Enlightenment R H S

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Enlightenment R H S

  1. 2. GREAT THINKERS
  2. 3. Enlightenment <ul><li>18 th Century Philosophical movement </li></ul><ul><li>Applied scientific method to social problems </li></ul><ul><li>Enlightenment thinkers hoped to produce an ideal society by applying scientific method to all problems </li></ul><ul><li>John Locke’s theory of knowledge had great impact </li></ul>
  3. 4. Isaac Newton <ul><li>Made discoveries in Math and Astronomy </li></ul><ul><li>Discovered gravity </li></ul><ul><li>Showed evidence that the universe followed natural laws </li></ul><ul><li>Enlightenment thinkers wanted to apply Newton’s natural laws to society </li></ul>
  4. 5. John Locke He believed that: > Humans have always existed in equality and freedom > All humans had inalienable rights to life, liberty, and property. > Government was established to protect their rights. > If the government failed, the people could form a new government. > Locke believed governments fundamental duty was to protect citizens rights > Locke’s ideas can be found in the American Declaration of Independence and the U.S. Constitution.
  5. 6. VOLTAIRE > Came from the Middle Class in Paris > Believed in Free Speech His book was entitled Treatise on Toleration . > He criticized religious intoleration in France. > He championed the idea of Deism: the world is like a machine. God created it, wound it up, and let it go. God is not active in the world.
  6. 7. Montesquieu > From French nobility. > His views were published in his book The Spirit of the Law . > He used scientific law to come up with his contribution to democratic ideas: Separation of powers Checks and balances in government > Framers of the U.S. Constitution incorporated his ideas into the American Constitution.
  7. 8. ROUSSEAU > He believed that the entire society agreed to be governed by its general will. > The general good will did what was best for each individual in society. > His views were published in The Social Contract .
  8. 9. Toward a new Science <ul><li>Enlightenment belief and the Scientific Revolution led to the birth of the Social Sciences </li></ul><ul><li>Adam Smith developed modern economics </li></ul><ul><li>Wrote a book called Wealth of Nations </li></ul><ul><li>Laissez-Faire </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If people were free to pursue their economic self-interest, all society would benefit </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>To let people do what they want </li></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 10. The Spread of the Enlightenment <ul><li>Best known among the upper class and literate elite </li></ul><ul><li>Books where becoming increasing available to the lower classes </li></ul><ul><li>Magazines and Newspapers where being developed for the first time </li></ul><ul><li>Enlightenment had a powerful effect in American colonies </li></ul><ul><li>Thomas Jefferson and James Madison liked John Locke’s ideas on government </li></ul>

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