LED street lighting: What it is and how it has worked for us

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Presentation by Blake Redfield, City of St. Cloud. An LED street lighting forum was hosted at the League of Minnesota Cities Annual Conference on June 19th, where a packed room of 40 people learned first-hand from a tremendously knowledgeable line-up of speakers from across Minnesota. Learn more at http://www.cleanenergyresourceteams.org/blog/better-light-and-more-savings-led-street-lights-conference-session-recap

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LED street lighting: What it is and how it has worked for us

  1. 1. CITY OF ST. CLOUD – LED LIGHTING 2014 League of Minnesota Cities Steve Lawrence & Blake Redfield
  2. 2. City of St. Cloud LED Street Lighting Goals  Reduce electrical costs  Reduce maintenance costs  Provide high quality roadway lighting  Reduce glare to the motorist  Improve pedestrian and residential security  Reduce street light outage times  Minimize light trespass onto private properties  Become more dark skies compliant
  3. 3. LED Street Light Installation Considerations  Quality of light & fixture  Complexity of the LED light source  Cost effectiveness of fixtures  Implementation process  Complete  Staggered  Ownership methods  Organization purchasing fixtures  Allow outside investors to purchase & reap benefits of energy (cost) savings  When to get aboard the LED street lighting world
  4. 4. LED Lighting Basics
  5. 5. Driver: Converts AC to low voltage DC Door: Protects against weather, insects, creatures DoorClamps: Secures Door Fixture Clamps: Secures Fixture to Pole Surge Suppressor: Protects Driver from Voltage Surges Terminal Block: Electrical Connection to AC Power Source Labels: Provide certifications and model numbers Body: Provides support for LED circuit board and cooling for the LED’s LED: Small Solid State Device that Emits Light LED Lens*: Directs Light for even Distribution and Various DistributionTypes *Note: Some fixtures use mirror arrays to direct the light rather than an LED lens LED Light Engine
  6. 6. Efficacy  Lumens of light /Watt of electricity  Efficiency of driver  Spectral efficiencies  Cool color temperatures  Higher output levels  Lower color rendering indexes  Warm color temperatures  Lower output levels  High color rendering indexes  P-N junction temperature efficiencies  LED efficiencies drop as temperatures rise above normal levels  Delivery system efficiencies  Lens losses  Reflective losses  Aiming losses  System losses can exceed 30% of potential light output when any of the components have losses or are not matched to the system2
  7. 7. Department of Energy’s Projections of LED Efficiencies1
  8. 8. LED Efficiencies since 2005 2005 •60 lm/wt •Baseline 2015 •190 lm/wt •+315% 2025 •266 lm/wt •+443% Average of 10.3% increase per year for 20 years.
  9. 9. The St. Cloud LED Street Lighting Story  2010 awarded ARRA funds for LED lighting projects  Developed test methodologies for street lights  Developed plans and specifications for light fixtures that passed our test criteria  2010-2011 installed lighting systems on Kilian Boulevard and Riverside Drive
  10. 10. Kilian & Riverside LED Street Light Project Location
  11. 11. Street light style along Kilian Blvd & Riverside Drive
  12. 12. Problems Encountered when Reviewing Decorative LED Street Lights  Photometric files did not always match real world testing  Shadows were a major problem at the base of light poles  Electrical power consumption measurements were not consistent  Thermal management varied considerably from fixture to fixture  Quality of the fixture materials and ability to do maintenance varied from fixture to fixture  Was the LED color temperature correct with the manufacturer’s claims?
  13. 13. Solutions for Reviewing LED Street Light Fixtures  Develop a standard battery of tests that every street light sample would go through  Develop a test lab for performing the battery of tests  Develop an evaluation methodology for each of the LED fixtures  Develop visual photometric modeling that would better illustrate the light outputs of the LED fixtures than traditional modeling  Make fixture reviews as objective as possible
  14. 14. Test Deck
  15. 15. Konica Minolta Light Meter & Self Aligning Shoe
  16. 16. Data Collected & Inputs from Testing / Review  Measure footcandles at 64 points on test deck  Measure CCT at 64 points on test deck  Measure thermal temperature of heat sink unit  80 & 90 degree cut- off level measurements  Rate workmanship  Rate quality of materials  Rate finish/coating  Rate electrical component replacement  Rate diffuser replacement  Rate product standards  Rate warranty  Rate driver components  Rate LED components
  17. 17. Data Input and Report Form
  18. 18. Two Dimensional Photometry Model from Test Deck
  19. 19. Three Dimensional Photometry Model from Test Deck
  20. 20. Predicting Light Levels from Pole Height
  21. 21. Color Temperature Distribution
  22. 22. LED Upgrade Statistics Original Lighting Updated LED Lighting  Kilian Boulevard  110 - 70 watt twin HPS fixtures on 12’ poles  Riverside Drive  50 – 100 watt HPS fixtures on 9’ poles  Minnesota Boulevard  28 – 100 watt HPS fixtures on 12’ poles  Kilian Boulevard  55 – 66 watt single LED fixtures on 12’ poles  Riverside Drive  50 – 35 watt LED fixtures on 9’ poles  Minnesota Boulevard  28 – 66 watt HPS fixtures on 12’ poles Reduced power consumption 51% from 15,500 watts to 7,560 watts. Entire project cost was approximately $263,000.
  23. 23. LED Fixture Statistics Kilian Boulevard  Sternberg  OldTown Series  3500K CCT  3300 lumens  TypeV Dist.  66Watts  Qty: 55 Riverside Drive  Sternberg  Roadway Series  3500K CCT  1130 lumens  Type III Dist.  34Watts  Qty: 50 Minnesota Boulevard  Sternberg  OldTown Series  3500K CCT  3160 lumens  Type III Dist.  66Watts  Qty: 28
  24. 24. Conclusions of Kilian & Riverside LED Lighting Project Positives Negatives  Significant decrease in electrical costs  Significant reduction in maintenance  Much better quality of light  Much better light levels  A couple of residents along Kilian Boulevard complained about losing the twin fixtures from an aesthetics standpoint  A couple of residents along Kilian Boulevard complained that the light is now too bright
  25. 25. Additional LED Test Equipment
  26. 26. Color Checker
  27. 27. Light Fixture Lift Tower
  28. 28. Spectrum Analyzer
  29. 29. The Future of LED Street Lighting in St. cloud
  30. 30. City of St. Cloud Develop has developed a cost analysis on a 100% LED change- out program over a 40 year timeframe  Five year phase in plan  LED expected light fixture life of 20 years  Assume 1% annual increase in electrical costs  Assume 2% annual increase in maintenance costs  Assume 5% annual increase in LED efficiency  Assumes cost reduction in light fixtures over time  Assumes significant maintenance reduction costs  Creates an $18.5 million dollar savings in 40 years
  31. 31. $0.00 $200,000.00 $400,000.00 $600,000.00 $800,000.00 $1,000,000.00 $1,200,000.00 $1,400,000.00 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 Electrical Costs With LED Replacement Program Electrical Costs Without LED Replacement Program Maintenance and install costs with LED Upgrades Maintenance Costs without LED Upgrades* Total of Maint & Elect. With LED Upgrades Total of Maint. & Elect. Without LED Upgrades LED Street Lighting Program City of St. Cloud Period of 40 years Years Electrical costs without LED upgrades Electrical costs with proposed LED program Total of LED replacement, Maintenance & Electrical Costs Maintenance Costs without LED Upgrades Maintenance and installation costs with LED replacement Total Projected Savings in 40 Years with Proposed LED Upgrades: $18.5 Million Total of Maintenance & ElectricalCosts without LED replacement
  32. 32. Other St. Cloud LED Street Lighting Projects
  33. 33. Parking Ramp LED Upgrade
  34. 34. Smart Dimming Park-N-Ride Lot
  35. 35. Central Maintenance Building LED Street Lighting and Exterior Lighting Upgrade
  36. 36. St. Cloud Water Plant LED Exterior Lighting and Street Lighting Upgrade
  37. 37. Articles Cited  1,2. U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency of LEDs, PNNL-SA-94206, March 2013

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