Origins Of American Government


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Origins Of American Government

  1. 1. Analyze the origins of American government by guided note-taking via PowerPoint
  2. 2. <ul><li>English colonists brought with them ideas about government </li></ul><ul><li>Their ideas included trail by jury, limited government, representative government </li></ul><ul><li>Limited government first appeared in the Magna Carta in 1215, it provided protection against loss of property, life, liberty </li></ul><ul><li>In 1628 the Petition of Right limited the king’s ability to collect taxes, imprison people without cause or house troops in private homes </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>The English Bill of Rights stated that: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Monarchs do not have a divine right to rule. They rule be consent of the people </li></ul><ul><li>2. Monarchs must have Parliament’s consent to suspend laws, collect taxes, or maintain an army </li></ul><ul><li>3. The monarch cannot interfere with elections or debates </li></ul><ul><li>4. The people have the right to petition the government; to have a fair and speedy trial by a jury of peers </li></ul><ul><li>5. To be free from cruel and unusual punishment </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>John Locke an English philosopher deeply influenced the American colonists </li></ul><ul><li>Franklin, Jefferson, and Madison regarded his ideas as political truth </li></ul><ul><li>Locke believed all people were born free, equal, and independent </li></ul><ul><li>That people possessed natural rights to life, liberty, and property before government </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>People contracted among themselves to form government to protect their natural rights </li></ul><ul><li>Locke argued that if a government failed to protect these rights, the people could change that government </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>After the defeat of the French during the French and Indian War, the British began to impose taxes on the colonies </li></ul><ul><li>This caused Colonial resentment to grow and protests spread </li></ul><ul><li>By 1760’s harsh new British policies spurred an American sense of community </li></ul><ul><li>On April 19, 1775 British and American forces clashed at Lexington, the war had begun </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>The purpose was to justify the Revolution and put forth the founding principals of the new nation </li></ul><ul><li>It consisted of three parts 1. a statement of purpose 2. 27 paragraphs listing specific complaints against the king 3. a concluding statement of the colonist’s determination to separate </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>Under this plan there was a unicameral Congress with no executive branch or judicial branch </li></ul><ul><li>Weaknesses of the Articles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No power to levy taxes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No power to regulate trade </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No single currency </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Could not enforce its own laws </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>After Shay’s Rebellion calls for reform began to be heard for a stronger national government </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>At first the founding fathers met to reform the Articles of Confederation however, they quickly decided to form a new government </li></ul><ul><li>Key agreements included the idea of limited government , separation of powers, national government should coin money only </li></ul><ul><li>Key disagreement over representation </li></ul><ul><li>Great Compromise- In the senate each state gets two reps per state </li></ul><ul><li>In the House of Representatives reps would be based on population </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>Three-Fifths Compromise- dealt with how to count slaves for representatives </li></ul><ul><li>It was decided that 3/5 of the enslaved people were to be counted for both taxes and representation in each state </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>Federalists verses Anti-Federalists </li></ul><ul><li>Federalists believed in a strong central government </li></ul><ul><li>Anti-Federalists believed in a weak central government and also want a Bill of Rights included to safe guard peoples rights </li></ul><ul><li>After the Federalist promised to include a Bill of Rights it was quickly ratified </li></ul><ul><li>In 1791 James Madison introduced the first ten Amendments which were added and became the Bill of Rights </li></ul>