Letter Of Credit


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Letter Of Credit

  1. 1. Management Training Session on Documentary Credits ( Letter of Credit )
  2. 2. DOCUMENTARY CREDITS • Documentary credit is as assurance of payment by the bank . • It is an arrangement under which the bank , at the request of the buyer or on its own , undertakes to make payment to the seller provided specific Documents are submitted . • Documentary Credits are akin to bank guarantee. • Documentary Credits in Popular Language are Known as LETTER OF CREDIT (LC)
  3. 3. PARTIES TO DOCUMENTARY CREDITS • 1 . Commercial Parties . • There are two commercial parties viz. Applicant & Beneficiary . • A . Applicant • The applicant is normally the buyer of the goods . i.e. the importer who request his bank to issue a letter of credit in favour of a named beneficiary against tendering of certain specified documents .
  4. 4. PARTIES TO DOCUMENTARY CREDITS • The Role of Applicant . • Supply the bank with complete instruction . ( To fill out standard application form ) • Issue instruction for amendments if any • Decide on discrepancies reported by the issuing bank to him • Arrange for funds at the payment time .
  5. 5. PARTIES TO DOCUMENTARY CREDITS • B. Beneficiary • The beneficiary is normally the seller of goods who receives payment under documentary credit if he has complied with terms and conditions thereof . • A credit issued in favour of the beneficiary to enable him or his agent to obtain payment once he performed his part of contract and submitted stipulated documents showing compliance with the terms and conditions of letter of credit . • In case of a transferable letter of credit , the credit is transferred to another party , the original beneficiary is known as first beneficiary the person to whom the credit is transferred is known as the second beneficiary .
  6. 6. PARTIES TO DOCUMENTARY CREDITS • The Role of Beneficiary • Establish the terms of payment when sales contracts is being Negotiated • Assess the risk of non payment even when compliant documents are presented in the case of unconfirmed LCs. • Provide the draft wordings to buyer regarding LC Terms • Scrutinize LC on receipt from the advising bank to check whether it is in consonance with the sales contract and whether it is otherwise workable and acceptable to him . • Request for LC amendments from buyer • Provide copy of the credit to dispatch department and cargo agent to ensure correct documentation .
  7. 7. PARTIES TO DOCUMENTARY CREDITS • 2. Bankers • .Issuing Bank : - • The issuing bank or the opening bank is one which issue the credit , i.e. undertake , independent of the Undertaking of the applicant , to make payment provided the terms and conditions of the credit have been complied with • .Advising Bank • The advising bank advises the credit to the beneficiary thereby authenticating the genuineness of the credit • .Confirming Bank • A confirming bank is the one which adds its guarantee to the credit . It undertakes the responsibility of payments / negotiation / acceptance under the credit in addition to that of the issuing bank .
  8. 8. PARTIES TO DOCUMENTARY CREDITS • .Nominated Bank • A Nominated bank is the bank nominated or authorized by issuing bank to pay , to incur a deferred payment liability , to accept drafts or to negotiate the credit • .Reimbursing Bank • A reimbursing bank is the bank authorized to honour the reimbursement claims in settlement of negotiation with the paying or accepting bank .
  9. 9. PARTIES TO DOCUMENTARY CREDITS • 3. Related Parties • .Insurer • The insurer has the prime responsibility for insuring the goods as provided for in the credit . • .Carrier • The carrier , i.e. the shipping company or airline or road transport agency is responsible for safe arrival of the goods at the destination .
  10. 10. TYPES OF DOCUMENTARY CREDITS • A .Revocable and Irrevocable Documentary Credit • 1. Revocable Documentary Credit • This type of credit is one which can be cancelled , revoked or amended without the consent of the beneficiary or the applicant ( without prior notice to beneficiary ) up to moment of payment . • Under UCP article 6 it is compulsory to indicate whether LC is revocable or irrevocable . If not then it is considered deemed to be irrevocable . • 2. Irrevocable Documentary Credit • It is other hand of Revocable LC
  11. 11. TYPES OF DOCUMENTARY CREDITS • B. .Confirmed and Unconfirmed Documentary Credit • 1. Confirmed Documentary Credit • Confirmed Credit is the one to which another bank , that is a bank other than the issuing bank , has added its confirmation and guarantee • Confirmation at the request of the Seller . • 2. Unconfirmed Letter of credit • It is in other hand of confirmed LC
  12. 12. TYPES OF DOCUMENTARY CREDITS • C. .Fixed , and Installment Credit • 1. Fixed Credit • Fixed credit is available for fixed amount and period . • 2. Installment Credit • Installment Credit is available for full value of goods to be shipped in stipulated time at stated intervals • D. The Stand by Letter of Credit • Is not at all documentary credit . • It is a guarantee issued in format of LC by issuing bank • E. The Inland Letter of Credit .
  13. 13. STAGES IN PERFORMANCE OF LETTER OF CREDIT • STAGES IN PERFORMANCE OF LETTER OF CREDIT • Stage 1 Opening of Letter of Credit ( Application for LC ) • Stage 2 Mailing of LC to Beneficiaries bank • Stage 3 Examination of LC by Exporter • Stage 4 Amendments to LCs • Stage 5 Confirmation • Stage 6 Shipment
  14. 14. STAGES IN PERFORMANCE OF LETTER OF CREDIT • Stage 7 Collection of Documents • Stage 8 Presentation of Documents • Stage 9 Examination of Documents by Issuing Bank • Stage 10 Handling of Discrepant Documents • Stage 11 Settlement of Payment .
  15. 15. THE PAYMENT STRUCTURE • 1. Sight Credit • In this the payment is release to Beneficiary on presentation of documents • 2. Acceptance Credit • In this beneficiary draws the bill of exchange on issuing bank and allows some time for acceptance • 3. Deferred Credit • Is same as Acceptance Credit except there is no bill of exchange .
  16. 16. GENERAL DOCUMENTS UNDER DOCUMENTARY CREDITS • Commercial Invoice • Packing List • Bill of lading and other transport documents • Certificate of Origin • Inspection Certificate • Bill of Exchange • Insurance Documents
  17. 17. UNIFORM CUSTOMS AND PRACTICES FOR DOCUMENTARY CREDITS (UCPDC) - Issued by International Chamber of Commerce ( ICC ) Based in Paris - First version in 1929 . Revision in 1933 , 1951 , 1962 , 1974 , 1983 - Currently Valid version is UCP 500 1993 being effective from 01/01/1994 - Has 49 Articles - Is universally accepted ( 151 countries around the world ) • Famous rules and guidelines
  18. 18. SWANAND INTERNATIONAL SEZ / EOU Consultants Phone No. - 022 - 2578 1853 E-mail : dswanand@mtnl.net.in Website :- www.sez-india.net