Unit 7 Exploration and Colonization You should be able to identify the significance of each of the following:• goods and services •James Oglethorpe• free trade •Tomochichi• colonial period •Mary Musgrove• Charter of 1732 •Salzburgers• •Highland Scots reasons for settlement •malcontents• (charity, economics, and •Savannah defense)• trustee• malcontents Copy these to• Spanish threat from Florida your notebook!• Royal governor
Exploration and Colonization• This unit will focus on the geographical, political, social, and economic factors that contributed to Georgia’s colonization. Students will understand that production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services were an essential part of the economic motivation behind European movement and migration that led to colonial development. Students will learn that through conflict and change various groups and individuals affected the Native American culture while at the same time building a new culture of their own. They will also describe how location and economic ideas are interrelated..
SS8H1 The student will evaluatethe development of NativeAmerican cultures and the impactof European exploration andsettlement on the Native American ngecultures in Georgia. Ch a t and C o nflic Can you make a question of this?c. Explain reasons for European exploration and settlement of North America, with emphasis on the interests of the French, Spanish, and British in the southeastern area.
History Highlights Map LessonRefer to Lessons Folder forTeacher’s Guide
England France New World Spain•Why did the English, Spanish and Frenchwant to explore, colonize and “claim” the land in the New World?
Spain’s settlement of St. Augustinewas an effort to protect its treasureson their return trip to Spain To Spain PiratesSt. Augustine Sailors depended upon Ocean and wind currents For their travels
Formative AssessmentReasons Spain France England forExploration andColonization Copy this chart onto your paper, then using your textbook, find at least one reason that each of the 3 countries wanted to explore and settle the new world
•Spanish explorers wanted to bring the Catholic religion to the natives in America.•They also wanted to find gold and other riches.•They also wanted fame/power that would come to them when they added new land to the Spanish empire.
France• Like Spain, France also wanted to spread Christianity and find great wealth from the colonies. (Religion) • France also wanted international prestige/power that came with discovering new territory. Video First French Colonists 3 mins (in folder)
Video: Reasons for colonization 3 mins (in folder) England • England sought to use this new land to establish a mercantile system. (Economics) • England also did not want to be left behind in the search for new land and power. (Defense) •England’s cities had become too crowded with people, and the new land would be a place where many of England’s homeless could go for a fresh start. (Charity)
AssessmentWhich explorer is most associated with theexploration of Georgia?A. Ponce de LeónB. Amerigo VespucciC. Hernando de SotoD. Christopher Columbus
Why did European nations explore theAmericas? A. They wanted to find farmland. B. They wanted to establish naval dominance. C. They wanted to search for riches. D. They wanted to meet new people.
What was the purpose of the Spanish mission system?A. To spread Spanish colonialismB. To trade European goodsC. To access the American coastlineD. To spread Catholicism.
• SS8H1 The student will evaluate the development of Native American cultures and the impact of European exploration and settlement on the Native American cultures in Georgia. Conflict and Changeb. Evaluate the impact of European contact on Native American cultures; include Spanish missions along the barrier islands, and the explorations of Hernando DeSoto. Try to make a question of this element!
Formative Assessment They be all of goodly stature, mighty, faire and as well shapen…as any people in all the worlde, very gentill, curtious and of good nature… the men be of tawny color, hawke nosed and of a pleasant countenance…the women be well favored and modest…”This was written by one of the Spanish Explorers about the Native Americans.Pretend you were one of these Natives, what would you have to say about theSpaniards? Write a short description of the Spaniards’ appearance and yourImpression.
• Conflict and Change: The student will understand that when there is conflict between or within societies, change is the result. How did early European contact affect the culture of the Mississippian Indians? (H1b)
Video: Impact of Spanish Explorers on Native Americans 1.5 mins (in folder)
Impact of Explorers on Native American Culture• Europeans brought diseases such as measles, chicken pox, small pox, influenza, and whooping cough which resulted in the death of 1/3 of the Native American population. What affect might this have had on their civilization? Think: division of labor/specialization.• They also brought slavery, death, religion, and guns.• Not all contributions were negative. Europeans also brought tools, weapons and horses!
Native Both culturesAmericans impacted onecontributed to and another. onthe Some NativeEuropeans bu ti Americansby trading tri on is t i began towith the D p dress inEuropeans ion sum ct n European du Coand showing fashions andthem how to P rosurvive in the speak English.new worldand Without the Native American’sintroducing help, European colonization in the New World would never havenew foods survived.such as Can you think of one event incorn and particular that we celebrate duringsquash. November?
• Why did early Georgia colonists work to maintain good relations with Native Americans? A. The colonists believed they might need Native Americans to help defend themselves against Spain. B. The colonists wanted Native Americans to join them in a rebellion against Great Britain. C. The colonists needed to convince Native Americans to give up their land without a treaty. D. The colonists wanted to make up for past hostilities between themselves and Native Americans
Video: DeSoto’s visit to the South East 2 mins
Hernando De Soto• One of the best known Spanish explorers.• Was very cruel to the natives he found.• Known for staying the longest, traveling the farthest, and killing the most Native Americans living in Georgia. (1540)
De Soto stole the Native Americans’ food stores, captured women, kidnapped their chiefs, killed and maimed the natives. Europeans alsobrought diseases (measles andsmall pox) which Indians had no immunity to….
These bones are from Native Americans who encountered DeSoto and his menArcheological discoveries clearly showevidence of European Swords
More than 1/2 of De Soto’sexpedition including De Sotohimself died during the 4 yearexpedition.1/3 of the total Native Americansdied as well. The MississippianCulture/ mound buildersdisappeared.
During the 2 centuries following thediscovery of the new world, over Conflict and90% of the Native populationvanished…. Students, stand up and count Changeoff, 1-10, everyone but the 10’s sit down. Thisrepresents the proportion of Native populationthat was lost!The Great Mississippian moundbuilders gave way to the Creek andCherokee nations.
Early Spanish Missions• The purpose of the missions was to convert Native Americans to Catholicism.• Native Americans used the missions to help integrate themselves into the European world Learned European methods of alsfarming etc…• Spanish missions settled along Georgia’s barrier islands because these islands were easier to access than the mainland was.• The first Spanish mission was St. Augustine. – The first Spanish Mission on Georgia soil was Guale. How do you think this helped Spain to control the Native Americans?
St. Augustine, Florida:Oldest City in North America
tes of Early Spanish Missions tion Now ig ra M tand e n ve m M o What ideas were brought by the missionaries? If at all, did this affect the Native American
Summative: Assessment• If we knew then… What we know now.You are a member of one of four groups as assigned by your teacher.• Spanish• English• French• Native AmericansBased upon what we have learned to date, resources provided by teachers and any additional research as necessary, discuss and debate reasons for and arguments against exploration and colonization of the new world. You will choose a representative from each group to present your argument to the U.N. Council (Teacher and class)The class (UN Council) will vote on one of the 4 groups based on each of the arguments and support their choice with a paragraph.
Does not meet Meets ExceedsSocial Fails to identify Identifies Identifies( including appropriate social appropriate social appropriate socialreligious) reasons for reasons for reasons and exploration, exploration, compares them to colonization colonization current situationsPolitical Fails to identify Identifies Identifies appropriate political appropriate appropriate reasons for political reasons political reasons exploration, for exploration, and compares colonization colonization them to current situationsEconomic Fails to identify Identifies Identifies(includes appropriate appropriate appropriatenatural economic (includes, economic economic reasonsresources and natural resources (includes, natural and comparesmercantilism and mercantilism) resources and them to current reasons for mercantilism) situations exploration, reasons for colonization exploration, colonization
SS8H2 The student will analyzethe colonial period of Georgiashistory. psa. ou James r s Explain the importance of , G ion 1732, reasons for ls t Oglethorpe, the Charter of settlement, idu a tu s ti iv economics, and defense), d d In In n (charity, a Tomochichi, Mary Musgrove, and the city of Savannah.
History Highlights Map LessonRefer to Lessons Folder forTeacher’s Guide
Founding of the Georgia Colony 7mins (in folder)
The Founding of Georgia James Edward Oglethorpe: Wealthy, politician, humanitarian, Parliament, prison reform.I. Georgia Is Created: Oglethorpe, Trustees ,King George II , Charter 1732 ( boundaries.rights, powers)*Charity * Economics * Defensevideo: cvig 1988 975.8
Reasons for the Settlement of Georgia Match each item on the right with it’s appropriate category Home for the Homeless• Charity• Economics Fort Frederica• Defense Mercantilism
According to the original Charter of King George II, Georgia extended to the west coast even though no explorers had been there yet. As years and wars passed, Georgia’s western boundary moved first to the Mississippi River and then to the Chatahoochee.
Georgia as a Trustee Colony:21 Trustees in charge for 20 years * They could not own land, hold office, get paid. * Looked for industrious skilled workers who were down on their luckFirst colonists:Sail to Georgia, Nov. 17, 1732Ship Anne- 114-125 people sailedLanded at Yamacraw Bluff on Feb. 12, 1733Mary and John Musgrove became interpretors,Tomochichi: Chief of the Yamacraw Indians whobefriended Ogelthorpe
Photo of the spot along the river called “Yamacraw Bluff ” Have you stood here?
Ruins of foundation of original dwellings at Fort Frederic James Oglethorpe Lived HERE1 How Tabby is made
Which statement best explains why England established the Georgia colony? A. England wanted a port available for ships sailing to China and the East Indies. B. England wanted to create a trading partnership with the Native Americans. C. England wanted to provide a safe haven for Catholics who were being persecuted. D. England wanted a buffer state to prevent Spanish and Native American invasions of South Carolina.
Remember, exploration began as an effort to find a new trade route to the far east to get precious spices, silk and gems. Since Georgia was at a similar latitude, It was believed that Georgia would be able to produce some of these raw materials (mulberry trees to sustain silkworms and produce silk. ut ion ri b o n ist pti D m on s u cti on du C ro n d P aMercantilism:The colonies would produce raw materials which would be sent back to Englandfor manufacturing. The manufactured goods would then be sold around the globe( including back to the colonies!) Discuss: What are the advantages of this system?Why was it important for a small country like England?
Georgia as a Trustee Colony• The Trustee period in Georgia began when King George II gave permission to establish the colony in 1732.• Georgia was governed by trustees for its first twenty years.• The trustees hoped the settlers would produce wine and silk to send back to England.• New settlers had to plant mulberry trees for the raising of silkworms.
Not everyone was welcome in Georgia Liquor Rum BlacksCan you guess why?Refer to page 116 in your text(Georgia and the AmericanExperience) Lawyers Papist Catholics
Strict Rules for the Colonists• No slaves were allowed in the colony.• No rum or other liquor was allowed.• Land was limited to 50 acres per family.
Mary Musgrove• Married to a South Carolina trader.• Was a vital link between the English settlers and the Creek people.• Was an interpreter between Oglethorpe and the Creeks.
Tomochichi• Chief of the Yamacraw Indians.• Gave Oglethorpe permission to settle at Yamacraw Bluff.• Traveled to England with Oglethorpe.
Savannah• Georgia’s first city.• Savannah was to have four large squares, and each square was to have its own system of smaller squares and rectangles.
• Summative Assessment SS8H2 in folder labeled assessments.
SS8H2 The student will analyze thecolonial period of Georgia’s history.b. Evaluate the Trustee Period of Georgia’s colonial history, emphasizing the role of the Salzburgers, Highland Scots, malcontents, and the Spanish threat from Florida.
Georgia’s First Settlement:Savannah, blocks, death. New Settlers:Jews, Lutheran Saltzburgers video 8 mins,Germans, Swiss ps ou r s , G ion ls t id ua tland ownershipGrowing Pains (Malcontents)complaints about ruless itu video 6 mins i v Inrestrictions, d Inslavery ban, prohibition. andBuilding Forts: Darien, ScottsHighlanders video 10 mins , Saint Simons Island
The Salzburgers• German-speaking settlers who settled Ebenezer and were known especially for their success in producing silk.• They came to Georgia seeking religious freedom.• They called their home Ebenezer.• They worked hard and Ebenezer became the most successful Georgia community.• They did not approve of slavery.
Highland Scots/Scottish Highlanders• A group of people known for their fighting abilities who were brought to Georgia to build Georgia’s first fort at Darien.• They came to the colony to re- establish the fallen Fort King George.
The Spanish Threat from Florida• Georgian soldiers made an unsuccessful attack on the Spanish mission of St. Augustine, Florida, in 1740. Two years later, the Spanish attacked Fort Frederica. The tension between British Georgia and Spanish Florida came to a head in the Battle of Bloody Marsh. Oglethorpe waged one more attack against Spanish Florida. The attack was unsuccessful. Optional Reading: Crutchfield, James A. It Happened in Georgia: Battle of Bloody Marsh Guilford Ct: Morris Book Publishing, 2007
When the Georgia colony wasestablished, which religious group was notallowed to settle in it?A. JewsB. PuritansC. CatholicsD. Protestants
SS8H2 The student will analyze thecolonial period of Georgia’s history. n d a ps ou c. Explain the development of r s , G iocolony with Georgia as als ut n a royal du sownership, i land tit regard div In to In government, and the slavery, impact of the royal governors.
Georgia as a Royal Colony• 1752-1776• This meant that Georgia was controlled by the British government.• Government – Executive Branch included a royal governor and his council. – Legislative Branch – two-house (bicameral) – Judicial Branch – made up of a high court, a general court, and a justice of the peace.
SlaveryThere was no longer a rule against slavery.Half of the people living in Georgia were enslaved people from Africa.
Land Ownership• Settlers who came to the colony by way of the Trust’s charity, were limited to fifty-acre land grants.• Those who paid could have up to 500 acres of land and were required to have at least one servant or family member for every fifty acres of their grant.
John Reynolds• First royal governor of Georgia.• Introduced the idea of self-government and set up a court system.• Proved ineffective and was recalled at the end of 1756.
Henry Ellis• Second royal governor of Georgia.• Established a sound foundation for government.• Asked to go back to England after three years.
James Wright• Last royal governor of Georgia.• A popular governor• Georgia enjoyed a period of remarkable growth during his tenure.
Trustee Colony Royal ColonyTime PeriodLeadersGovernanceBoundariesLand OwnershipDistributionSlaveryReligionThe Colonists(Groups, Origins Etc…
SS8G1 The student will describe Georgia with regard to physical features and location. d. Evaluate the impact of climate on tion ca Georgia’s development. LoBased on what we have learned so far, how do YOU think climate might have impacted Georgia’s development?
Georgia’s Climate• Warm Temperate Subtropical• Hot and humid weather, frequent rainfall, and poor soil.• Georgia’s climate impacted Georgia’s development because settlers could produce enough food to feed their families.• However, life was very hard for the Georgia colonists. The climate and soil were not right for growing the crops that they thought they could. The heat and humidity resulted in death from disease.
SS8E1 The student will give examples of the kinds of goods and services produced in Georgia in different historical periods. Silk Worms Pine Mulberry TreesDeer Skins Indigo Rice
SS8E1 Summative Assessment Task: You have been hired by James Ogelthorpe to research all of the resources and crops that Georgia produces. You are to write a report to King George in order to obtain additional funding for the colony. Discuss Process and Due Dates Does not Meets Exceeds meetGives Examples are Gives examples of Gives examples of atexamples of inappropriate. at least 7 least 7 appropriatecrops and appropriate resources andresources resources explains how theyappropriateto the support the economycolonialperiod