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The Open UniversityshowcasesSystems Thinking in Practice
The Public Sector ChallengeCOMPLEXITYANDUNCERTAINTY
The Systems Thinking Opportunity
Systemic(epistemologies)Systematic(ontologies)Start with a Situation? or System?A choice to be made
Systems Thinkingin PracticePostgraduate programmeMasters/ Diploma/ CertificateManaging systemic change:Inquiry, action and...
1. Complex situations orContexts of changeand uncertainty, with appropriatespace for emergence2. Peopleor stakeholders as ...
System dynamics• Understanding interrelationships & interdependencies -1• Linear vs feedback systems thinking• Power and m...
Viable systems model• Understanding interrelationships & interdependencies -2• System and VSM– System 1 operations– System...
Strategic options development and analysis• Facilitating multiple perspectives-1• Cognitive mapping• Cause maps• SODA anal...
Soft systems methodology• Facilitating multiple perspectives-2• Rich pictures: towards worldviews• Analyses 1-3: what (int...
Critical systems heuristics• Reference systems and boundaryjudgements: ethics/ politics• Stakeholders and stakeholding• Bo...
A Model inSTiP –Masters inSystemsThinkinginPractice
TU812 Managing systemicchange: Inquiry, actionand interaction
TU812: Braidingstrands of inquiryand linking withyour ownexperience
Main traditions of theory and practice of managing systemic change drawn on inTU812 (for examples of authors’ work mention...
Systems Practiceas JugglingAn ideal type of systems practitioner (SP) is seen as a juggler of‘being’ ‘engaging’ ‘contextua...
Social learningsystems – earlytraditionsInsights into (i) Government as a learning system, public learning,how ideas of go...
P = practitionerF = framework ofideas/theoryS = situationM = method ormethodology
1. Clarify purpose 2. Engage inconversation3.Appreciate multipleperspectives9. Monitor,evaluate7. Design actions(personal ...
Masters inSystems Thinking in PracticeExamples fromSTiP Alumni and StudentsMany in the Public Sector
Systems thinking to improvewellbeing and healthinterdependenciescomplexityuncertaintycontroversyA big challengeto improveS...
Many people already thinksystemicallyBut the quality of that thinking canbe improved through awareness ofthe concepts, app...
We need ways of working that release thesystems thinking capacity within usConstraints tosystems thinking Target drivenpe...
Helping an organisation to avoidfrequent unnecessary restructuringActionResearchIntroduce PVSM&CollaborativeInquiryFrequen...
APPLYING STIP LEARNING IN THE NHSTO FORM STRATEGIC PLANS FOR DISCHARGING ADULT ACUTEPATIENTS FROM HOSPITAL.Rich PictureP (...
APPLYING STIP LEARNING IN THE NHSTO FORM STRATEGIC PLANS FOR DISCHARGING ADULT ACUTEPATIENTS FROM HOSPITAL. Efficacy – Re...
MUNRO REVIEW
Our Strategic Partner OrganisationsMy OrganisationSystemicInquiryViableSystemModelSoftSystemsMethodologyICT ProvisionEnter...
Using systems thinking in agriculturalbiodiversity research for developmentA Rich Picture An influence DiagramGetting to g...
1. Identify andmap ABD andpovertyhotspots7. Improvecapacity at alllevels to plan,implement andincorporate in situstrategie...
Study Fellow (2012): Bryan Hopkins
Collaboration in the Public Sector – A Rich PictureDrawn using feedback from an Appreciative Inquiry (Vickers,1968).Indivi...
System 5(Governance)System 4(Intelligence)System 3 (Managementand Delivery)System 1DeliverySystem2MonitoringSystem2Co-ordi...
Local GovernmentCommunity Engagement Workshop• Community engagement for a shadow healthand well-being Board (HWB)- why?; h...
Generating Ideas – Group 1Transformation From dictating to working withWeltanschauung(Worldview)Need public ownership in o...
Transformation The public is not involved -> will be involved in developing the JSNA andJHWSWeltanschauung(Worldview)Such ...
Systems Innovation
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Systems Thinking in Practice - an Open University showcase

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Presentation details the Open University's Systems Thinking in Practice Masters programme along with examples of practice from STiP Alumni as showcased at the UK Public Sector Show April 2013.

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Systems Thinking in Practice - an Open University showcase

  1. 1. The Open UniversityshowcasesSystems Thinking in Practice
  2. 2. The Public Sector ChallengeCOMPLEXITYANDUNCERTAINTY
  3. 3. The Systems Thinking Opportunity
  4. 4. Systemic(epistemologies)Systematic(ontologies)Start with a Situation? or System?A choice to be made
  5. 5. Systems Thinkingin PracticePostgraduate programmeMasters/ Diploma/ CertificateManaging systemic change:Inquiry, action and interactionTU81230 creditsTU81130 creditsThinking strategically:systems tools for managingchange
  6. 6. 1. Complex situations orContexts of changeand uncertainty, with appropriatespace for emergence2. Peopleor stakeholders as (systems)practitioners, with appropriaterespect for autonomy3. Systems and other conceptual Tools forthe purpose of effecting change, withappropriate imagination for avoiding traps(iii) reflecting upon limits on boundaries ofinterrelationships and perspectives(i) making sense of interrelationships(ii) engaging with multiple perspectivesentities activitiesSystems of interest perceived as3.1 actual real world entities – e.g.,accounting, health, or education‘system’(thinking about systems)and/or3.2 conceptual constructs for inquiry intoreal world entities e.g., learning systems(systems thinking)
  7. 7. System dynamics• Understanding interrelationships & interdependencies -1• Linear vs feedback systems thinking• Power and modelling• Causal loop diagramming• Archetypes– Fixes that fail– Shifting the burden– Limits to growth– Drifting goals– Escalation– Tragedy of the commonsSome systems approaches -1
  8. 8. Viable systems model• Understanding interrelationships & interdependencies -2• System and VSM– System 1 operations– System 2 coordination– System 3 delivery– System 4 development– System 5 policy• Variety and recursion• Systems in areas of practice• Layered structures• Management activities• Viability: environmentSome systems approaches -2
  9. 9. Strategic options development and analysis• Facilitating multiple perspectives-1• Cognitive mapping• Cause maps• SODA analyses– Domain– Central– Cluster– Hierarchical• Effective facilitationSome systems approaches -3
  10. 10. Soft systems methodology• Facilitating multiple perspectives-2• Rich pictures: towards worldviews• Analyses 1-3: what (intervention),who (social), why (political)• Simple systems – PQR• CATWOE…• Conceptual modelling• Taking actionSome systems approaches -4
  11. 11. Critical systems heuristics• Reference systems and boundaryjudgements: ethics/ politics• Stakeholders and stakeholding• Boundary reflection: Botswana• Boundary discourse: Guyana• Significance in other traditionsSome systems approaches -5
  12. 12. A Model inSTiP –Masters inSystemsThinkinginPractice
  13. 13. TU812 Managing systemicchange: Inquiry, actionand interaction
  14. 14. TU812: Braidingstrands of inquiryand linking withyour ownexperience
  15. 15. Main traditions of theory and practice of managing systemic change drawn on inTU812 (for examples of authors’ work mentioned see references)Tradition DescriptionLiving inLanguageLanguage affects how individuals understand interact. Social andpolitical dynamics of explanation become very important (draws onPostman, Maturana)Managing in aclimate change, co-evolutionary worldThe backdrop of human-induced climate change acts as a metaphorfor the many uncertain, complex, contested situations wheremanaging systemic change seems needed. Adaptation is seen a two-way process between humans and their worldSystems lineages Many different influences have shaped contemporary systemsapproaches including: practical holism, general systems theory,operations research, complexity science, first and second ordercybernetics, interdisciplinary systems sciences
  16. 16. Systems Practiceas JugglingAn ideal type of systems practitioner (SP) is seen as a juggler of‘being’ ‘engaging’ ‘contextualising’ and ‘managing’. Reflection onthe SP as juggler focuses on being ethical (draws on OpenUniversity module team for T306 – managing complexity: a systemsapproach, also Meadows.)Systemic Inquiry Systemic inquiry is an approach to practice which is adaptive tochanging circumstances and draws on systems thinking (draws onChurchman, Checkland and SLIM)Systemic ActionResearchConcerns changing your situation for the better. Associated withreal-life issues. Researcher takes responsibility for their ownepistemology in a second-order cybernetic tradition (draws on Schön,Ison and Russell)
  17. 17. Social learningsystems – earlytraditionsInsights into (i) Government as a learning system, public learning,how ideas of good currency emerge and the place of policy in alearning system (ii) appreciative systems and social learning,institutional and individual roles and the limits of Government(Draws on Schön, Vickers, Blackmore)Critical sociallearning systems‘The Hawkesbury tradition’. Developed in rural Australian contextof land and water catchment degradation, desertification, use ofnatural resources, failure to manage climate variability.Distinguished by valuing of epistemology and ethics and systemicpraxis – blending systems theory and practice (Draws on Bawden,Woodhill)Communities ofpracticeThe concept of a community of practice with an identifiable domain,community and practice is used to consider the world as a learningsystem, including design requirements and how learning systemsmight be cultivated. Concepts of boundaries, identity, trajectoriesand participation are seen as conceptual tools for CoPs. The ‘career’of the concept is explored: CoPs as social learning systems, CoPs insocial learning systems, and the role of CoPs in developing a socialdiscipline of learning (Draws on Wenger, Snyder)
  18. 18. P = practitionerF = framework ofideas/theoryS = situationM = method ormethodology
  19. 19. 1. Clarify purpose 2. Engage inconversation3.Appreciate multipleperspectives9. Monitor,evaluate7. Design actions(personal or for policy)6. Refine5. Identify emergent issuesand opportunities4. Introduce new concepts,experience and evidenceOther likely outputs:changes inunderstandingchanged social relationschanged (new) practices10. Redesign thesystem based onfeedbackPriorexperienceofparticipantsvalued?8.Monitor& adjustSystemmaps…Learning in Practice
  20. 20. Masters inSystems Thinking in PracticeExamples fromSTiP Alumni and StudentsMany in the Public Sector
  21. 21. Systems thinking to improvewellbeing and healthinterdependenciescomplexityuncertaintycontroversyA big challengeto improveSystems thinking helps because it emphasises connections,relationships and importance of appreciating multiple perspectives.multiple stakeholders withdifferent perspectives andinterests.Wellbeing and HealthCharacterisedbyInvolvesStudyFellow(2012):HelenWilding
  22. 22. Many people already thinksystemicallyBut the quality of that thinking canbe improved through awareness ofthe concepts, approaches and toolsof systemsTheres always,alwaysanotherperspectiveQuite complexmulti-factorialproblemsStudyFellow(2012):HelenWilding
  23. 23. We need ways of working that release thesystems thinking capacity within usConstraints tosystems thinking Target drivenperformance Standard projectmethodologies Instrumental policyapproaches Debate andconflictualcommunicationRelease our systemsthinking Purposeful concertedaction Contextualising systemsapproaches to the task Intelligent, sociallearning based policyapproaches Dialogue and inquiryfocussedcommunicationStudy Fellow (2012): Helen Wilding
  24. 24. Helping an organisation to avoidfrequent unnecessary restructuringActionResearchIntroduce PVSM&CollaborativeInquiryFrequent Restructuring• does more harmthan good• reduces productivityand profitability• worsens employeehealth and wellbeing• decreasesmotivation and staffburn-outIntroduceStaff to aPersonal VSMViable SystemModel (VSM)to appreciate thecomplexity of anorganisation as asystem and potentialsystemic failure• Not used inmainstream• Not known or seenas too complexRobinson, D., Introducing Managers to the VSM using a personalVSM, Kybernetes, 2013, Vol 42, Issue 1• a gentle way to introduce a new model• increases management buy-in to itsbenefits• appreciate organisational viability• obviate a need for unnecessaryrestructuring and reorganisationIntroduce Staff to aStudy Fellow (2012):David Robinson
  25. 25. APPLYING STIP LEARNING IN THE NHSTO FORM STRATEGIC PLANS FOR DISCHARGING ADULT ACUTEPATIENTS FROM HOSPITAL.Rich PictureP (What) – Co-ordinate& improve health andsocial care supportQ (How) – By formingjoint strategic plansR (Why) – To improveoutcomes andreduce delaysPurpose (PQR)Study Fellow (2012): Pauline Roberts
  26. 26. APPLYING STIP LEARNING IN THE NHSTO FORM STRATEGIC PLANS FOR DISCHARGING ADULT ACUTEPATIENTS FROM HOSPITAL. Efficacy – Reducedincidents andcomplaints Efficiency –Reduced delays Effectiveness –CQC and ScrutinyfeedbackConceptual Map OutcomesStudy Fellow (2012): Pauline Roberts
  27. 27. MUNRO REVIEW
  28. 28. Our Strategic Partner OrganisationsMy OrganisationSystemicInquiryViableSystemModelSoftSystemsMethodologyICT ProvisionEnterpriseArchitectureNew ICTProjectsNew ProjeEA FrameworksNew ICTActionsStrategicPlanningTU812TU811BussUnitsBusinessUnitsSystems Practice as an Enterprise Architect in aTelecommunications CompanyMakingchanges forbetteroutcomesDescribing thecontextInvestigating optionsand moving forward?Study Fellow(2012):RussellPlummer
  29. 29. Using systems thinking in agriculturalbiodiversity research for developmentA Rich Picture An influence DiagramGetting to grips with theStudy Fellow (2012): ArwenBailey
  30. 30. 1. Identify andmap ABD andpovertyhotspots7. Improvecapacity at alllevels to plan,implement andincorporate in situstrategies8. Engagedonors indialogue about aglobal strategicapproach6. Generateevidence,knowledgeproducts, decision-support tools andrecommendations2. Identifystrategicconservationportfolios forselected PGR intarget areas3. Assesscurrent statusof prioritisedPGR...4. Synthesize existingevidence/lessonsregardinginstruments,incentives andinterventions5. Conduct casestudies in targetareas, forportfolio fortesting ofinstruments, etc.Define measuresof performance(3 or 5 Es)AdaptstrategyMonitor andevaluate1. to 8.Using systems thinking in agricultural biodiversityresearch for developmentAn example a system ofinteracting activities withthe emergent property ofthe change we aim to seeStudy Fellow(2012): ArwenBailey
  31. 31. Study Fellow (2012): Bryan Hopkins
  32. 32. Collaboration in the Public Sector – A Rich PictureDrawn using feedback from an Appreciative Inquiry (Vickers,1968).Individual stakeholders described drivers and experiences of collaborative work, thusenabling understanding of different ‘worldviews’.Interpretation• The left hand side depictsstatutory organisations andtheir processes. It illuminatesthe service ‘design mess’described by ALLstakeholders.• All suggested incongruentuse of information(computers), resulting in aninability to see the ‘wholepicture’ and use resources(money bags) effectively.• the right shows thecommunity, includingvoluntary sector.• The gaps in the wallrepresent opportunities toengage, which weredescribed as being ‘by invite’to tick boxes.Study Fellow (2012): Bridget Brickley
  33. 33. System 5(Governance)System 4(Intelligence)System 3 (Managementand Delivery)System 1DeliverySystem2MonitoringSystem2Co-ordinationENVIOROMENTHardDataandNationalframeworksandPolicyLocalinformationAndTacitknowledgeViable Systems MethodologyDiagnostic of Commissioning Adult Social Care in a Local AuthorityAnalysis of Dialogue between system 3 and 4• System 4 – Primary intelligence used is hard‘summative’ health data.• System 3 – procurement decisions areprimarily made using ‘soft’ local information.• There is no real mechanism for feeding thisup to System 4Suggestions1. Develop a more holistic approach to feedingup ‘soft’ (system 2) intelligence gained insystem 1 to system 4 .2. Develop role of provider forums,• widening the membership,• to enable them to identify more creativesolutions to ‘gaps’, ‘changes’ and ‘challenges’.• Thus being better able to meet the needs ofservice users.Study Fellow (2012): Bridget Brickley
  34. 34. Local GovernmentCommunity Engagement Workshop• Community engagement for a shadow healthand well-being Board (HWB)- why?; how? ; with whom?; when? what?• Systemic and systematic approach• Conversation mapping, starting with a proposition• Internal discussions enriched through external perspectives• Managed process in order to generate a range of ideasIson, R (2010)Harnessingcommunity engagement to give thegeneral public influenceover decisions affecting the provisionand quality of health and careservices ….?Study Fellow(2012): AnneBrinkhoff
  35. 35. Generating Ideas – Group 1Transformation From dictating to working withWeltanschauung(Worldview)Need public ownership in order to achieve realchangeOwner HWB members – personal responsibilityCustomers Council X Public and PartnersActors Everyone! Overseen by HealthwatchGuardians HWB Members, MP, Press, StakeholdersEnvironment Financial Resources, Human ResourcesTime Constraints, ComplexitySub-SystemsPurpose (PQR): A system to achieve effective dialogue with the public and partners (P)by interactive, varied and consistent mean (Q) in order to achieve a joint understandingwith public and partners of the health and well-being needs of the population and whatneeds to be done to address these (R)Study Fellow (2012): Anne Brinkhoff
  36. 36. Transformation The public is not involved -> will be involved in developing the JSNA andJHWSWeltanschauung(Worldview)Such strategies work better if publicly ownedOwner HWB and constituent organisationsCustomers The communities and stakeholdersActors Partners (agencies- CCG/Las) and community (self help)Guardians Healthwatch; HOSCEnvironment Inadequate knowledge of target communityResources: physical and financialSub-Systems Joint consultation between CCG/HWBWritten communication/on-line communicationPublic meetingsSurveysUsing existing structures PPE groupsSocial mediaPurpose (PQR): A system to involve/engage with public (P) by various means (Q) inorder to enable them to contribute to creating conditions for people and theircommunities to thrive and reach their health and well-being potential (R)Generating Ideas – Group 2Study Fellow (2012): Anne Brinkhoff
  37. 37. Systems Innovation
  • RashidGilanpour

    Jan. 2, 2018
  • dongwonp

    Oct. 24, 2017

Presentation details the Open University's Systems Thinking in Practice Masters programme along with examples of practice from STiP Alumni as showcased at the UK Public Sector Show April 2013.

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