. Sustainability issues to consider in planning tourism activities & events Safety and security for all Noise, traffic, waste and pollution Undesirable or anti- social behaviour Strain on local infrastructure and facilities Others? Picture source: Pixabay, www.pixabay.com
  65. 65. IMPLEMENTATION REQUIREMENTS Creating sustainability in tourism plan implementation A. Financing C. Human resource development B. Marketing and promotions
  66. 66. A. Key principles for financing of tourism plans Aggressive pursuit of foreign aid opportunities Supporting domestic investment Offering a range of incentives Fostering foreign private investment
  67. 67. Sustainability issues to consider in financing of tourism projects Foreign aid vs. local development control Tourism economic leakage Investor demands vs. local needs Factoring social and environmental impacts into economic decisions Others? Picture source: Pixabay, www.pixabay.com
  68. 68. B. Key principles for tourism marketing planning Planning is both strategic and tactical Current market situation is understood Tourism promotion is designed for target markets
  69. 69. Sustainability issues to consider in planning of tourism marketing Target markets fit desires of local community Targets consider spend and local capacity Seasonality of visitor arrivals and socio- economic impacts Promotions create realistic expectations, and are sympathetic to local culture Others? Picture source: Pixabay, www.pixabay.com
  70. 70. C. Key principles for tourism human resources planning Meets needs of small business, self- employed, and government Policies on tourism employment and tourism education & training Understanding of existing situation Strategy for forecast future skilled workforce requirements
  71. 71. Sustainability issues to consider in planning of tourism human resources Availability of required tourism skill levels Adequacy and accessibility of education and training Tourism sector working conditions Accessibility of employment for locals Others? Picture source: Pixabay, www.pixabay.com
  72. 72. The need to ensure tourism planning is participatory • Recognise the concerns and goals of all • Engage stakeholders based on interest, skills and expertise • Understand and communicate all values of tourism • Develop a shared understanding and vision for tourism • Identify clear roles and responsibilities for all • Implement a structure for good governance Industry operators Government departments and associations Visitors Community Investors / developers Land owners Industry associations Tourism-related organisations Community development & environmental organisations
  73. 73. TOPIC 4. USING IMPACT APPRAISALS IN TOURISM PLANNING FOR SUSTAINABILITY RESPONSIBLE TOURISM POLICY & PLANNING FOR TOURISM AUTHORITIES Picture source: Pixabay, www.pixabay.com
  74. 74. Tourism impact appraisals are a key requirement in ensuring sustainable tourism development Impact appraisals in tourism provide decision makers with: Understanding of impacts of tourism development proposals Supportive evidence about why particular projects are approved Potential alternative development options with different ranges of impacts Mechanism to foster coordination among stakeholders Suggestions for avoiding or reducing damage and other impacts Mechanism to enhance public participation in decision-making processes
  75. 75. Tourism development impact appraisals must cover the triple bottom line TOURISM DEVELOPMENT PROPOSAL ENVIRONMENT SOCIAL ECONOMIC IMPACT APPRAISAL AREAS
  76. 76. Appraising economic impacts of tourism development Evaluation: • Evaluate economic benefits relating to travel activity, expenditures, employment, business earnings, profits, and tax revenue. • Evaluate economic costs based on measuring the current situation and the additional costs that will occur as a result of the planned tourism development, or alternatively, the cost of not making any change Objective: Determine the cost or benefit to the economic well-being of a community as a result of tourism activities or development in terms of employment, income and wealth Data sources: Direct observation, surveys of tourist purchases and expenditure, estimates of expenditure based on business receipts or sample surveys of travellers and tourists
  77. 77. Tourism economic impact appraisal criteria EXAMPLES OF ECONOMIC IMPACT APPRAISAL CRITERIA Foreign exchange earnings Income level changes Changes in employment opportunities Investment changes and multipliers Stimulation of other industries Changes in balance of payments Broadening of taxes Changes to property values Support of conservation activities Stimulation of local entrepreneurship
  78. 78. Appraising environmental impacts of tourism development Evaluation: • Analyse predicted effects on the environment as a result of a planned tourism project • Analyse the degree of impact and change • Identify the significance of the changes and impacts • Identify ways in which the impacts could be mitigated, ameliorated, or controlled Objective: Evaluate the potential impact to the environment and its ecosystems from tourism development and activity with specific mention to the nature, scale and likely consequences of any environmental disturbance Data sources: Existing environmental surveys and statistics, reports, plans and strategies, observation, minutes of key stakeholder meetings, focus groups sessions, interviews
  79. 79. Tourism environmental impact appraisal criteria EXAMPLES OF ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT APPRAISAL CRITERIA Flora Air Physical damage Carbon monoxide emission from vehicles, boats etc Loss of fragile species Fauna Disturbance to ecological balance Disturbance to habitat Disturbance of regeneration and growth rates Behaviour patterns Reduction in vegetation cover and species diversity Killing / removal of animals Water Disruption of the predator-prey relationship Reduction in quality of water Contamination of fish and reef life Eutrophication leading to weed growth
  80. 80. Appraising social impacts of tourism development Evaluation: • Conduct a baseline profile to understand the current impacts of the activity being examined and identify the groups and communities associated with the activity • Assess direct impacts of change felt by individuals, groups and firms, the level and nature of potential impacts of the activity, and the range of potential impacts of the proposed changes • Assess indirect impacts of a change at the broader level as a result of the impacts felt by those individuals, groups and firms directly associated with the change by using regional profiling, surveys and /or modelling Objective: Examine the impact on social, cultural and political systems that may be attributed to the impact of tourism Data sources: City / province / district council statistics, reports, plans and strategies, local surveys undertaken, existing literature, observation, minutes from public meetings, workshop results, focus groups sessions, telephone hotlines, interviews
  81. 81. Tourism social impact appraisal criteria EXAMPLES OF SOCIAL IMPACT APPRAISAL CRITERIA Changes to economic independence of population groups Displacement of local communities Changes to access to traditional economic domain Changes from traditional occupational structures Changes in land value patterns Changes in living standards Growth of undesirable activities Adoption of foreign values, ideologies and behaviours Changes to value placed on traditional art, music, rituals and ceremonies Changes in attitudes to tourists
  82. 82. TOPIC 5. IDENTIFYING POLICY AREAS TO CREATE AN ENABLING ENVIRONMENT FOR RESPONSIBLE TOURISM RESPONSIBLE TOURISM POLICY & PLANNING FOR TOURISM AUTHORITIES Picture source: Pixabay, www.pixabay.com
  83. 83. 8. Social equity 9. Visitor fulfilment 10. Local control 11. Community wellbeing 12. Cultural richness UNWTO’s 12 policy areas for sustainable tourism SOCIAL SUSTAINABILITY ECONOMIC SUSTAINABILITY 1. Economic viability 2. Local prosperity 3. Employment quality ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY 4. Physical integrity 5. Biological diversity 6. Resource efficiency 7. Environmental purity Picture source: Pixabay, www.pixabay.com
  84. 84. Meeting Policy Area 1: Economic viability ECONOMIC VIABILITY Understand the market Deliver visitor satisfaction Maintain good trading conditions Maintain and project attractive destinations Support business PRACTICES TO MEET THE POLICY
  85. 85. Meeting Policy Area 2: Local prosperity LOCAL PROSPERITY Reduce leakages Strengthen links between businesses Increase visitor spending PRACTICES TO MEET THE POLICY
  86. 86. Meeting Policy Area 3: Employment quality EMPLOYMENT QUALITY Increase employment opportunities Ensure and enforce labour regulations Provide skills training and career advancement Ensure wellbeing of workers who lose their jobs PRACTICES TO MEET THE POLICY
  87. 87. Meeting Policy Area 4: Physical integrity PHYSICAL INTEGRITY Tourism developments appropriate to environment Minimise physical impact of tourist activities Maintain high quality rural and urban landscapes PRACTICES TO MEET THE POLICY
  88. 88. Meeting Policy Area 5: Biological diversity PRACTICES TO MEET THE POLICY BIOLOGICAL DIVERSITY Work with protected areas Promote ecotourism Use tourism to encourage sustainable land management Work with private parks and reserves Minimise damage to natural heritage from tourism Raise visitor awareness of biodiversity Raise support for conservation
  89. 89. Meeting Policy Area 6: Resource efficiency PRACTICES TO MEET THE POLICY RESOURCE EFFICIENCY Account for resource supply in tourism planning Minimise water consumption by the tourism sector Use land and raw materials efficiently in development Promote a reduce, reuse, recycle mentality
  90. 90. Meeting Policy Area 7: Environmental purity PRACTICES TO MEET THE POLICY ENVIRONMENTAL PURITY Promote the use of more sustainable transport Reduce the use of environmentally damaging chemicals Avoid discharge of sewage to the seas and rivers / lakes Minimise waste and disposing with care Influence the development of new tourism facilities
  91. 91. Meeting Policy Area 8: Social equity PRACTICES TO MEET THE POLICY SOCIAL EQUITY Develop income opportunities for the disadvantaged Utilise income from tourism to support social programmes
  92. 92. Meeting Policy Area 9: Visitor fulfilment PRACTICES TO MEET THE POLICY VISITOR FULFILMENT Provide safe and satisfying experiences for all visitors Provide holiday opportunities for disadvantaged Maintain a duty of care to visitors Monitor and address visitor satisfaction
  93. 93. Meeting Policy Area 10: Local control PRACTICES TO MEET THE POLICY LOCAL CONTROL Ensure engagement and empowerment of local communities Improve conditions for effective local decision making Empower indigenous and traditional communities
  94. 94. Meeting Policy Area 11: Cultural richness PRACTICES TO MEET THE POLICY CULTURAL RICHNESS Ensure effective management and conservation of heritage sites Work with communities on sensitive presentation and promotion of culture and traditions
  95. 95. Meeting Policy Area 12: Community wellbeing PRACTICES TO MEET THE POLICY COMMUNITY WELLBEING Promote the use of more sustainable transport Reduce the use of environmentally damaging chemicals Avoid discharge of sewage to the seas and rivers / lakes Minimise waste and disposing with care Influence the development of new tourism facilities
  96. 96. The draft Vietnam Responsible Tourism Policy framework RESPONSIBLE TOURISM DYNAMIC & EFFICIENT COMPETITIVENESS & SUSTAINABILITY SOCIO-ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT KNOWLEDGE & UNDERSTANDING NATURAL & CULTURAL RESOURCES HUMAN CAPITAL & RESOURCES
  97. 97. 1. A dynamic & efficient tourism sector Action Areas Key Issues 1.1 Policy & Planning • Recognition given to RT in development policies • Policy gaps and overlaps • Restrictive and unclear policies • Lack of quality data for planning, policies and investment planning 1.2 Efficient Sector Functioning • Inter-ministerial coordination • Implementation of plans and regulations • Visa issuing for tourists 1.3 Supportive Business Environment • Financial and regulatory restrictions • Tourism sector is not adequately recognized • Tourism investment policies not support sustainable development • Taxation Issues 1.4 Stakeholder Cooperation • Support stakeholder engagement in tourism planning
  98. 98. 2. Competitiveness with sustainability Action Areas Key Issues 2.1 Promoting Good Business Practices • Negative competition leads to lower quality of services • Unfair treatment of tourists by businesses 2.2 Enhancing Product Development • Lack of variety and distinctive products and services • Improve quality of products and services • More local products that add distinction and local benefits 2.3 Strategic Marketing and Promotion • VN brand better supported and taken up by the sector • Higher yielding markets that create more economic impact • VN is currently viewed as a “one time visit destination” • Lack of funding for effective marketing 2.4 Support to Positive Visitor Experiences • Fair treatment of tourists at destinations • Ensure the safety of tourists at destinations
  99. 99. 3. Broad-based socio-economic development Action Areas Key Issues 3.1 Social Inclusion • Tourism related benefits are not reaching as much as possible • Lack of planning processes that include local people • Lack of opportunities for the disadvantaged • Lack of support to micro-enterprise development 3.2 Poverty Reduction • Planning and policies not linked enough to poverty reduction • Support the development of tourism where poor reside • Barriers for businesses to engage disadvantaged people • Barriers for disadvantaged people participating in tourism
  100. 100. 4. Expanding knowledge and understanding Action Areas Key Issues 4.1 Public Sector (national/ provincial/ local) • Lack strong government commitment for Tourism • Higher yielding-lower impact tourism not recognized • Lack of recognition of the importance of sustainable tourism • Stakeholder engagement to achieve effective sector functioning • Lack of understanding for the RT approach to planning 4.2 Business Sector (manageme nt / staff) • Lack of awareness on responsible businesses practices/operations • Importance of quality over quantity not fully realized • Low capacity in managing tourist & local community interaction 4.3 Visitors and Hosts • Tourists behaving inappropriately at tourist sites • Lack of information about local communities and customs • Improving treatment of tourist at the community level • Host communities not always happy with tourism 4.4 General Population • Low awareness on the importance of tourism
  101. 101. 5. Investing in human capital / resources Action Areas Key Issues 5.1 Governance (public sector, all levels) • Government / provincial / local staff with tourism responsibilities have little experience or training on tourism 5.2 Business Sector (management and staff) • Many tourism business managers lack to skills necessary to both operate efficient businesses or contribute effectively to RT • Staff of many tourism businesses have little understanding on sustainable and RT 5.3 Local People • Lack of skills for people living at or near tourism sites prevent participation and contribution to the tourism sector 5.4 Employment & Decent Work • Working conditions in some cases not at appropriate standards • Health and working insurance not comprehensively available
  102. 102. 6. Conservation and enhancement of resources Action Areas Key Issues 6.1 Cross- cutting Issues • Overcrowding at sites • Destruction of resources by tourists / business practices • Commercialization leading to degradation of resources • Negative impacts from other economic sectors • Weak cooperation amongst local stakeholders at tourism sites • Weak policy support for the conservation of cultural and environmental resources in tourism policies and planning 6.2 Natural Resources • Businesses operating in environmentally unsustainable ways • Low awareness and policies, strategies related to climate change and the impacts on, and from, the tourism sector 6.3 Cultural Resources • Conflicting interests between agencies responsible for heritage conservation and tourism development/promotion
  103. 103. Using instruments to support responsible tourism policies • Governments can use instruments to influence the sustainability of tourism • For best effect, all instruments should be applied in ways that are complementary and mutually reinforcing Instruments have different functions: • To measure levels of tourism and impacts • To control aspects of development and operation • To influence behaviour and impact • To encourage voluntary adherence to sustainable approaches and practices • To influence enterprises and tourists to make operations and activities sustainable
  104. 104. Using indicators and monitoring to support responsible tourism policies • Set sustainable tourism objectives • Establish a baseline • Set targets for policies and actions to achieve objectives • Incorporate assessment and evaluation of implemented actions • Make provisions for continuous improvement Picture source: Pixabay, www.pixabay.com
  105. 105. Using limits of change to support responsible tourism policies • Establish limits of economically, environmentally and socially acceptable change • Help manage levels of undesirable impact Picture source: Pixabay, www.pixabay.com
  106. 106. Using national tourism laws to support responsible tourism policies • Set out the responsibilities of governments and their agencies towards tourism • Sustainable tourism principles should be incorporated into the preamble and the wording of articles to ensure harmony Picture source: Pixabay, www.pixabay.com
  107. 107. Using regulations to support responsible tourism policies • Help enforce compliance • Can include: – Interactions with local environment and community – Allowable activities and forms of activities – Accessibility to places and / or frequency of use – Qualification requirements – Construction and building standards Picture source: Pixabay, www.pixabay.com
  108. 108. Using land use planning & development controls to support responsible tourism policies • Influence the type and location of tourism development and activities • Can prioritise areas and sites for conservation for tourism activities • Can ensure sustainable land use Picture source: Pixabay, www.pixabay.com
  109. 109. Using tourism impact assessments to support responsible tourism policies • Require developers to assess potential impacts of development proposals • Ensure sustainability by identifying costs and benefits to the economy, society and environment Picture source: Pixabay, www.pixabay.com
  110. 110. Using taxes and charges to support responsible tourism policies • Business tax and tourist tax can help affect businesses and consumer behaviour • Charges can help control visitor numbers • Revenue raised can be used for management, conservation, or support local community development projects etc Picture source: Pixabay, www.pixabay.com
  111. 111. Using financial incentives and agreements to support responsible tourism policies • Influence behaviour of enterprises by offering financial benefits for acting in a certain way • Can require enterprises to perform in a specific environmentally / socially / economically sensitive way • Can be used to assist particular types of sustainable tourism activities and direct government investments in sustainable tourism ventures Picture source: Pixabay, www.pixabay.com
  112. 112. Using voluntary mechanisms to support responsible tourism policies • Non-legally binding codes of conduct and guidelines for visitors and enterprises • Help establish expectations or requirements of behaviour • Certification schemes can also be promoted to help improve quality standards Picture source: Pixabay, www.pixabay.com
  113. 113. Using supportive instruments to support responsible tourism policies • Provision of infrastructure and services - fosters tourism development • Capacity building - feeds demand for skilled labour and enhances local employment and income • Marketing and information services - support economic instruments, guidelines and certification, as well as facilitate market access, promote particular forms of tourism or products, and influence visitor behaviour Picture source: Pixabay, www.pixabay.com
  114. 114. Xin trân trọng cảm ơn! Thank you!

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