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Unit 11: Responsible Food And Beverage Operation


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Unit 11: Responsible Food And Beverage Operation

  2. 2. Unit outline Objectives By the end of the unit participants will be able to: • Describe the meaning and importance of sustainability in food and beverage operation • Implement environmental responsibility provisions in food and beverage including practicing low energy use, being water wise and minimising waste • Explain importance of sourcing and providing good, sustainable food and beverage products • Explain how to implement social responsibility in food and beverage operation Topics 1. Understanding responsible food and beverage operation 2. Managing resources more efficiently 3. Sourcing good food responsibly 4. Looking after customers and the community
  4. 4. + Catering The F&B service sector Picture sources: Cafes Clubs
  5. 5. How the F&B service sector adds value • Integral part of tourism product mix • Government revenue • Jobs and income • Supports socio-economic strategies • Accessible livelihood option for many
  6. 6. The F&B service sector in Vietnam Source: Euromonitor Internatonal 2012, Consumer Foodservice in Vietnam, Euromonitor International, USA CATEGORY 2005 2009 2010 2015 100% home delivery / takeaway 1.2 34.5 Cafés / bars 965.4 1,909.0 2,079.5 3,053.3 Full-service restaurants 8,953.7 12,597.5 13,638.7 20,307.6 Fast food 179.4 338.4 383 670.6 Self-service cafeterias Street stalls / kiosks 6,249.5 10,144.5 10,753.7 13,184.7 Pizza consumer food service 7.6 33.4 42.3 155.7 Total 16355.6 25022.8 26898.4 37406.4 Values: US$ million
  7. 7. Value of the F&B sub-sectors in Vietnam, 2010 Fast food* 1% Cafés / bars 8% Street stalls / kiosks 40% Full-service restaurants 51% Source: Euromonitor Internatonal 2012, Consumer Foodservice in Vietnam, Euromonitor International, USA
  8. 8. Key characteristics of the F&B service sector in Vietnam • Dominated by restaurants and street food vendors • Mostly small family-owned and operated enterprises • High employer of women and youth • Good livelihood option: low start-up costs • Significant interest for tourists • Cuisine a priority tourism product by VNAT Picture source:
  9. 9. F&B service sector challenges in responsible tourism Picture sources: Food hygiene
  10. 10. Responsible tourism target areas in the F&B service sector Producers •Farmers •Hunters Suppliers & distributors •Manufacturers •Transportation Retailers •Restaurants •Cafes •Street food etc Consumers •Locals •Tourists • Hunting of wild or protected animals • Employment conditions • Contribute to climate change from food imports • Fair Trade • Purchase of wild or protected animals • Employment conditions • Skills including food hygiene • Fair Trade • Sale of wild or protected animals • Waste management • Responsible drinking • Consumption of wild or protected animals
  11. 11. Consequences of irresponsible and / or unsustainable practices in F&B operation • Pollution, may degrade marine life, can affect health of locals and tourists, reduces attractiveness of destination Poor waste management • May affect health of locals and tourists, damages reputation of businesses and destinationPoor food hygiene • Restricts local economic development, contributes to climate change as a result of transport related fossil fuel consumption Purchasing imported goods • Restricts ability of local farmers to cover production costs, reduces producers’ income, entrenches rural poverty, restricts social development Paying unfair prices for goods • Poor customer service, higher wastage, increased supervision of staff required, higher staff turnover Limiting skills training of staff • Restricts socio-economic development, comprises safety and security of staff, reduces productivity Poor employment practices for staff ACTIVITY CONSEQUENCE $              $ Economic criteria compromise  Environmental criteria compromise  Social criteria compromise IMPACT AREA
  12. 12. What does responsible F&B operation mean? •Practice low energy use •Be water wise •Minimise kitchen waste Manage resources more efficiently •Source sustainable F&B products •Use local and seasonal produce •Follow Fair Trade principles •Promote nutrition and health Source good food responsibly •Practice good food hygiene •Engage with the community •Provide a safe and secure environment Look after customers and the community
  13. 13. The business case for responsible F&B operation •Cost savings through efficiency •Competitive advantage  •Improved resilience to the effects of climate change •New customers  •Increased customer loyalty •Preparedness for new legislation •Minimise reduced revenue from increased operating costs and loss of competitive advantage  •Improved staff productivity and morale
  15. 15. Sustainability can be hard to achieve due to customers’ demands of the dining experience OK, so for my dinner out tonight I must have… …delicious food, served hot, hygienically prepared and be good value for money. I expect the serving size to be large because I’m feeling very hungry! It must have the best imported beef and also fresh seafood. It would also be nice to try a stir fry dish as well as a baked dish. The restaurant must have a nice environment with comfortable seating, air-conditioning and a view. Hmmm… what else…?
  16. 16. Impacts of overconsumption of energy and water and increased pollution and waste High consumption of natural resources Increased production of waste Negative impacts on environment, community & ultimately, profit
  17. 17. Key focus areas for achieving environmental sustainability in F&B operation Energy Water Waste
  18. 18. Energy, water, waste reduction Patterns of use Equipment External factors The key elements of energy, water and waste minimisation
  19. 19. Financial. You are throwing away money! Environmental. You are destroying important ecological processes that can affect your own health. Community. You are putting strain on the local community’s water and power supply and wasting resources in the production of not fully used products. Business. You are not meeting consumer expectations. 4 reasons why energy, water and waste reduction is important
  20. 20. Why should we practice low energy use? Total primary energy supply has doubled in 35 years worldwide of investment will be necessary to satisfy the world energy demand by 2030 billion dollars 16,000
  21. 21. Why should we be water wise? of earth’s water is salt water and not drinkable < 1%of water resources is accessible freshwater of the earth’s water is part of glaciers 2% 300conflicts have been caused by water resource issues Water consumption has increased 4 times in the 50 last years but the population has only doubled > 4 billion live in countries facing water scarcity people > 97%
  22. 22. Why should we minimise kitchen waste? 2600 tones of waste is produced in Hanoi per day 5.3 kg of waste is produced on average per person per day The quantity of waste produced by the Asia Pacific region will double by 2030 of waste is recycled worldwide<10%
  23. 23. Energy consumption % in a typical catering business Cooking 23% Water heating 19% Space heating 19% Lighting 11% Cooling 8% Other 8% Refrigeration 6% Ventilation 5% Office equipment 1% Source: Sustainable Restaurant Association (SRA) [undated], The Sustainable Restaurant Association Guide to Sustainable Kitchens, SRA, London, UK
  24. 24. Sources of energy use & waste in the kitchen Energy use • Ovens and appliances • Refrigeration • Dishwashers • Lighting • Heating and cooling • Others? Energy waste Poor maintenance of electrical equipment Purchase of energy inefficient appliances Inefficient heating and cooling practices Leaving electrical appliances on Others?
  25. 25. Tips for energy use reduction in refrigeration Capacity Location Picture source: Freezer use Food storage Others: Maintenance
  26. 26. Tips for energy use reduction in the cooking area Picture source: Oven type Cook top type & use Oven useOthers: Maintenance Deep fryer type
  27. 27. Tips for energy use reduction in other areas Picture sources: Commercial dishwasher type Lighting type Windows
  28. 28. Sources of water use & waste in the kitchen Water use • Food preparation • Sinks and taps • Dishwashers • Others ? Water waste Dripping taps Leaking pipes Excessively high water pressure Water inefficient appliances Bad methods in food preparation Others?
  29. 29. Tips for water use reduction Tap type Others: Food preparation & cooking Kitchen cleaning Bathroom Maintenance Awareness Dishwasher type, settings & use
  30. 30. Sources and causes of waste in the kitchen Sources of waste • Food waste • Plastic bags and containers • Food and drink packaging • Others? Causes of waste Incorrect storage and handling Overestimation of product demand Excessive packaging of products Use of one-off disposable products Not reducing, reusing or recycling Others?
  31. 31. Tips for minimising waste Policy on plastic bag provision
  32. 32. The basic principles of waste management: The 3Rs • To use things with care to reduce the amount of waste generated Reduce • To repeat use of items or parts of items Reuse • To use waste as resources Recycle
  34. 34. Sourcing food responsibly through the supply chain Producer Supplier Retailer Restaurant Meat goods Producer A Dairy products Producer B Canned goods Producer C Others Producer D Responsibility considerations A) F&B product characteristics B) Locality & seasonality C) Nutritional content D) Principles of trade Example of typical restaurant supply chain:
  35. 35. A) F&B product characteristics: source sustainable products Purchase organic food Select producers with good animal welfare practices Don’t sell endangered or protected species Picture sources:
  36. 36. Improving sustainability by going organic • Organic food aims to use farming practices that care for the environment without relying on synthetic chemicals • Key characteristics include: – Safe soil – No genetic modifications – No use of pesticides or harmful fertilisers – Healthy living environments for animals
  37. 37. Organic farming vs. Conventional farming ISSUE CONVENTIONAL ORGANIC Plant growth Chemical fertilisers Natural fertilisers Plant insects and disease Insecticides Nature based strategies Weeds Herbicides Farming techniques Animal growth Antibiotics, hormones and medications Healthy eating and living environments Source: The Mayo Clinic 2014, ‘Organic foods: Are they safer? More nutritious?’, The Mayo Clinic, Available [online], Downloaded 29/01/2014
  38. 38. Why do pesticides matter? RISKS OF PESTICIDES Child development Pregnant women Adult health problems Picture sources:
  39. 39. Pesticide contamination Picture source:
  40. 40. Benefits of organic food • Organic food contains fewer pesticides  • Organic food is often fresher  • Organic farming is better for the environment  • Organically raised animals are not given antibiotics, growth hormones or fed animal by-products
  41. 41. Improving sustainability by promoting animal welfare in food production • Animal welfare - How an animal is coping with the conditions in which it lives • Farming of animals increasingly separated from natural existence • Common farming practice in dairy, poultry, pigs, beef • Profits prioritised above animal health and human health Picture sources:
  42. 42. Importance of animal welfare in food production ANIMAL WELFARE Impacts production and reproduction Can result in loss of market access May not meet legislation requirements Animals feel pain Picture sources:
  43. 43. General signs of pain in livestock Vocalisation Grindingteeth Reluctanceto move Rapid/shallow breathing Isolationfrom group Footstamping Abnormal posture Headtucked/ eyesclosed Decreased production Cattle      Pigs       Sheep     Goats        Poultry    Source: State Government of Victoria 2013, ‘Animal Welfare for Livestock Producers’, Department of Environment and Primary Industries, Available [online]:, Downloaded: 30/01/2014
  44. 44. Improving sustainability by not selling protected or endangered species • The world is experiencing an extinction crisis • Plant and animal species are needed for healthy ecosystems • Plants and animals provide other important benefits to society including: – Medicine – Crop pollination – Pest control – Carbon storage Picture source:
  45. 45. The many values of biodiversity Agricultural Medicinal Ecological Commercial Aesthetic Legal Picture source:
  46. 46. Example of effects of species decline on the food chain: The Canadian grey wolf After the grey wolf’s population dwindled in Yellowstone National Park from hunting, elk started to breed out of control. This meant there were too many of them munching down the trees that shaded the water in the park. This in turn made the streams uncomfortably hot for local trout, and took nesting spots away from migrating birds. After grey wolves were reintroduced, they controlled the elk population and everything else fell into place. Picture sources:
  47. 47. B) Source local and seasonal produce What is local produce? • Foods and beverages that are produced in the local region What is seasonal produce? • Food that is harvested at particular times or seasons in the year Picture source:
  48. 48. Why source local produce? How to source local produce? Talk to your suppliers and retailers and find out where the food has come from. Picture sources: better It supports the local economy It’s for you It’s fresher (and tastes better) It helps the environment
  49. 49. Why source seasonal produce? Picture sources: better menu taste better How to source seasonal produce? Research what is produced in the region and the particular times of harvest and create a seasonal produce chart. Purchase accordingly.
  50. 50. C) Providing nutritious food and beverages • Good nutrition increasingly important • Increasing expectations of food establishments in nutrition • Governments increasingly taking action VIETNAMESE CONSUMER PERCEPTIONS ABOUT NUTRITION AND HEALTHY FOOD • 34% are not confident with their current health situation • 48% believe they are not at their right weight • 36% consider nutritional ingredients when purchasing healthy / nutritional food • 25% consider reduced risk of disease when purchasing healthy / nutritional food Source: Nielsen survey results presented at Health and Nutrition Forum on May 15, 2013, available [online]: insights/press/english/2013/health-and-nutrition-forum.print.html
  51. 51. World Health Organisation’s recommendations on healthy eating Energy Achieve energy balance Fat Limit intake. Shift from saturated fats to unsaturated fats. Eliminate trans-fatty acids Fruit & vegetables Increase consumption. Include legumes, whole grains and nuts Sugar Limit intake of refined sugars Salt Limit consumption from all sources and ensure it is iodized
  52. 52. Tips for providing nutritious food Picture sources: Meat • For red meat use “loin” and “round” and trim fat before cooking. For poultry, use light meat instead of dark meat Dairy • Use egg whites instead of egg yolks. Go for reduced fat dairy options Salt • Limit salt use in recipes Oil • Opt for plant-based cooking oils Meals • Create balance between meat, vegetables or fruit, and carbohydrates
  53. 53. D) Supporting Fair Trade • A trading partnership based on dialogue, transparency and respect • Contributes to sustainable development by offering better trading conditions and securing the rights of producers and workers • Fair Trade organisations actively support producers, raise awareness and campaign for changes in the rules and practice of conventional international trade
  54. 54. Why change traditional trade? • Over 2 billion of the world’s people live on less than US$ 2 a day • Farmer incomes have declined dramatically while consumer prices and agribusiness’ profits have increased • Smallholders grow 70% of the world’s food, but still make up half of the world’s hungriest people Traditional trade: • Gives too much power to multinational corporations and rich countries • Minimises opportunities for vulnerable producers and neglects the environment • Focuses on short-term profits, evades the full costs of commerce, and overlooks the plight of marginalized people Source: Fair Trade Resource Network 2013, ‘Overview of Fair Trade in N. America’, Fair Trade Resource Network, Available [online]: Fair-Trade-in-N-America-vSeptember2013.pdf, Downloaded: 30/01/2014
  55. 55. How does Fair Trade differ from Free Trade? FREE TRADE FAIR TRADE Main goal: To increase nations’ economic growth To empower marginalised people and improve the quality of their lives Focuses on: Trade policies between countries Commerce among individuals and businesses Primarily benefits: Multinational corporations, powerful business interests Vulnerable farmers, artisans and workers in less industrialised countries Critics say: Punishing to marginalised people & the environment, sacrifices long-term Interferes with free market, inefficient, too small scale for impact Major actions: Countries lower tariffs, quotas, labour and environmental standards Businesses offer producers favourable financing, long-term relationships, minimum prices and higher labour and environmental standards Producer compensation determined by: Market and government policies Living wage and community improvement costs Supply chain: Includes many parties between producer and consumer Includes fewer parties, more direct trade Key advocate organisations: World Trade Organisation, World Bank, International Monetary Fund Fairtrade Labelling Organisation, World Fair Trade Organization Source: Fair Trade Resource Network 2013, ‘Overview of Fair Trade in N. America’, Fair Trade Resource Network, Available [online]: Fair-Trade-in-N-America-vSeptember2013.pdf, Downloaded: 30/01/2014
  56. 56. Principles for recognising Fair Trade organisations Create opportunities for economically & socially marginalized producers Develop transparent & accountable relationships Build capacity Promote fair trade Pay promptly & fairly Support safe & empowering working conditions Ensure the rights of children Cultivate environmental stewardship Respect cultural identity Source: Fair Trade Resource Network 2013, ‘Overview of Fair Trade in N. America’, Fair Trade Resource Network, Available [online]: Fair-Trade-in-N-America-vSeptember2013.pdf, Downloaded: 30/01/2014
  57. 57. The benefits of Fair Trade • Helps correct international trade imbalance • Helps provide greater stability in pricing to protect farmers • Ensures benefits passed onto producers while the suppliers still can get their benefits • Ensures poor farmers have better working conditions
  58. 58. Global consumption of Fair Trade products Source: Fair Trade Resource Network 2013, ‘Overview of Fair Trade in N. America’, Fair Trade Resource Network, Available [online]: Trade-in-N-America-vSeptember2013.pdf, Downloaded: 30/01/2014
  60. 60. The key elements in looking after customers and the community 1. Ensure good food hygiene 2. Engage the community 3. Provide a safe environment 4. Communicate responsible activities Picture sources:
  61. 61. 1. Ensuring good food hygiene • Minimises the spread of disease Protects customers • Maintains trust, avoids potential legal cases Protects business
  62. 62. Applying good food hygiene FOOD HYGIENE TARGET AREAS Personal hygiene •Clothes •Hair •Hands •Health Kitchen cleanliness •Benches •Floors •Cooking utensils, bowls etc Food preparation •Vegetables and fruit •Raw food •Thawing food Food storage •Meat, fish and fresh organic food •Perishable food •Detecting spoilt food
  63. 63. Standard food storage times Source: AVA 2010, ‘Food Storage Chart: How Long Can We Keep our Food?’, Agri-Food & Veterinary Authority of Singapore, Available [online]:, Downloaded: 1/2/2014 PRODUCT REFRIGERATOR (4⁰C) FREEZER (-18⁰C) Fresh eggs 3-5 weeks Don’t freeze Fresh milk (opened) 2-3 days Don’t freeze Bacon 7 days 1 month Raw sausage 1-2 days 1 month Fresh beef, veal, lamb, pork 3-5 days 6-12 months Fresh poultry 1-2 days 6-12 months Raw seafood 1-3 days 2-5 months Cooked seafood 3-4 days 4-6 months Frozen meals - 3-4 months Meat and seafood salads 3-5 days Don’t freeze Soups and stews 3-4 days 1-3 months
  64. 64. 2. Engage the community • Integral to sustainability • Increasingly demanded by governments • Engaging with the community also: – Responds to consumer demand – Sets businesses apart from the competition – Generates positive publicity – Creates meaningful connections -> customer loyalty Picture sources:
  65. 65. Ways to engage the community Offering internships Volunteering Supporting community projects Supporting charities Donations Picture sources:
  66. 66. 3. Providing a safe and secure environment • Ensuring customer safety meets social responsibility objectives • Aims to minimise the incidence of accidents, theft and robbery, violence and aggression, and disruptions to the community
  67. 67. Key components in providing a safe and secure environment SAFE & SECURE ENVIRONMENT TARGET AREAS Cleanliness Service of alcohol Noise Violence & aggression Security
  68. 68. Drinker intervention steps Source: Alcohol Advisory Council of New Zealand (ALAC) 2009, Where’s the line? Understanding your role and responsibility in drinker intervention, ALAC, New Zealand
  69. 69. 4. Communicating responsible activities • Let others know the great things you’re doing to be sustainable • Benefits include: – Generates awareness of sustainability issues – Builds support for the cause – Sells products – Improves reputation – Differentiates from competitors • Use a multi-pronged attack
  70. 70. Ways to get your responsible messages out Website Brochures or flyers Service staff Press release
  71. 71. Tips for effective communication of responsibility messages Emphasise local & seasonal produce in the menu Weave local supply chain into the business’ “story” Highlight organic food in dish descriptions Convey sustainability messages and work on the website
  72. 72. Example of good sustainability marketing: Joma Café, Hanoi Great, but just 1 thing to improve..
  73. 73. Xin trân trọng cảm ơn! Thank you!