the rate of Major Depressive Disorder in preschoolers is estimated to be about 0.3 % in the community. Slightly higher rates of depression in boys than girls in school aged children in adolescence, the prevalence of depression differs greatly in regards to biological sex. The reported rates of major depression range from 1 percent to about 6 percent in community samples of adolescents. However, in older adolescence, prevalence rates jump to between 14 and 25 percent.
Details: When was the last time it happened, what happened, did it leave a mark etc.
Point 2: What does this mean for us A completed suicide is rare in children younger than 12.
take all threats seriously
Program Components addressing the script search and retrieval step (Step 2) of the SCIP model would help children by providing them with direct exposure to and instruction on a variety of prosocial skills
Eg: An adolescent wanted to watch a television show but another child was already watching TV, though half asleep. Come up with and evaluate three ways to deal with the situation. Then apply it to another personally relevant situation.
Depression In Children: Behavioral Manifestations and Intervention
Depression in children: Behavioral
manifestations and intervention
David A. Songco, M.A., Psy.D.
New Insights, LLC
(c) 2014 New Insights, LLC
• Prevalence of depression increases with age.
• Mood disorders among preschool-age children
are extremely rare
• Among pre-pubertal school-age children in the
community, the prevalence is approximately 1
percent. Similar rates of depression in in terms
• The rate of depression in adolescent females is
double the rate it is in adolescent males.
Depression: What is it?
• Major Depressive Episode (2 Week
• Depressed Mood most of the day, nearly every day, as indicated by
either subjective report of other observations.
• Markedly diminished interest or pleasure in all, or almost all activities
• Significant weight loss when not dieting or weight gain, or
decrease/increase in appetite nearly every day
• Insomnia or hypersomnia nearly every day
• Feelings of worthlessness or excessive or inappropriate guilt
• Diminished ability to think or concentrate or indecisiveness
• Recurrent thoughts of death, recurrent suicidal ideation without a
Depression in ChildrenDepression in Children
How is it Different?How is it Different?
Signs and Symptoms
• Depression in children typically manifests
itself differently than in adults
• The core features of Major Depressive
Disorder are highly similar in children,
adolescents, and adults, however
developmental factors influence its clinical
Depression in Children
• Children and adolescents with depression often
• Withdrawal from family and peers
• Deterioration in academic investment
• Social isolation
• Persistent themes in play and fantasy will
often reflect mood
• School phobia and excessive clinging to
parents may also be symptoms
• Poor academic performance
• Substance abuse
• Antisocial behavior
• sexual promiscuitY
Distinguishing between depression and
other BX Disorders
• In depression, behavioral disturbances will subside when the
mood disorder is treated. In conduct disorder and
oppositional defiant disorder, the behavioral disturbances are
likely more pervasive and embedded in the root of the
problem rather than a symptom of it.
• In depression, children and adolescents will often be able to
recognize feelings of sadness, depressed mood, irritability,
etc. when probed. Whereas, when dealing with strictly
behavioral issues, these depressive symptoms will likely not
• Conduct disorder and Depression are often present in the
individual concurrently. It is thought that the likely connection
is related to shared risk factors rather than a causal relation.
Conduct Disorder, Oppositional Defiant Disorder
and Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder can
occur among children who later experience
Depression and Abuse
• Most young children with major depressive
disorder have histories of abuse or neglect.
• As professionals working with children, we
are mandated reporters.
• Find as many details as possible
• Make the DCFS Phone Call
• 1-800- 25-ABUSE
• Suicide is the 3rd leading cause of death among adolescents in the US.
• Reports indicate that half of suicidal individuals express suicidal intentions
to a friend or a relative within 24 hours before enacting suicidal behavior.
• More than 12,000 children and adolescents are hospitalized in the US each
year due to suicidal threats or behavior.
• Completed suicide occurs about 5 times more often in adolescent boys
than in girls
• The rate of suicide attempts is at least 3 times higher among adolescent
girls than boys.
A point to remember
It is always OKAY to Ask about it!It is always OKAY to Ask about it!
Working with aggression
• The nature of the population we work with is
very prone to acts of aggression.
• It is important to recognize the difference
horseplay, play fighting, and expressed
• Aggression may be verbal and physical.
• It is difficult to work with an individual who is
currently in an aggressive state.
• Physical Presentation
• Content of Speech
• Listening Tools
• Positive Affirmation
• Undivided Attention
• Be Nonjudgemental
• Focus on Feelings
• Allow for Silence
• Clarify Message
• Social-Cognitive Information processing
(SCIP) perspective of Aggression
• Decision Making Model - 4 steps
• Evaluate Environmental Cues
• Search memory for a script to guide
• Evaluate the generated script
• Behave according to the script
• See Handout
• Right Column: Methods that can be used
to train the social-cognitive information-
processing components of each step
• Middle Column: Steps of the SCIP Model
• Left Column: Underlying processes
contributing to each step.
SCIP Application• Cognitive Mediation Training
• Trained to evaluate consequences of their
• 8 Steps
• Is there a problem
• Stop and think
• Why is there a conflict
• What do I want
• Think of Solutions
• Look at Consequences
• Choose what to do and do it
• Evaluate the Results
Services from New Insights,
• Psychological AssessmentPsychological Assessment
• Psychological Testing (Coming Soon)Psychological Testing (Coming Soon)
• Individual TherapyIndividual Therapy
• Couples CounselingCouples Counseling
• Group TherapyGroup Therapy
• Family SessionsFamily Sessions
• Workshops and Community PresentationsWorkshops and Community Presentations
• Dr. David Songco
• 414 - 604 - 6413
• American Psychological Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of
Mental Disorders, 4th Ed. (2000).
• Boxer, P & Dubow, E. (2002). A social-cognitive information-processing
model for school-based aggression reduction and prevention programs:
Issues for research and practice. Applied & Preventative Psychology. 10: 177-
• Cowin et al. (2003). De-Escalating aggression and violence in the mental
health setting. International Journal of Mental Health Nursing. 12: 64-73.
• Sadock, J & Sadock, V (2007). Synopsis of Psychiatry. Philadelphia, PA:
Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.