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Living With The Bomb

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Living With The Bomb

  1. 1. Living with the Bomb<br />America and the Cold War<br />1945 – 1960<br />
  2. 2. I. Living with Fear<br />A. Soviet Union<br />1. Stalin shocked by Truman’s use of nuclear weapons against Japan (1945)<br />a. Afraid Truman would next use nuclear force against Soviet Union<br />2. Wanted equivalent weapons as soon as possible<br />a. Had own nuclear development program by 1944<br />b.Had spies in US nuclear development program (Manhattan Project)<br />
  3. 3. I. Living with Fear<br />B. United States<br />1. Afraid USSR would acquire nuclear weapons<br />a. Wanted to be the only country with nuclear capability<br />2. Afraid Soviets would use nuclear weapons to expand communism<br />
  4. 4. II. Brinksmanship<br />A. Term coined by Secretary of State John Foster Dulles<br />1. Pushing a dangerous situation to the brink of disaster so maximum advantage can be achieved<br />a. “Playing a game of ‘chicken’”<br />2. Led to increasing nuclear stockpiles on both sides<br />a. Eventually both sides had enough weapons to destroy the world many times over<br />b. Mutually Assured Destruction (MAD)<br />
  5. 5. III. Fighting a Cold War<br />A. Proxy wars<br /> 1. Use smaller, non-nuclear capable groups fighting each other as proxies<br /> a. Chinese Civil War (1945-49)<br /> b. Korean War (1949-1953)<br /> c. Vietnam War (1954-1975)<br />
  6. 6. III. Fighting a Cold War<br />B. Espionage (spying)<br />1. Soviets had spies in US<br />a. Ethel & Julius Rosenburg tried and executed for giving USSR military secrets including the atomic bomb (1953)<br />
  7. 7. III. Fighting a Cold War<br />B. Espionage (spying)<br />2. United States used planes such as U-2 to spy on Soviets<br />a. Soviets shot one piloted by Capt. Francis Gary Powers (1960)<br />b. Incident was embarrassing for Eisenhower administration<br />
  8. 8. IV. The Cold War at Home<br />A. Americans frightened by Communism and possible nuclear war with USSR<br /> 1. Politicians attempted to capitalize on fear by accusing many people of being Communists<br /> a. House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC) investigated entertainment industry (1947-1961)<br /> 1’. Many actors, directors, writers blacklisted<br /> b. Senator Joseph McCarthy (R-WI) used his position as a senator to accuse many people of being Communists<br />
  9. 9. V. McCarthyism<br />A. The practice of accusing people of disloyalty or treason without proper evidence<br />B. Term came about because of Sen. Joseph McCarthy’s accusations against<br />1. Army<br />2. Presidents Truman and Eisenhower<br />3. Hundreds of Americans<br />C. Finally discredited by Edward R. Murrow<br />
  10. 10. VI. Duck and Cover<br />

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