Rhinitis
Definition of Rhinitis <ul><li>Rhinitis is inflammation of the lining of the nasal cavity. As the lining of the nasal cavi...
Classification of Rhinitis <ul><li>Allergy </li></ul><ul><li>- Seasonal ,Perennial, food related ,drug induced </li></ul><...
Allergic rhinitis <ul><li>Its an IgE mediated hypersensitivity response to allergen lead to rhinitis ,associated allergic ...
Pathological change <ul><li>Local mucosal change </li></ul><ul><li>-edema </li></ul><ul><li>-infiltration with eosinophils...
<ul><li>Seasonal Rhinitis </li></ul>Etiology of Allergic Rhinitis  :
Clinical features: <ul><li>-  Sneezing , may be in paroxysm. </li></ul><ul><li>Rhinorrhea  </li></ul><ul><li>nasal obstruc...
<ul><li>Perennial Rhinitis </li></ul>Dust mite Fel d1
Clinical features: <ul><li>-  Rhinorrhea may be more viscous </li></ul><ul><li>nasal obstruction and loss of smell and tas...
Occupational allergins <ul><li>Rhinitis may occur as a consequence of allergins inhaled in work place frequently associate...
Food induced rhinitis <ul><li>It’s a rare cause of allergic rhinitis, symptom of rhinitis often associated with urticaria,...
Examinaton <ul><li>General </li></ul><ul><li>Local ENT examination :allergic nasal mucosa appear pale or bluish, boggy wit...
Investigations 1-  Skin Tests : it’s a primary tool in the investigation of allergy .its positive in seasonal rhinitis ,le...
Skin prick test
Laboratory tests: <ul><li>Laboratory tests: </li></ul><ul><li>-nasal cytology ,eosinophil count in nasal secretion,blood <...
<ul><li>A raised IgE level usually confirm allergic constitution but it is neither sensitive nor specific  </li></ul><ul><...
<ul><li>Nasal Provocation test </li></ul><ul><li>Radiology </li></ul><ul><li>Elimination test </li></ul>
treatment <ul><li>Avoidance of allergins . </li></ul><ul><li>Drugs . </li></ul><ul><li>Immunotherapy (desensitization) . <...
Type of drug Drug and administration Antihistamines  <ul><li>Systemic :sedating , non sedating </li></ul>Steroid <ul><li>T...
<ul><li>Desensitization  :  </li></ul><ul><li>it consist of injection of allergin in increasing dose S.C to be tolerated b...
surgery <ul><li>Polypectomy </li></ul><ul><li>Reduction surgery of inferior turbinate </li></ul>
Drug Induced Rhinitis <ul><li>Aspirin  sensitivity is an important cause of rhinitis which may be severe and prolonged. As...
Rhinitis Medicamentosa <ul><li>The condition is the result of over medication with local nasal decongestants casusing rebo...
Hormonal induced rhinitis <ul><li>Menstruation ,pregnancy </li></ul><ul><li>Untreated hypothyroidism </li></ul><ul><li>Sex...
Intrinsic Rhinitis   Intrinsic rhinopathy, non-infective non-allergic perennial rhinitis, vasomotor rhinitis <ul><li>It’s ...
Treatment  Medical Type of drug Drug and administration Eosinophilic Steroid <ul><li>Topical : beclomethazone, </li></ul><...
symptom Type of procedure procedure Rhinorrhoea <ul><li>Vidian neurectomy </li></ul><ul><li>Excision of vidian nerve </li>...
Infective Rhinitis <ul><li>Non Specific:  </li></ul><ul><li>*infections of ext.nose </li></ul><ul><li>*Coryza ( commone co...
Chronic rhinitis  Glanders Rhinoscleroma diphtheria Sarcoidosis Lupus Vulgaris T. B Gangosa Specific Syphillis Fungi Rhini...
Infections of external nose  <ul><li>Dermatological dis. </li></ul><ul><li>Nasal predilection sarcoidosis &lupus vulgaris ...
<ul><li>Vestibulitis  : </li></ul><ul><li>inflammation of nasal vestibules </li></ul><ul><li>Usu. Staf. Aureus </li></ul><...
<ul><li>ERYSIPELAS  : gp.B Strept.. of dermis </li></ul><ul><li>Infant, young children &elderly </li></ul><ul><li>Swollen ...
<ul><li>Herpis zoster  : </li></ul><ul><li>Ophthalmic branch of trigeminal n. </li></ul><ul><li>Cheek ,palate  & vestibule...
<ul><li>Thank you </li></ul>
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E.N.T 5th year, 3rd lecture (Dr. Yousif Chalabi)

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The lecture has been given on Dec. 6th, 2010 by Dr. Yousif Chalabi.

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E.N.T 5th year, 3rd lecture (Dr. Yousif Chalabi)

  1. 1. Rhinitis
  2. 2. Definition of Rhinitis <ul><li>Rhinitis is inflammation of the lining of the nasal cavity. As the lining of the nasal cavity and the para nasal sinuses is continuous, inflammatory process tend to involve both areas to a greater or lesser extent. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Classification of Rhinitis <ul><li>Allergy </li></ul><ul><li>- Seasonal ,Perennial, food related ,drug induced </li></ul><ul><li>Infectious </li></ul><ul><li>-Acute </li></ul><ul><li>-Chronic </li></ul><ul><li>Non-infectious non-allergic (Intrinsic) rhinitis. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Allergic rhinitis <ul><li>Its an IgE mediated hypersensitivity response to allergen lead to rhinitis ,associated allergic conjunctivitis and asthma may occur. </li></ul><ul><li>The disease is common ,prevalence depend on age ,gender, geographical distribution </li></ul>
  5. 5. Pathological change <ul><li>Local mucosal change </li></ul><ul><li>-edema </li></ul><ul><li>-infiltration with eosinophils and plasma cells </li></ul><ul><li>-watery discharge </li></ul><ul><li>-vascular dilatation </li></ul><ul><li>-polypi </li></ul><ul><li>-Superadded infection </li></ul><ul><li>Involvement of sinuses </li></ul><ul><li>-generalized thickening </li></ul><ul><li>-polypi in the sinuses( single or multiple) </li></ul><ul><li>-fluid effusion in the sinuses </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Seasonal Rhinitis </li></ul>Etiology of Allergic Rhinitis :
  7. 7. Clinical features: <ul><li>- Sneezing , may be in paroxysm. </li></ul><ul><li>Rhinorrhea </li></ul><ul><li>nasal obstruction and loss of smell </li></ul><ul><li>Itchiness of nose ,eye,palate </li></ul><ul><li>Tearing ,itching ,redness of eyes </li></ul><ul><li>Burning sensation in the throat. </li></ul><ul><li>symptom related to asthma (cough,shortness of breath, wheeze) </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>Perennial Rhinitis </li></ul>Dust mite Fel d1
  9. 9. Clinical features: <ul><li>- Rhinorrhea may be more viscous </li></ul><ul><li>nasal obstruction and loss of smell and taste </li></ul><ul><li>Associated sinusitis ,Eustachian tube dysfunction </li></ul><ul><li>Sneezing less common </li></ul><ul><li>Nasal congestion, postnasal drip </li></ul>
  10. 10. Occupational allergins <ul><li>Rhinitis may occur as a consequence of allergins inhaled in work place frequently associated with asthma </li></ul><ul><li>Biological agent include flour (in baker ,grain worker), laboratory animal ,wood dust,biological washing powder,latex </li></ul><ul><li>Chemical agent </li></ul><ul><li>-paint manufacturer and painter (spray) </li></ul><ul><li>-platinum salt in platinum refiner </li></ul><ul><li>-drugs in pharmaceutical worker </li></ul>
  11. 11. Food induced rhinitis <ul><li>It’s a rare cause of allergic rhinitis, symptom of rhinitis often associated with urticaria, angioedema and GIT symptom </li></ul><ul><li>Food may occasionally provoke IgE induced rhinitis </li></ul><ul><li>In children Milk, egg, cheese, </li></ul><ul><li>In adult nuts ,fish, shellfish, citrus fruit </li></ul>
  12. 12. Examinaton <ul><li>General </li></ul><ul><li>Local ENT examination :allergic nasal mucosa appear pale or bluish, boggy with swelling and watery discharge. there may be polyp, structural (septal deviation ,prominent turbinate). </li></ul><ul><li>Systemic </li></ul>
  13. 13. Investigations 1- Skin Tests : it’s a primary tool in the investigation of allergy .its positive in seasonal rhinitis ,less than 50%in others <ul><li>it consist of pricking skin ,with special needle few drops of allergin . </li></ul><ul><li>Appearance of wheal and flare in 15-20 min ,the size of wheal is usually equal or greater than 3mm and interpreted by positive and negative control </li></ul><ul><li>Antihistamine should be discontinued 3-6 days before test </li></ul><ul><li>Intradermal test is rarely used because of extensive tissue reaction or anaphylaxis </li></ul>
  14. 14. Skin prick test
  15. 15. Laboratory tests: <ul><li>Laboratory tests: </li></ul><ul><li>-nasal cytology ,eosinophil count in nasal secretion,blood </li></ul><ul><li>-IgE level </li></ul><ul><li>measurement (total) </li></ul><ul><li>Specific(RAST,ELISA, </li></ul><ul><li>cap test) </li></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>A raised IgE level usually confirm allergic constitution but it is neither sensitive nor specific </li></ul><ul><li>Elevated level seen in smoker and parasitic infestation </li></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>Nasal Provocation test </li></ul><ul><li>Radiology </li></ul><ul><li>Elimination test </li></ul>
  18. 18. treatment <ul><li>Avoidance of allergins . </li></ul><ul><li>Drugs . </li></ul><ul><li>Immunotherapy (desensitization) . </li></ul><ul><li>Surgery . </li></ul>
  19. 19. Type of drug Drug and administration Antihistamines <ul><li>Systemic :sedating , non sedating </li></ul>Steroid <ul><li>Topical : beclomethazone, </li></ul><ul><li>fluticasone </li></ul><ul><li>Systemic (short course) </li></ul>Alpha receptor agonist (decongestant) <ul><li>Topical :psudoephedrine </li></ul><ul><li>Systemic :xylometazoline </li></ul>Mast cell stabilizer <ul><li>Topical :cromoglycate </li></ul><ul><li>Systemic :ketotifin </li></ul>Anticholenergic <ul><li>Topical :ipratropium </li></ul><ul><li>Systemic :hyoscine </li></ul>Anticholenergic/ sympathmemetic <ul><li>Systemic: imipramine , </li></ul><ul><li>chlorpheneramine </li></ul>
  20. 20. <ul><li>Desensitization : </li></ul><ul><li>it consist of injection of allergin in increasing dose S.C to be tolerated by the subject. </li></ul><ul><li>Sublingual allergin available ,its popular but less effective . </li></ul>
  21. 21. surgery <ul><li>Polypectomy </li></ul><ul><li>Reduction surgery of inferior turbinate </li></ul>
  22. 22. Drug Induced Rhinitis <ul><li>Aspirin sensitivity is an important cause of rhinitis which may be severe and prolonged. Aspirin induced rhinitis is frequently associated with nasal polyposis and late onset asthma. Aspirin sensitivity is frequently, although not always, associated with sensitivity to other NSAIDs. The mechanism is unknown. Antihypertensive drugs like propranolol and other beta-blockers, adrenergic neuron blocking drugs and ACE inhibitors may provoke rhinitis with predominantly nasal congestion and rhinorrhea. </li></ul>
  23. 23. Rhinitis Medicamentosa <ul><li>The condition is the result of over medication with local nasal decongestants casusing rebound phenomenon occurs resulting in turbinate hypertrophy. If the decongestant treatment is repeated the condition become rapidly self-perpetuating and a chronic nasal obstruction unresponsive to decongestant results. The treatment is immediate cessation of the decongestant with replacement by nasal or systemic steroid. If this is not successful then inferior turbinectomy may be required. </li></ul>
  24. 24. Hormonal induced rhinitis <ul><li>Menstruation ,pregnancy </li></ul><ul><li>Untreated hypothyroidism </li></ul><ul><li>Sexual excitement (Honeymoon rhinitis) </li></ul>
  25. 25. Intrinsic Rhinitis Intrinsic rhinopathy, non-infective non-allergic perennial rhinitis, vasomotor rhinitis <ul><li>It’s a diagnosis of exclusion, the exact etiology is unknown but it believed to be due to autonomic imbalance with parasympathetic predominance. </li></ul><ul><li>Rhinitis developing for the 1 st time in adult is more likely intrinsic </li></ul><ul><li>Perennial rhinitis can be classified according to presence or absence of allergy and nasal secretion eosinophilia </li></ul><ul><li>Clinical feature: </li></ul><ul><li>-rhinorrhea ,congestion,hyposmia,postnasal discharge, rarely itching and sneezing. </li></ul><ul><li>classification: </li></ul><ul><li>- eosinophilic intrinsic rhinitis (nasal obstruction syndrome). (more than 25%eosinophil count in nasal smear) </li></ul><ul><li>- non- eosinophilic intrinsic rhinitis (rhinorrhoea syndrome). (less than 25%) </li></ul>
  26. 26. Treatment Medical Type of drug Drug and administration Eosinophilic Steroid <ul><li>Topical : beclomethazone, </li></ul><ul><li>fluticasone </li></ul><ul><li>Systemic (short course) </li></ul>Alpha receptor agonist <ul><li>Topical :psudoephedrine </li></ul><ul><li>Systemic :xylometazoline </li></ul>Mast cell stabilizer <ul><li>Topical :cromoglycate </li></ul><ul><li>Systemic :ketotifin </li></ul>Non-Eosinophilic Anticholenergic <ul><li>Topical :ipratropium </li></ul><ul><li>Systemic :hyoscine </li></ul>Anticholenergic/ sympathmemetic <ul><li>Systemic: imipramine , </li></ul><ul><li>chlorpheneramine </li></ul>
  27. 27. symptom Type of procedure procedure Rhinorrhoea <ul><li>Vidian neurectomy </li></ul><ul><li>Excision of vidian nerve </li></ul>Nasal obstruction <ul><li>Turbinate reduction </li></ul><ul><li>Turbinate resection </li></ul><ul><li>SMD </li></ul><ul><li>Cryosurgery </li></ul><ul><li>Laser cautery </li></ul><ul><li>Partial excision </li></ul><ul><li>Submucosal turbinectomy </li></ul><ul><li>Radical turbinectomy </li></ul>
  28. 28. Infective Rhinitis <ul><li>Non Specific: </li></ul><ul><li>*infections of ext.nose </li></ul><ul><li>*Coryza ( commone cold ) </li></ul><ul><li>*Influenza </li></ul><ul><li>Specific </li></ul>Erysipelas Glanders Anthrax candidiasis Gonorrhea Diphtheria Syphilis Acute rhinitis
  29. 29. Chronic rhinitis Glanders Rhinoscleroma diphtheria Sarcoidosis Lupus Vulgaris T. B Gangosa Specific Syphillis Fungi Rhinitis sicca Rhinitis Caseosa Atrophic Simple chronic non specific
  30. 30. Infections of external nose <ul><li>Dermatological dis. </li></ul><ul><li>Nasal predilection sarcoidosis &lupus vulgaris </li></ul><ul><li>Nasal deformity </li></ul><ul><li>Furunculosis </li></ul><ul><li>Infection of hair follicles </li></ul><ul><li>Hard tender painful red </li></ul><ul><li>Cavernous sinus thrombosis </li></ul><ul><li>Local heat application </li></ul><ul><li>Systemic A.B. </li></ul><ul><li>Paranteral A.B. (if large or cellulitis) </li></ul>
  31. 31. <ul><li>Vestibulitis : </li></ul><ul><li>inflammation of nasal vestibules </li></ul><ul><li>Usu. Staf. Aureus </li></ul><ul><li>Coryza </li></ul><ul><li>Atopy </li></ul><ul><li>Unilateral :F.B . </li></ul>
  32. 32. <ul><li>ERYSIPELAS : gp.B Strept.. of dermis </li></ul><ul><li>Infant, young children &elderly </li></ul><ul><li>Swollen & indurated skin ,bright red hot </li></ul><ul><li>Shiny ,sharp edges </li></ul><ul><li>Benzyl penicilline </li></ul>
  33. 33. <ul><li>Herpis zoster : </li></ul><ul><li>Ophthalmic branch of trigeminal n. </li></ul><ul><li>Cheek ,palate & vestibule </li></ul>
  34. 34. <ul><li>Thank you </li></ul>

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