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How To Control Costs For Team Leaders; Supervisors; Support Staff And Managers

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Training Module for Understanding on How to Control Costs in A Process

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How To Control Costs For Team Leaders; Supervisors; Support Staff And Managers

  1. 1. HOW TO CONTROL COSTS Cost Control Training for Team Leaders; Supervisors; Support Staff; and Managers
  2. 2. HOW TO CONTROL COSTS <ul><li>BENJAMIN FRANKLIN SAID: </li></ul><ul><li>“ WATCH THE PENNIES AND THE DOLLARS WILL TAKE CARE OF THEMSELVES.” </li></ul><ul><li>What he was referring to is that if we focus on the small things, the larger problems will often “seem to take care of themselves”. </li></ul><ul><li>Conversely, if we focus only on the large things, the small things will still be there and still cost us time, money and effort. </li></ul>
  3. 3. HOW TO CONTROL COSTS <ul><li>WHY SHOULD I WORRY ABOUT CONTROLLING COSTS? </li></ul><ul><li>Competition </li></ul><ul><li>Ability to be the “Supplier of Choice”. </li></ul><ul><li>Profitability </li></ul><ul><li>Your Personal “Profit” in the Company </li></ul><ul><li>OUR FUTURE </li></ul>
  4. 4. HOW TO CONTROL COSTS <ul><li>Just like you and I make choices on what we purchase based on quality; performance and cost </li></ul><ul><li>So do FIA’s Customers!!! </li></ul>
  5. 5. HOW TO CONTROL COSTS <ul><li>YOU ARE THE FRONT TEAM IN THE ORGANIZATION AND THE PIVOTAL POSITIONS TO INFLUENCE COSTS AND PROFIT MORE THAN ANY OTHER POSITION IN THE ORGANIZATION </li></ul>
  6. 6. HOW TO CONTROL COSTS <ul><li>ONE OF YOUR MOST CRITICAL TASKS IS TO ANALYZE WHAT HAPPENS ON “GOOD DAYS” WHEN EVERYTHING SEEMS TO GO “RIGHT” AND THEN FIGURE OUT HOW TO STANDARDIZE THE CRITICAL ELEMENTS THAT MADE IT “GO RIGHT”. </li></ul><ul><li>IF YOU INCREASE THE NUMBER OF “GOOD DAYS” SO THE “GOOD DAYS” BECOME THE STANDARD YOU WILL BE SUCCESSFUL </li></ul><ul><li>IT SHOULDN’T BE “JUST LUCK”!!!!!!! </li></ul>
  7. 7. HOW TO CONTROL COSTS <ul><li>Regardless of what most people think, profits in most companies are not “huge”. </li></ul><ul><li>The main reasons for profits not being higher is due to EXCESS COSTS . </li></ul>
  8. 8. HOW TO CONTROL COSTS <ul><li>TRADITIONAL MODEL </li></ul><ul><li>COST + PROFIT = SALES PRICE </li></ul><ul><li>NEW MODEL </li></ul><ul><li>SALES PRICE – COSTS = PROFITS </li></ul><ul><li>YOUR PERSPECTIVE MAKES A BIG DIFFERENCE ON PROFIT </li></ul>
  9. 9. HOW TO CONTROL COSTS <ul><li>There are three ways to reduce costs: </li></ul><ul><li>- Sell more product </li></ul><ul><li>- Raise prices </li></ul><ul><li>- Increase productivity </li></ul><ul><li>WHICH WAY IS THE “BEST WAY”? </li></ul>
  10. 10. HOW TO CONTROL COSTS <ul><li>REDUCING COSTS THROUGH IMPROVED PRODUCTIVITY IS THE BEST CHOICE </li></ul><ul><li>AND </li></ul><ul><li>THAT IS WHY COST SAVINGS IS </li></ul><ul><li>YOUR RESPONSIBILITY </li></ul>
  11. 11. HOW TO CONTROL COSTS <ul><li>WHAT EVERY MANAGER, SUPERVISOR, TEAM LEADER, INSPECTOR, ENGINEER, PARTS HANDLER, STAMPING PERSON, TOOL MAKER, MAINTENANCE PERSON HAS TO LOOK FOR THE ‘TIME LEAKS” IN THEIR AREA </li></ul>
  12. 12. HOW TO CONTROL COSTS <ul><li>“Time waste is the easiest of all waste to have and the hardest to correct because it does not litter the floor”—Henry Ford </li></ul>
  13. 13. HOW TO CONTROL COSTS <ul><li>Finding the “time leaks” and solving them will allow you to add valuable process time (value-added time) to your team’s work performance without adding more equipment; adding more space; or adding more people. </li></ul>
  14. 14. HOW TO CONTROL COSTS <ul><li>WAIT TIME </li></ul><ul><li>Often the easiest time loss to identify and a good place to start your “cost savings”. </li></ul><ul><li>As you look around your area of responsibility, find “Wait Time”. </li></ul><ul><li>Waiting for parts; Waiting for Team Leader; Waiting for QC; Waiting for Equipment to be fixed, Waiting for Information; Waiting for Tools;. </li></ul>
  15. 15. HOW TO CONTROL COSTS <ul><li>“ WAIT TIME” CAN ALSO BE “HIDDEN”. </li></ul><ul><li>- Production Sheets may not list all the “wait times” which prevents you from seeing the problem. </li></ul><ul><li>- People sometimes think that showing “wait time” will show that they have a problem . However, you cannot fix what you do not know. </li></ul><ul><li>- People are not trained to walk through their area with their “eyes open ” so they can see the “wait time”. </li></ul>
  16. 16. HOW TO CONTROL COSTS <ul><li>People may “pace” themselves so they are not transferred to another job or task if they complete their own job before the end of the shift (OR THEY WANT OVERTIME) </li></ul><ul><li>Look for “machine controlled” processes where someone is standing “waiting for the machine”. How can you utilize this type of wait time? Speed up the machine? Integrate another job with the first job? </li></ul><ul><li>Ask yourself, “Is my team doing all they can”? Or “Are they doing all I supply them?” There is a difference!!! </li></ul>
  17. 17. HOW TO CONTROL COSTS <ul><li>“Wait Time” can also be “Hunting Time”. </li></ul><ul><li>- If people have to go off and “hunt” for tools, materials, gauges, Team Leaders, or information, then this is “wait time” and will increase your costs and reduce your value-added time. </li></ul>
  18. 18. HOW TO CONTROL COSTS <ul><li>LEAN LAW #1 </li></ul><ul><li>EVERY PROCESS CAN BE IMPROVED </li></ul>
  19. 19. HOW TO CONTROL COSTS <ul><li>LEAN LAW #2 </li></ul><ul><li>90-95% OF THE TIME MATERIAL SPENDS IN A PLANT IS WASTE(NON-VALUE ADDED) </li></ul><ul><li>ONLY 5-10% IS VALUE-ADDED </li></ul><ul><li>YOUR TASK IS TO GO AFTER THE 90-95% WASTE TIME OR NON-VALUE ADDED TIME IN EACH PROCESS/TASK </li></ul>
  20. 20. HOW TO CONTROL COSTS <ul><li>THERE ARE FOUR MAIN CATEGORIES TO FIND THE 90-95% WASTE THAT EXISTS IN EVERY PROCESS: </li></ul><ul><li>MATERIALS </li></ul><ul><li>LABOR </li></ul><ul><li>METHODS </li></ul><ul><li>EXPENSES </li></ul>
  21. 21. HOW TO CONTROL COSTS <ul><li>LET’S TALK ABOUT MATERIALS FIRST </li></ul><ul><li>THERE ARE TWO TYPES OF MATERIALS </li></ul><ul><li>DIRECT- USED DIRECTLY IN MAKING PRODUCT </li></ul><ul><li>INDIRECT- SUPPLIES TO SUPPORT </li></ul>
  22. 22. HOW TO CONTROL COSTS <ul><li>LETS TALK ABOUT LABOR NEXT </li></ul><ul><li>THERE ARE TWO TYPES OF LABOR </li></ul><ul><li>* DIRECT LABOR (DIRECTLY MAKING PRODUCT(VALUE-ADDED LABOR) </li></ul><ul><li>* INDIRECT LABOR- EVERYONE ELSE </li></ul>
  23. 23. HOW TO CONTROL COSTS <ul><li>LETS TALK ABOUT EXPENSES </li></ul><ul><li>WHILE SUPPLIES ARE CRITICAL WE NEED TO FOCUS ON CONTROL OF SUPPLIES JUST AS MUCH AS WE DO ON LABOR AND MATERIALS </li></ul>
  24. 24. HOW TO CONTROL COSTS <ul><li>LET’S FOCUS ON METHODS NEXT </li></ul><ul><li>HOW A PROCESS IS PERFORMED, WHAT TASKS ARE REQUIRED; THE MOVEMENTS THE OPERATOR MAKES, THE EQUIPMENT RELIABILITY/CAPABILITY, HOW MATERIAL IS DELIVERED OR TAKEN AWAY LARGELY DETERMINE THE PROCESS TIME PER PIECE. </li></ul>
  25. 25. HOW TO CONTROL COSTS <ul><li>WHAT IS THE DIFFERENCE IN RESULTS IF A PERSON “WASTES” 10 MINUTES IN “WAITING” OR PERSON SPENDS 10 MORE MINUTES PER HOUR DOING A JOB DUE TO POOR METHODS? </li></ul><ul><li>NONE!!!!! </li></ul>
  26. 26. HOW TO CONTROL COSTS <ul><li>OUR JOB IS TO DELIVER QUALITY PRODUCT TO OUR CUSTOMERS, ON TIME, EVERY TIME, AT PRICES THAT THEY ARE WILLING TO PAY AND WITH THE REQUIRED QUALITY </li></ul>
  27. 27. HOW TO CONTROL COSTS <ul><li>IN ORDER TO ACCOMPLISH THAT, WE DEPEND ON PEOPLE </li></ul><ul><li>PEOPLE TAKE TIME TO DO THINGS. </li></ul><ul><li>TIME = MONEY </li></ul><ul><li>THE PROPER CONTROL OF TIME IS THE FIRST RESPONSIBILITY OF EVERYONE. </li></ul>
  28. 28. HOW TO CONTROL COSTS <ul><li>Suppose you want to move to a new home. You figure that you and a friend can do the job with a rented truck. </li></ul><ul><li>One of the first things you do is determine how much the truck rental is going to cost. </li></ul><ul><li>Next you start planning your move so that you save as much time moving things, loading and unloading process, to minimize time and maximize productivity. </li></ul><ul><li>Isn’t this the same thing we are asking people to do in their jobs? </li></ul>
  29. 29. HOW TO CONTROL COSTS <ul><li>YOU CAN DO A LOT ABOUT HOW PEOPLE SPEND THEIR TIME AT WORK. </li></ul><ul><li>OUR SAFETY; QUALITY; PRODUCTIVITY AND COST PERFORMANCE ARE A DIRECT RESULT OF HOW WELL YOU MANAGE PEOPLE . </li></ul>
  30. 30. HOW TO CONTROL COSTS <ul><li>YOU MANAGE IN FOUR WAYS TO CONTROL COSTS </li></ul><ul><li>- HOW EFFECTIVELY PEOPLE PERFORM THEIR TASKS </li></ul><ul><li>- THE METHODS THEY USE TO PERFORM THE JOB </li></ul><ul><li>- THE AMOUNT OF TIME THAT IS WASTED. </li></ul><ul><li>- WHAT THEIR MOVEMENTS ARE TO PERFORM A TASK. </li></ul>
  31. 31. HOW TO CONTROL COSTS <ul><li>THE PEOPLE WHO CAN HELP YOU THE MOST TO SUCEED ARE YOUR OWN PEOPLE. </li></ul><ul><li>JUST AS IMPORTANTLY, THE PEOPLE ON YOUR OWNERSHIP TEAM CAN HELP YOU SUCCEED . </li></ul><ul><li>THEY CAN HELP YOU THE MOST WHEN YOU GET THEM INTERESTED IN HELPING YOU AND UNDERSTANDING WHY IT IS IMPORTANT TO HELP YOU </li></ul><ul><li>THEY CAN HELP YOU SAVE MONEY AS WELL AS SPEND MONEY. </li></ul>
  32. 32. HOW TO CONTROL COSTS <ul><li>THE TIME OF PEOPLE IS THE MOST IMPORTANT ITEM TO WATCH IN GETTING THE BEST RESULTS FROM YOUR TEAMS </li></ul>
  33. 33. HOW TO CONTROL COSTS <ul><li>“People adopt the style of the Leader they work for”. </li></ul><ul><li>WHAT IS YOUR STYLE and WHAT DOES IT COMMUNICATE TO YOUR TEAM? </li></ul>
  34. 34. HOW TO CONTROL COSTS <ul><li>LEAN LAW #3 </li></ul><ul><li>IT COSTS THE SAME PER MINUTE WHEN PEOPLE ARE ADDING VALUE AS WHEN THEY ARE STANDING WAITING FOR SOMEONE OR SOMETHING. </li></ul><ul><li>HOWEVER, OUR CUSTOMERS ARE ONLY WILLING TO PAY FOR THE VALUE ADDED. </li></ul>
  35. 35. HOW TO CONTROL COSTS <ul><li>You must be consistent on what is acceptable. </li></ul><ul><li>You must teach people the proper ways to do their work. </li></ul><ul><li>Check up regularly to insure that they understood what you wanted. </li></ul><ul><li>Take immediate action when a problem is found. </li></ul>
  36. 36. HOW TO CONTROL COSTS <ul><li>INJURIES, WAIT TIME, LOST TIME, EXTRA WORK, POOR METHODS, POOR MATERIALS, REWORK, AND POOR QUALITY WORK ARE TIME-COST EXTRAS THAT YOU AND YOUR PEOPLE CAN CONTROL </li></ul>
  37. 37. HOW TO CONTROL COSTS <ul><li>LEAN LAW #4 </li></ul><ul><li>CONTINUAL IMPROVEMENT COMES FROM SAVING THE TIME THAT IS BEING WASTED </li></ul>
  38. 38. HOW TO CONTROL COSTS <ul><li>PRODUCTIVITY DEPENDS ON SEVERAL DIFFERENT KINDS OF TIME USES: </li></ul><ul><li>The work pace of people. </li></ul><ul><li>(Concept of 100% pace) </li></ul><ul><li>What methods are they using? </li></ul><ul><li>How much time do they lose that could be prevented? </li></ul><ul><li>What part of their production/process is scrap or rework ? </li></ul><ul><li>How much “extra” work are they performing that could be eliminated? </li></ul>
  39. 39. HOW TO CONTROL COSTS <ul><li>LEAN LAW #5 </li></ul><ul><li>THE ACTUAL COST OF A PRODUCT IS IN DIRECT RELATION TO THE PLANNING, METHODS, TRAINING, ATTITUDE, MATERIALS, EQUIPMENT THAT IS USED </li></ul><ul><li>IN A PROCESS </li></ul>
  40. 40. HOW TO CONTROL COSTS <ul><li>LEAN LAW #6 </li></ul><ul><li>IT IS NOT THE HOURLY RATE YOU PAY THAT DETERMINES COST, BUT RATHER THE PRODUCTIVITY THAT YOU RECIEVE </li></ul>
  41. 41. HOW MANAGERS, TEAM LEADERS AND SUPERVISOR CONTROL COSTS THE POSITIVE IMPACT OF PRODUCTIVITY ON COSTS $0.27 54 $15.00 $0.28 50 $14.00 $0.26 53 $14.00 $0.26 50 $13.00 $0.24 53 $13.00 $0.24 50 $12.00 $0.22 53 $12.00 $0.22 50 $11.00 PER HR PER HR LABOR COST/MIN PIECES RATE OF PAY/HR PIECES RATE OF PAY/HR LABOR COST/MIN
  42. 42. HOW TO CONTROL COSTS <ul><li>LEAN LAW #7 </li></ul><ul><li>WASTED TIME HAS THE SAME IMPACT ON COSTS AS RAISING YOUR PRICES PER PART. </li></ul>
  43. 43. HOW TO CONTROL COSTS 1.OO M INS 1.03 MINS 1.07 MINS 1.11 MINS 1.15 MINS 1.2 MINS   TIME PER PART                 60 58 56 54 52 50   PIECES/HR                 60 58 56 54 52 50   VALUE-ADDED TIME                 0 MINS 2 MINS 4 MINS 6 MINS 8 MINS 10MIN   NON-VALUE ADDED TIME                
  44. 44. HOW TO CONTROL COSTS <ul><li>LEAN LAW #8 </li></ul><ul><li>SCRAP OR REWORK HAS THE SAME IMPACT ON COSTS AS RAISING YOUR PRICES PER PART. </li></ul>
  45. 45. HOW TO CONTROL COSTS 6.7% INCREASE 4.5% INCREASE 3.2% INCREASE 2.3% INCREASE 1.4 % INCREASE 0%   % INCREASE IN TIME               2..14 MINS 2..09 MINS 2..06 MINS 2..5 MINS 2..02 MINS 2..00 MINS   TIME PER PART                 15 10 7 5 3 0   SCRAP PARTS                 210 215 218 220 222 225   GOOD PARTS                 225 225 225 225 225 225   TOTAL PARTS RAN                
  46. 46. HOW TO CONTROL COSTS <ul><li>TOOLING EXPENSE </li></ul><ul><li>A common source of excess expense is tooling in terms of wear; care; breakage, loss. </li></ul><ul><li>If the tool(s) you or your team are using are not the right tools for the job, then you will have “waste” on replacing tools. </li></ul><ul><li>People need to be trained on how to properly use tools. </li></ul><ul><li>People need to be held accountable for improper use of tools; breakage due to their carelessness; or failing to properly take care of the tool when they use the tool. </li></ul>
  47. 47. HOW TO CONTROL COSTS <ul><li>MATERIAL COSTS </li></ul><ul><li>Material costs are the single largest cost in making FIA products. </li></ul><ul><li>Any “waste” that can be eliminated with material costs will have a significant impact on our overall costs and profits. </li></ul><ul><li>Internal Scrap impacts our costs because we pay twice for the material and labor to make parts. </li></ul>
  48. 48. HOW TO CONTROL COSTS <ul><li>Are we careless about the “small” material costs? </li></ul><ul><li>This is very common because the “small” costs are so small for each item that we think the impact is minimal. </li></ul><ul><li>But is that really true? </li></ul>
  49. 49. HOW TO CONTROL COSTS     scrap total of all dropped nuts and bolts and parts and report findings. KAIZEN Project for QC and Production- Do a study and estimate the annual     $2,500.00 250,000 $.01 per part $1,000.00 100,000 $.01 per part $10.00 1000 .$01 per part   Total Cost   Total Number Scrapped   Cost Per Part
  50. 50. HOW TO CONTROL COSTS <ul><li>We need to make people more aware of the cost of materials and its impact on our profit and competitiveness when we “waste” material. </li></ul><ul><li>We need to develop a mindset that “material scrap” is “wasted money ” and we need to develop a sense of urgency on eliminating material waste. </li></ul>
  51. 51. HOW TO CONTROL COSTS     that is equal to 24 people working for 8 hours If it costs us $2500 per day in internal scrap       are throwing away?   and not realize how much money we   How many times do we scrap parts     $780 30 $26.00/part $150.00 10 $15.00/part $75.00 3 $25.00/part $60.00 3 $20.00/part Cost # of Parts Scrapped Cost Per Part
  52. 52. HOW TO CONTROL COSTS <ul><li>The material cost on the previous chart really is double that cost since we have to run additional parts to replace the scrap. </li></ul><ul><li>That is why EVERYONE NEEDS TO BE URGENT ABOUT SCRAP ESPECIALLY SCRAP THAT IS PREVENTABLE. </li></ul>
  53. 53. HOW MANAGERS, TEAM LEADERS AND SUPERVISOR CONTROL COSTS <ul><li>MAINTENANCE COSTS </li></ul><ul><li>True or False </li></ul><ul><li>It is the responsibility of the PE Team for the equipment in my area. </li></ul>
  54. 54. HOW MANAGERS, TEAM LEADERS AND SUPERVISOR CONTROL COSTS <ul><li>FALSE </li></ul><ul><li>It is the responsibility of all the following people for the operation and care of the equipment </li></ul><ul><li>Operator </li></ul><ul><li>Team Leader </li></ul><ul><li>PE Member </li></ul><ul><li>PC Member </li></ul><ul><li>QC Member </li></ul>
  55. 55. HOW MANAGERS, TEAM LEADERS AND SUPERVISOR CONTROL COSTS <ul><li>Each Person listed on the previous slide is responsible for working together as a TEAM to insure that equipment is being cleaned; properly cared for; correctly operated; properly repaired when necessary and done so in a timely manner </li></ul>
  56. 56. HOW MANAGERS, TEAM LEADERS AND SUPERVISOR CONTROL COSTS <ul><li>Team Members; Team Leaders; Supervisors; Managers; Inspectors; Forklift and Tugger Drivers all need to take a more proactive and timely position for insuring that the equipment costs at FIA are minimized while insuring that safety; quality and productivity goals are achievable with good working equipment and tools. </li></ul>
  57. 57. HOW MANAGERS, TEAM LEADERS AND SUPERVISOR CONTROL COSTS <ul><li>Do you take an active role with the PE Team in finding the “Root Cause” for recurring equipment breakdowns so the cause can be eliminated? </li></ul><ul><li>Does PE Team have a “production” and “Customer” focus when it comes to equipment maintenance and operation? </li></ul><ul><li>Are we always “putting a band aid ” on our equipment problems? </li></ul><ul><li>If you are not satisfied with your equipment performance and reliability, do you discuss it with your PE Team? </li></ul>
  58. 58. HOW TO CONTROL COSTS <ul><li>THE MINDSET FOR CONTROLLING COSTS </li></ul><ul><li>STUDY ALL PROCESSES. </li></ul><ul><li>ELIMINATE UNNECESSARY STEPS. </li></ul><ul><li>IF YOU CANNOT ELIMINATE ANY STEPS CAN YOU INTEGRATE OR COMBINE TASKS </li></ul><ul><li>IF YOU CANNOT ELIMINATE OR INTEGRATE CAN YOU AUTOMATE? </li></ul>
  59. 59. HOW TO CONTROL COSTS <ul><li>Why are we doing this process this way? </li></ul><ul><li>Why do it at all? </li></ul><ul><li>Work on the “small things” that you directly control and do not need approval for. </li></ul><ul><li>You can get a lot of improvement without having to spend a lot of money. </li></ul>
  60. 60. HOW TO CONTROL COSTS <ul><li>A 1% improvement in productivity is achieved by finding just 4.5 minutes of “waste” to eliminate in an 8 hour day. </li></ul>4.5 minutes per shift
  61. 61. HOW TO CONTROL COSTS <ul><li>Observe each operation and determine how many steps the operator(s) take and find ways to eliminate the “excess steps”. </li></ul><ul><li>Observe each operation’s parts delivery process and find ways to reduce the number of parts on the line and the operator’s movements to get the parts. </li></ul>
  62. 62. HOW TO CONTROL COSTS <ul><li>Remember the “Multiplier Effect” when determining costs savings--- </li></ul><ul><li>Small per piece savings can be really large savings if you run a lot of parts or use the same part at several operations. </li></ul>
  63. 63. HOW TO CONTROL COSTS <ul><li>Ten 1% improvements gives you the same result as one 10% improvement </li></ul><ul><li>Yet it might be easier to find and implement the 1% improvements than the one 10% improvement. </li></ul>
  64. 64. HOW TO CONTROL COSTS <ul><li>INDIRECT LABOR </li></ul><ul><li>Indirect Labor costs must be controlled just like direct labor. </li></ul><ul><li>While it may be more difficult to “standardized” the indirect work, if you don’t, your costs will increase. </li></ul>
  65. 65. HOW TO CONTROL COSTS <ul><li>There are 3 categories of Indirect Labor: </li></ul><ul><li>- Necessary - Have to have </li></ul><ul><li>- Optional - Nice to have but do not really need. </li></ul><ul><li>- Luxury - Extra that we have because we can afford it. </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluate your indirect labor and see how many fit into the Necessary category- eliminate all the rest!!! </li></ul>
  66. 66. HOW TO CONTROL COSTS <ul><li>You need to monitor the work that each Indirect Labor Member does just like you do a Direct Labor Member. </li></ul><ul><li>If your Indirect Labor Member is “wasting time” it increases our labor costs just like if a Direct Labor Member “wastes” time” </li></ul>
  67. 67. HOW TO CONTROL COSTS <ul><li>One of the problems with Indirect Labor tasks is the level of efficiency and work pace that the indirect tasks are done at. </li></ul><ul><li>If you have a 40% effective work pace being performed, you are losing 60% available time for that job and your labor costs go up. </li></ul>
  68. 68. HOW TO CONTROL COSTS <ul><li>By using the concept of “100% Normal” pace , you will find that you can improve the productivity of your Indirect Labor Members without spending money on equipment, space or additional people. </li></ul><ul><li>NOTE: Train each person on what the “100% Normal” pace is visually and then assign them a project to evaluate all indirect jobs and determine the effective work pace. </li></ul>

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