Radiology 5th year, 14th lecture/part two (Dr. Abeer)
Heart Failure * The plain X-ray findings include the followings : a) Enlarged cardiac shadow +/- specific chamber enlargement. b) Evidence of pulmonary venous hypertension (enlargement of the vessels in the upper zone). c) Evidence of pulmonary edema. d) Pleural Effusion : It is usually bilateral, often larger on the Rt. than on the Lt. side; but if it is unilateral it is almost always on the Rt. side. Note : Acute Lt. ventricular failure, small effusion is seen at the costo-phrenic angle, running up the lateral chest wall; (this fluid may, in fact, be edema of the lungs rather than true pleural effusion).
Heart Failure Congestive Heart Failure with bilateral Pleural Effusion
Valvular Heart Diseases Mitral Valve Diseases They Include : 1- M itral S tenosis ( MS ) 2- M itral R egurgitation ( MR )
Mitral Stenosis ( MS ) 1) By CXR : The pathophysiological findings are : * Lt. atrial enlargement + normal cardiac size. * Mitral calcification. * Pulmonary venous hypertension. * Pulmonary edema. * Pulmonary arterial hypertension, will lead to enlarged cardiac size (Rt. ventricle is enlarged).
Mitral Stenosis ( MS ) Plain X-ray of Mitral Stenosis, showing enlarged Lt. atrium as a double contour at the Rt. heart border (curved arrow), & enlarged Lt. atrial appendage (straight arrow)
Mitral Regurgitation (MR) The pathophysiological findings are : 1) By CXR : * Lt. atrium & Lt. ventricle are enlarged, so cardiac size will be enlarged in its Lt. ventricular configuration. * Pulmonary venous hypertension. * Pulmonary edema. Note : Lt. atrial enlargement & pulmonary venous hypertension are the important signs of MR, which differs from MS by Lt. ventricular enlargement.
Valvular Heart Diseases Aortic Valve Diseases They Include : 1- A ortic S tenosis ( AS ) 2- A ortic R egurgitation ( AR )
Aortic Stenosis ( AS ) The pathophysiological findings are : 1) By CXR : * Aortic valve calcification. * Post stenotic dilatation of the ascending aorta (the major feature). * Lt. ventricular enlargement (Late feature). * Increase pulmonary venous pressure (Late feature). - Both late features will lead to Lt. ventricular failure.
Aortic Stenosis ( AS ) Aortic Stenosis ( AS ) showing post-stenotic dilatation of the aorta (arrows)
Aortic Regurgitation (AR) The pathophysiological findings are : 1) By CXR : * Dilatation of the ascending aorta. * Increase in the cardiac size due to enlarged Lt. ventricle, & this occurs in the early course of the disease.
Lt. Atrial Myxoma & Other Intra-cardiac Masses * Intracardiac tumors are extremely rare. * Lt. atrial myxoma is the most frequently encountered, it is a benign tumor which arises from : a) Intra-atrial septum. b) Lt. atrial walls. * As it enlarges, it becomes pedunculated to float in the Lt. atrial cavity, & therefore it will interfere with mitral valve function & mimic MS or MR in both ways (clinically & by CXR). * It can be differentiated from other intra-cardiac masses by MRI & Echo., & the only differential Dx is Lt. atrial thrombus in patient with Rheumatic MS.
Lt. Atrial Myxoma & Other Intra-cardiac Masses Lt. Atrial Myxoma shown by 2-dimentional echocardiography – modified apical 4-chamber view
Congenital Heart Diseases A- Lt. to Rt. Shunt (as in ASD, VSD, & PDA) : * When the shunt is 2/1 or more, the following CXR findings will be seen : a) Enlarged cardiac size (cardiomegally). b) Enlarged Mean Pulmonary Artery (MPA), hilar pulmonary arteries. c) Pulmonary plethora. * Absent of Lt. ventricular enlargement in the presence of increase pulmonary flow is mainly indicate ASD.
Congenital Heart Diseases B- Pulmonary Stenosis (PS) : * BY CXR : there will be : a) Normal heart size. b) Enlargement of MPA Lt. pulmonary artery (Post-Stenotic Dilatation).
C- Coarctation Of Aorta (COA) : Congenital Heart Diseases * It is an abnormal aortic arch due to presence of narrowing, just distal to the origin of the Lt. subclavian artery. * CXR findings include : a) Indentation of the aortic arch. b) Dilatation above (dilatation of the Lt. subclavian artery), & below (post-stenotic dilatation). c) Enlarged cardiac size & ascending aorta due to long standing hypertension. d) Rib notching is due to enlargement of the intercostal arteries which act as a collateral, & there will small cortical indentation on the inferior margin of the posterior halves of the ribs from the 3rd or 4th rib, & downward. Note : COA itself can be seen by angiography or MRI.
D- Tetralogy Of Fallot (TOF) : Congenital Heart Diseases * & they are : a) VSD. b) Rt. ventricular outflow obstruction (valvular or subvalvular). c) Rt. ventricular hypertrophy. d) Overriding of aorta over the VSD.
* BY CXR : a) 50% of patients have normal CXR. b) Upturned cardiac apex. c) Pulmonary bay at the region of the MPA, gives the Boot-Shaped Heart. d) Oligemia of the lung. e) 25% Rt. sided aortic arch. Congenital Heart Diseases D- Tetralogy Of Fallot (TOF) :