Grammar book 2nd semester

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Grammar book 2nd semester

  1. 1. Spanish 3 Honors Grammar Book<br />Delmiro Trogstad<br />
  2. 2. THE CONDITIONAL TENSE<br />Would/could/should<br />Infinitive + ía<br />Used to make polite requests<br />Me gustaría al cine<br />
  3. 3. THE CONDITIONAL TENSE IRREGULAR<br />Irregular stem + (ending)<br />
  4. 4. PRESENT PERFECT TENSE<br />You use the present perfect verb tense in Spanish to express/describe actions that happened recently<br />Ending conjugations <br />Ar------ado<br />Er/ir----ido<br />
  5. 5. Present perfect irregulars<br />Abir---abierto<br />Cubrir---cubierto<br />Decir---dicho<br />Escribir---escrito<br />Hacer---hecho<br />Morir---muerto<br />Poner---puesto<br />Resolver---resuelto<br />Romper---roto<br />Var---visto<br />Volver---vuelto<br />Ir---ido<br />
  6. 6. PRESENT PERFECT SUBJUNCTIVE<br />Subjunctive with verbs of emotion<br />Main clause + subordinate clause<br />No change in subject<br />Emotion + infinitive<br />Change in subject<br />Emotion + subjunctive<br />
  7. 7.
  8. 8. Subjunctive with Emotion Verbs<br />Ojalá que (I hope that…)<br />Temo que (I fear that…)<br />Tengo miedo de que (I am afraid that…)<br />Me alegro de que (I am happy that…)<br />Me molesta que (It bothers me that…)<br />Me sorprende que (It surprises me that…)<br />Siento que (I feel that…)<br />Es triste que (It´s sad that…)<br />Es bueno que (It´s good that…)<br />
  9. 9. “SE” IMPERSONAL<br />Use ‘se’ to avoid specifying a person who is doing the action of the verb<br /><ul><li>Se vendefruta en la frutería</li></ul>When using ‘se’, the verb is always in the 3rd person<br />Aquíse hablaespañol<br />
  10. 10. COMMANDS/MANDATOS<br />Usted<br />Yo form of the verb, drop the O and add the opposite ending<br />
  11. 11. COMMANDS/MANDATOS<br />USTEDES<br />Yo form of the verb, drop the O and add the opposite ending of the third plural form<br />
  12. 12. COMMANDS/MANDATOS<br />TU AFFIRMATIVE<br />Conjugate the verb in the 3rd person present<br />
  13. 13. COMMANDS/MANDATOS<br />TU NEGATIVE<br />Yo form, drop the O and add the opposite tu ending<br />
  14. 14. COMMANDS/MANDATOS<br />NOSOTROS<br />Yo form of the verb in present tense, drop the O and add the opposite nosotros form ending<br />
  15. 15. COMMANDS/MANDATOS<br />DIRECT OBJECT PRONOUN (DOP)<br />Me, te, lo/la, nos, les, los/las<br />Must be attached to the end of the affirmative command<br />Requires the use of an accent mark over the stressed syllable of the verb if that syllable is followed by two or more syllables<br />
  16. 16. COMMANDS/MANDATOSAFFIRMATIVE<br />REGULAR<br />Conjugate in the tu form and drop the s<br />Add pronoun if necessary<br />IRREGULAR<br />Di, haz, ve, pon, sal, se, ten, ven<br />Put in the tu, stem change, and drop the s<br />
  17. 17. COMMANDS/MANDATOSNEGATIVE<br />REGULAR<br />Put it in the yo form, chane to the opposite vowel and add an s<br />Place pronoun before the verb<br />IRREGULAR<br />Tvdishes add the s<br />Or put in yo form, change to the opposite vowel and add an s<br />Place pronoun before the verb<br />
  18. 18. NOSOTROS COMMANDS<br />
  19. 19. SUBJUNCTIVE<br />Wishing/wanting<br />Emotions<br />Doubt<br />Disbelief<br />Impersonal expressions<br />Negation<br />God/grief<br />
  20. 20. SUBJUNCTIVE<br />Yo form- drop the o- opposite endings<br />Un verbo “especial”<br />Dos cláusulas<br />Dos sujetosdifferentes<br />La palabra “que”<br />
  21. 21. THE PRESENT SUBJUNCTIVE<br />INDICITIVE<br />real<br />Facts<br />definite<br />SUBJUNCTIVE<br />ATTITUDES<br />2 clauses in a sentence<br />Uncertain<br />hyperthetical<br />
  22. 22.
  23. 23. Specific Events<br />Time, weather, location<br />
  24. 24. FROM FIRST SEMESTER<br />
  25. 25. SER<br />
  26. 26. ESTAR<br />
  27. 27. SPAK VERBS<br />dar<br />ver<br />ir<br /> ser<br />hacer<br />
  28. 28. PRETERITE<br />Actions completed<br />Beginning or end of past action<br />Snapshot<br />Narrate series of past actions or events<br />Specific events<br />
  29. 29. IMPERFECT<br />No reference to beginning or end<br />Hibitual past actions and events<br />Movie<br />Describe physical & emotional states or characteristics<br />Time, weather, location<br />
  30. 30. CUCARACHA VERBS<br />ENDINGS<br />Andar- aduv<br />Estar- estuv<br />Poder- pud<br />Poner- pus<br />Querer- quis<br />Saber- sup<br />Tener- tuv<br />Venir- vin<br />Conducir- conduj<br />Producir- produj<br />Traducir- traduj<br />Decir- dij<br />Traer- traj<br />-e<br />-iste<br />-o<br />-imos<br />-isteis<br />-ieron<br />
  31. 31. Triggers del preterite<br />Ayer<br />Anoche<br />
  32. 32. Triggers son los imperfectos<br />Hastaque<br />Cuando<br />Ojalá<br />
  33. 33. Irregular Preterite<br />
  34. 34. Irregular Imperfect<br />
  35. 35. VERBS LIKE GUSTAR<br />Aburrir, encantar, faltar, fascinar, importar, interesar, molestar, quedar, caenbien/mal, doler, disgustar, hacer, falta, preocupar, sorprender, apetecer.<br />When gustar is follwed by one or more verbs in the infinitive, the singular form of gustar is always used<br />Gustar is often used in the conditional to soften a request<br />
  36. 36. Irregular Preterites<br />
  37. 37. CAR, GAR, ZAR VARBS<br />
  38. 38. DEOMNSTRATIVE ADJECTIVES<br />always agree in gender and number with the noun they modify<br /> always come in front of the noun they modify<br />SINGULAR<br /><ul><li>Este/Esta (this)
  39. 39. Ese/Esa (that)
  40. 40. Aquel/Aquella (that over there)</li></ul>PLURAL<br /><ul><li>Estos/Estas (these)
  41. 41. Eses/Esas (those)
  42. 42. Aquellos/Aquellas (those over there)</li></li></ul><li>Demonstrative Pronouns<br />lo, la, los, y las<br />
  43. 43. COMPARATIVOS Y SUPERLATIVOS<br />La casa esgrande<br />El graneroesmásgrandequela casa<br />El castilloesel másgrande de todos<br /><ul><li>…más…que… (er)
  44. 44. …la/el más…de… (est)</li></li></ul><li>CONTINUED…<br />BUENO- mejor<br />MALO- peor<br />VIEJO- mayor<br />JOVEN- menor<br />TAN… como<br />
  45. 45. CONNECTING WORDS<br />Aunque- even though<br />También- also<br />Mientras- while<br />A pesar de- in spite of<br />Pero- but<br />Por lo todo- therefore<br />Sin embargo/no obstante- nevertheless<br />
  46. 46. EL FUTURO<br />Yo- infinitive + é<br />Tu- infinitive + ás<br />Él/ella/usted- infinitive + á<br />Nosotros- infinitive + emos<br />Vosotros- infinitive + éis<br />Ustedes/ellos/ellas- infinitive + án<br />
  47. 47. EL FUTURO IRREGULARS<br />Decir- dir<br />Hacer- har<br />Poner- pondr<br />Salir- saldr<br />Tener- tendr<br />Valer- valdr<br />Venir- vendr<br />Poder- podr<br />Querer- querr<br />Saber- sabr<br />Caber- cabr<br />Haber- habr<br />
  48. 48. POR<br />Passing through<br />General rather than specific location<br />How long something lasts<br />The cause of something<br />An exchange<br />Doing something in place of or instead of someone else<br />A means of transportation<br />
  49. 49. PARA<br />For whom something is done<br />Destination<br />The purpose for which something is done<br />To express an opinion<br />To contrast or compare<br />To express idea of deadline<br />

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