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The Open University
showcases
Systems Thinking in Practice
The Public Sector Challenge
COMPLEXITY
AND
UNCERTAINTY
The Systems Thinking Opportunity
Systemic
(epistemologies)
Systematic
(ontologies)
Start with a Situation? or System?
A choice to be made
Systems Thinking
in Practice
Postgraduate programme
Masters/ Diploma/ Certificate
Managing systemic change:
Inquiry, actio...
1. Complex situations or
Contexts of change
and uncertainty, with appropriate
space for emergence
2. People
or stakeholder...
System dynamics
• Understanding interrelationships & interdependencies -1
• Linear vs feedback systems thinking
• Power an...
Viable systems model
• Understanding interrelationships & interdependencies -2
• System and VSM
– System 1 operations
– Sy...
Strategic options development and analysis
• Facilitating multiple perspectives-1
• Cognitive mapping
• Cause maps
• SODA ...
Soft systems methodology
• Facilitating multiple perspectives-2
• Rich pictures: towards worldviews
• Analyses 1-3: what (...
Critical systems heuristics
• Reference systems and boundary
judgements: ethics/ politics
• Stakeholders and stakeholding
...
A Model in
STiP –
Masters in
Systems
Thinking
in
Practice
TU812 Managing systemic
change: Inquiry, action
and interaction
TU812: Braiding
strands of inquiry
and linking with
your own
experience
Main traditions of theory and practice of managing systemic change drawn on in
TU812 (for examples of authors’ work mentio...
Systems Practice
as Juggling
An ideal type of systems practitioner (SP) is seen as a juggler of
‘being’ ‘engaging’ ‘contex...
Social learning
systems – early
traditions
Insights into (i) Government as a learning system, public learning,
how ideas o...
P = practitioner
F = framework of
ideas/theory
S = situation
M = method or
methodology
1. Clarify purpose 2. Engage in
conversation
3.Appreciate multiple
perspectives
9. Monitor,
evaluate
7. Design actions
(pe...
Masters in
Systems Thinking in Practice
Examples from
STiP Alumni and Students
Many in the Public Sector
Systems thinking to improve
wellbeing and health
interdependencies
complexity
uncertainty
controversy
A big challenge
to i...
Many people already think
systemically
But the quality of that thinking can
be improved through awareness of
the concepts,...
We need ways of working that release the
systems thinking capacity within us
Constraints to
systems thinking
 Target driv...
Helping an organisation to avoid
frequent unnecessary restructuring
Action
Research
Introduce PVSM
&
Collaborative
Inquiry...
APPLYING STIP LEARNING IN THE NHS
TO FORM STRATEGIC PLANS FOR DISCHARGING ADULT ACUTE
PATIENTS FROM HOSPITAL.
Rich Picture...
APPLYING STIP LEARNING IN THE NHS
TO FORM STRATEGIC PLANS FOR DISCHARGING ADULT ACUTE
PATIENTS FROM HOSPITAL.
 Efficacy –...
MUNRO REVIEW
Our Strategic Partner Organisations
My Organisation
Systemic
Inquiry
Viable
System
Model
Soft
Systems
Methodology
ICT Prov...
Using systems thinking in agricultural
biodiversity research for development
A Rich Picture An influence Diagram
Getting t...
1. Identify and
map ABD and
poverty
hotspots
7. Improve
capacity at all
levels to plan,
implement and
incorporate in situ
...
Study Fellow (2012): Bryan Hopkins
Collaboration in the Public Sector – A Rich Picture
Drawn using feedback from an Appreciative Inquiry (Vickers,1968).
Indi...
System 5
(Governance)
System 4
(Intelligence)
System 3 (Management
and Delivery)
System 1
Delivery
System2
Monitoring
Syst...
Local Government
Community Engagement Workshop
• Community engagement for a shadow health
and well-being Board (HWB)
- why...
Generating Ideas – Group 1
Transformation From dictating to working with
Weltanschauung
(Worldview)
Need public ownership ...
Transformation The public is not involved -> will be involved in developing the JSNA and
JHWS
Weltanschauung
(Worldview)
S...
Systems Innovation
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Systems Thinking in Practice - an Open University showcase Slide 1 Systems Thinking in Practice - an Open University showcase Slide 2 Systems Thinking in Practice - an Open University showcase Slide 3 Systems Thinking in Practice - an Open University showcase Slide 4 Systems Thinking in Practice - an Open University showcase Slide 5 Systems Thinking in Practice - an Open University showcase Slide 6 Systems Thinking in Practice - an Open University showcase Slide 7 Systems Thinking in Practice - an Open University showcase Slide 8 Systems Thinking in Practice - an Open University showcase Slide 9 Systems Thinking in Practice - an Open University showcase Slide 10 Systems Thinking in Practice - an Open University showcase Slide 11 Systems Thinking in Practice - an Open University showcase Slide 12 Systems Thinking in Practice - an Open University showcase Slide 13 Systems Thinking in Practice - an Open University showcase Slide 14 Systems Thinking in Practice - an Open University showcase Slide 15 Systems Thinking in Practice - an Open University showcase Slide 16 Systems Thinking in Practice - an Open University showcase Slide 17 Systems Thinking in Practice - an Open University showcase Slide 18 Systems Thinking in Practice - an Open University showcase Slide 19 Systems Thinking in Practice - an Open University showcase Slide 20 Systems Thinking in Practice - an Open University showcase Slide 21 Systems Thinking in Practice - an Open University showcase Slide 22 Systems Thinking in Practice - an Open University showcase Slide 23 Systems Thinking in Practice - an Open University showcase Slide 24 Systems Thinking in Practice - an Open University showcase Slide 25 Systems Thinking in Practice - an Open University showcase Slide 26 Systems Thinking in Practice - an Open University showcase Slide 27 Systems Thinking in Practice - an Open University showcase Slide 28 Systems Thinking in Practice - an Open University showcase Slide 29 Systems Thinking in Practice - an Open University showcase Slide 30 Systems Thinking in Practice - an Open University showcase Slide 31 Systems Thinking in Practice - an Open University showcase Slide 32 Systems Thinking in Practice - an Open University showcase Slide 33 Systems Thinking in Practice - an Open University showcase Slide 34 Systems Thinking in Practice - an Open University showcase Slide 35 Systems Thinking in Practice - an Open University showcase Slide 36 Systems Thinking in Practice - an Open University showcase Slide 37
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Presentation details the Open University's Systems Thinking in Practice Masters programme along with examples of practice from STiP Alumni as showcased at the UK Public Sector Show April 2013.

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Systems Thinking in Practice - an Open University showcase

  1. 1. The Open University showcases Systems Thinking in Practice
  2. 2. The Public Sector Challenge COMPLEXITY AND UNCERTAINTY
  3. 3. The Systems Thinking Opportunity
  4. 4. Systemic (epistemologies) Systematic (ontologies) Start with a Situation? or System? A choice to be made
  5. 5. Systems Thinking in Practice Postgraduate programme Masters/ Diploma/ Certificate Managing systemic change: Inquiry, action and interaction TU812 30 credits TU811 30 credits Thinking strategically: systems tools for managing change
  6. 6. 1. Complex situations or Contexts of change and uncertainty, with appropriate space for emergence 2. People or stakeholders as (systems) practitioners, with appropriate respect for autonomy 3. Systems and other conceptual Tools for the purpose of effecting change, with appropriate imagination for avoiding traps (iii) reflecting upon limits on boundaries of interrelationships and perspectives (i) making sense of interrelationships (ii) engaging with multiple perspectives entities activities Systems of interest perceived as 3.1 actual real world entities – e.g., accounting, health, or education ‘system’ (thinking about systems) and/or 3.2 conceptual constructs for inquiry into real world entities e.g., learning systems (systems thinking)
  7. 7. System dynamics • Understanding interrelationships & interdependencies -1 • Linear vs feedback systems thinking • Power and modelling • Causal loop diagramming • Archetypes – Fixes that fail – Shifting the burden – Limits to growth – Drifting goals – Escalation – Tragedy of the commons Some systems approaches -1
  8. 8. Viable systems model • Understanding interrelationships & interdependencies -2 • System and VSM – System 1 operations – System 2 coordination – System 3 delivery – System 4 development – System 5 policy • Variety and recursion • Systems in areas of practice • Layered structures • Management activities • Viability: environment Some systems approaches -2
  9. 9. Strategic options development and analysis • Facilitating multiple perspectives-1 • Cognitive mapping • Cause maps • SODA analyses – Domain – Central – Cluster – Hierarchical • Effective facilitation Some systems approaches -3
  10. 10. Soft systems methodology • Facilitating multiple perspectives-2 • Rich pictures: towards worldviews • Analyses 1-3: what (intervention), who (social), why (political) • Simple systems – PQR • CATWOE… • Conceptual modelling • Taking action Some systems approaches -4
  11. 11. Critical systems heuristics • Reference systems and boundary judgements: ethics/ politics • Stakeholders and stakeholding • Boundary reflection: Botswana • Boundary discourse: Guyana • Significance in other traditions Some systems approaches -5
  12. 12. A Model in STiP – Masters in Systems Thinking in Practice
  13. 13. TU812 Managing systemic change: Inquiry, action and interaction
  14. 14. TU812: Braiding strands of inquiry and linking with your own experience
  15. 15. Main traditions of theory and practice of managing systemic change drawn on in TU812 (for examples of authors’ work mentioned see references) Tradition Description Living in Language Language affects how individuals understand interact. Social and political dynamics of explanation become very important (draws on Postman, Maturana) Managing in a climate change, co- evolutionary world The backdrop of human-induced climate change acts as a metaphor for the many uncertain, complex, contested situations where managing systemic change seems needed. Adaptation is seen a two- way process between humans and their world Systems lineages Many different influences have shaped contemporary systems approaches including: practical holism, general systems theory, operations research, complexity science, first and second order cybernetics, interdisciplinary systems sciences
  16. 16. Systems Practice as Juggling An ideal type of systems practitioner (SP) is seen as a juggler of ‘being’ ‘engaging’ ‘contextualising’ and ‘managing’. Reflection on the SP as juggler focuses on being ethical (draws on Open University module team for T306 – managing complexity: a systems approach, also Meadows.) Systemic Inquiry Systemic inquiry is an approach to practice which is adaptive to changing circumstances and draws on systems thinking (draws on Churchman, Checkland and SLIM) Systemic Action Research Concerns changing your situation for the better. Associated with real-life issues. Researcher takes responsibility for their own epistemology in a second-order cybernetic tradition (draws on Schön, Ison and Russell)
  17. 17. Social learning systems – early traditions Insights into (i) Government as a learning system, public learning, how ideas of good currency emerge and the place of policy in a learning system (ii) appreciative systems and social learning, institutional and individual roles and the limits of Government (Draws on Schön, Vickers, Blackmore) Critical social learning systems ‘The Hawkesbury tradition’. Developed in rural Australian context of land and water catchment degradation, desertification, use of natural resources, failure to manage climate variability. Distinguished by valuing of epistemology and ethics and systemic praxis – blending systems theory and practice (Draws on Bawden, Woodhill) Communities of practice The concept of a community of practice with an identifiable domain, community and practice is used to consider the world as a learning system, including design requirements and how learning systems might be cultivated. Concepts of boundaries, identity, trajectories and participation are seen as conceptual tools for CoPs. The ‘career’ of the concept is explored: CoPs as social learning systems, CoPs in social learning systems, and the role of CoPs in developing a social discipline of learning (Draws on Wenger, Snyder)
  18. 18. P = practitioner F = framework of ideas/theory S = situation M = method or methodology
  19. 19. 1. Clarify purpose 2. Engage in conversation 3.Appreciate multiple perspectives 9. Monitor, evaluate 7. Design actions (personal or for policy) 6. Refine 5. Identify emergent issues and opportunities 4. Introduce new concepts, experience and evidence Other likely outputs: changes in understanding changed social relations changed (new) practices 10. Redesign the system based on feedback Prior experience of participants valued? 8. Monitor & adjust System maps… Learning in Practice
  20. 20. Masters in Systems Thinking in Practice Examples from STiP Alumni and Students Many in the Public Sector
  21. 21. Systems thinking to improve wellbeing and health interdependencies complexity uncertainty controversy A big challenge to improve Systems thinking helps because it emphasises connections, relationships and importance of appreciating multiple perspectives. multiple stakeholders with different perspectives and interests. Wellbeing and Health Characterised by Involves Study Fellow (2012): Helen Wilding
  22. 22. Many people already think systemically But the quality of that thinking can be improved through awareness of the concepts, approaches and tools of systems There's always, always another perspective Quite complex multi-factorial problems Study Fellow (2012): Helen Wilding
  23. 23. We need ways of working that release the systems thinking capacity within us Constraints to systems thinking  Target driven performance  Standard project methodologies  Instrumental policy approaches  Debate and conflictual communication Release our systems thinking  Purposeful concerted action  Contextualising systems approaches to the task  Intelligent, social learning based policy approaches  Dialogue and inquiry focussed communication Study Fellow (2012): Helen Wilding
  24. 24. Helping an organisation to avoid frequent unnecessary restructuring Action Research Introduce PVSM & Collaborative Inquiry Frequent Restructuring • does more harm than good • reduces productivity and profitability • worsens employee health and well being • decreases motivation and staff burn-out Introduce Staff to a Personal VSM Viable System Model (VSM) to appreciate the complexity of an organisation as a system and potential systemic failure • Not used in mainstream • Not known or seen as too complex Robinson, D., Introducing Managers to the VSM using a personal VSM, Kybernetes, 2013, Vol 42, Issue 1 • a gentle way to introduce a new model • increases management buy-in to its benefits • appreciate organisational viability • obviate a need for unnecessary restructuring and reorganisation Introduce Staff to a Study Fellow (2012): David Robinson
  25. 25. APPLYING STIP LEARNING IN THE NHS TO FORM STRATEGIC PLANS FOR DISCHARGING ADULT ACUTE PATIENTS FROM HOSPITAL. Rich Picture P (What) – Co-ordinate & improve health and social care support Q (How) – By forming joint strategic plans R (Why) – To improve outcomes and reduce delays Purpose (PQR) Study Fellow (2012): Pauline Roberts
  26. 26. APPLYING STIP LEARNING IN THE NHS TO FORM STRATEGIC PLANS FOR DISCHARGING ADULT ACUTE PATIENTS FROM HOSPITAL.  Efficacy – Reduced incidents and complaints  Efficiency – Reduced delays  Effectiveness – CQC and Scrutiny feedback Conceptual Map Outcomes Study Fellow (2012): Pauline Roberts
  27. 27. MUNRO REVIEW
  28. 28. Our Strategic Partner Organisations My Organisation Systemic Inquiry Viable System Model Soft Systems Methodology ICT Provision Enterprise Architecture New ICT ProjectsNew Proje EA Frameworks New ICT Actions Strategic Planning TU812 TU811 Buss UnitsBusiness Units Systems Practice as an Enterprise Architect in a Telecommunications Company Making changes for better outcomes Describing the context Investigating options and moving forward? Study Fellow (2012): Russell Plummer
  29. 29. Using systems thinking in agricultural biodiversity research for development A Rich Picture An influence Diagram Getting to grips with the Study Fellow (2012): Arwen Bailey
  30. 30. 1. Identify and map ABD and poverty hotspots 7. Improve capacity at all levels to plan, implement and incorporate in situ strategies 8. Engage donors in dialogue about a global strategic approach 6. Generate evidence, knowledge products, decision- support tools and recommendations 2. Identify strategic conservation portfolios for selected PGR in target areas 3. Assess current status of prioritised PGR... 4. Synthesize existing evidence/lessons regarding instruments, incentives and interventions 5. Conduct case studies in target areas, for portfolio for testing of instruments, etc. Define measures of performance (3 or 5 Es) Adapt strategy Monitor and evaluate 1. to 8. Using systems thinking in agricultural biodiversity research for development An example a system of interacting activities with the emergent property of the change we aim to see Study Fellow (2012): Arwen Bailey
  31. 31. Study Fellow (2012): Bryan Hopkins
  32. 32. Collaboration in the Public Sector – A Rich Picture Drawn using feedback from an Appreciative Inquiry (Vickers,1968). Individual stakeholders described drivers and experiences of collaborative work, thus enabling understanding of different ‘worldviews’. Interpretation • The left hand side depicts statutory organisations and their processes. It illuminates the service ‘design mess’ described by ALL stakeholders. • All suggested incongruent use of information (computers), resulting in an inability to see the ‘whole picture’ and use resources (money bags) effectively. • the right shows the community, including voluntary sector. • The gaps in the wall represent opportunities to engage, which were described as being ‘by invite’ to tick boxes. Study Fellow (2012): Bridget Brickley
  33. 33. System 5 (Governance) System 4 (Intelligence) System 3 (Management and Delivery) System 1 Delivery System2 Monitoring System2 Co-ordination E N V I O R O M E N T HardData and National frameworks andPolicy Local information And Tacit knowledge Viable Systems Methodology Diagnostic of Commissioning Adult Social Care in a Local Authority Analysis of Dialogue between system 3 and 4 • System 4 – Primary intelligence used is hard ‘summative’ health data. • System 3 – procurement decisions are primarily made using ‘soft’ local information. • There is no real mechanism for feeding this up to System 4 Suggestions 1. Develop a more holistic approach to feeding up ‘soft’ (system 2) intelligence gained in system 1 to system 4 . 2. Develop role of provider forums, • widening the membership, • to enable them to identify more creative solutions to ‘gaps’, ‘changes’ and ‘challenges’. • Thus being better able to meet the needs of service users. Study Fellow (2012): Bridget Brickley
  34. 34. Local Government Community Engagement Workshop • Community engagement for a shadow health and well-being Board (HWB) - why?; how? ; with whom?; when? what? • Systemic and systematic approach • Conversation mapping, starting with a proposition • Internal discussions enriched through external perspectives • Managed process in order to generate a range of ideas Ison, R (2010) Harnessing community engagement to give the general public influence over decisions affecting the provision and quality of health and care services ….? Study Fellow (2012): Anne Brinkhoff
  35. 35. Generating Ideas – Group 1 Transformation From dictating to working with Weltanschauung (Worldview) Need public ownership in order to achieve real change Owner HWB members – personal responsibility Customers Council X Public and Partners Actors Everyone! Overseen by Healthwatch Guardians HWB Members, MP, Press, Stakeholders Environment Financial Resources, Human Resources Time Constraints, Complexity Sub-Systems Purpose (PQR): A system to achieve effective dialogue with the public and partners (P) by interactive, varied and consistent mean (Q) in order to achieve a joint understanding with public and partners of the health and well-being needs of the population and what needs to be done to address these (R) Study Fellow (2012): Anne Brinkhoff
  36. 36. Transformation The public is not involved -> will be involved in developing the JSNA and JHWS Weltanschauung (Worldview) Such strategies work better if publicly owned Owner HWB and constituent organisations Customers The communities and stakeholders Actors Partners (agencies- CCG/Las) and community (self help) Guardians Healthwatch; HOSC Environment Inadequate knowledge of target community Resources: physical and financial Sub-Systems Joint consultation between CCG/HWB Written communication/on-line communication Public meetings Surveys Using existing structures PPE groups Social media Purpose (PQR): A system to involve/engage with public (P) by various means (Q) in order to enable them to contribute to creating conditions for people and their communities to thrive and reach their health and well-being potential (R) Generating Ideas – Group 2 Study Fellow (2012): Anne Brinkhoff
  37. 37. Systems Innovation
  • RashidGilanpour

    Jan. 2, 2018
  • dongwonp

    Oct. 24, 2017

Presentation details the Open University's Systems Thinking in Practice Masters programme along with examples of practice from STiP Alumni as showcased at the UK Public Sector Show April 2013.

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