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9 Civil Rights Movement


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9 Civil Rights Movement

  1. 1. Bell Work <ul><li>What is McCarthyism? </li></ul><ul><li>Fear of a communist takeover </li></ul>
  2. 2. Objective: Cover the development of the civil rights movement
  3. 3. <ul><li>After the Civil War enslaved Blacks were freed </li></ul><ul><li>The 13 th , 14 th , and 15 th Amendments freed slaves and gave them equal rights </li></ul><ul><li>After reconstruction the south enacts Jim Crow Laws to separate Whites and Blacks </li></ul><ul><li>1896 Supreme Court Decision of Plessy v. Ferguson protected segregation by saying separate but equal was o.k. </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Phillip Randolph organized a march on Washington </li></ul><ul><li>The purpose was to protest the exclusion of Blacks from well paying jobs in war industries </li></ul><ul><li>In response Franklin D. Roosevelt issued the Fair Employment Act and ended the discrimination </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Civil rights movement began in the 1950’s </li></ul><ul><li>1 st goal was to end segregation by calling for integration </li></ul><ul><li>2 nd goal better economic opportunities for Blacks </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>In 1954 the Supreme Court ended segregation in schools </li></ul><ul><li>Linda Brown wanted to attend a white elementary school near her home </li></ul><ul><li>The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) took the case to the Supreme Court </li></ul><ul><li>Brown overturned Plessy v. Ferguson </li></ul><ul><li>But some state governments refused to follow Brown </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>Central High School in Little rock Arkansas becomes a battle ground for integration </li></ul><ul><li>Nine Black Students try to attend an all white high school </li></ul><ul><li>The governor refuses to integrate the school and sends guards to stop the students </li></ul><ul><li>President Eisenhower sends 1,000 soldiers to protect the Little Rock Nine </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>Dec. 1953 Rosa Parks refused to give up her seat to a white man on a Montgomery bus </li></ul><ul><li>The law required Blacks to ride in the back of the bus </li></ul><ul><li>Rosa was removed from the bus and arrested </li></ul><ul><li>Dr. Martin Luther King organized a bus boycott </li></ul><ul><li>In Nov. 1956 Supreme Court ruled that segregation on public transportation was illegal </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>Believed in nonviolent resistance </li></ul><ul><li>Led protests to end segregation Birmingham Alabama </li></ul><ul><li>In 1963 led 250,000 on a march in Washington D.C. gave the “I have a Dream Speech” </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>Civil rights Act of 1964 made discrimination based on race, sex, or religion illegal </li></ul><ul><li>24 th Amendment ended poll taxes in the South </li></ul><ul><li>Voting Rights Act of 1965 made it illegal to require a literacy test in order to vote </li></ul><ul><li>President Johnston created Affirmative action in 1965 </li></ul><ul><li>Affirmative action requires colleges and businesses to set aside positions for minorities </li></ul><ul><li>Bakke v. University of California challenged affirmative action at colleges. Result schools can not use race as the only criteria for acceptance </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>Malcolm X was a strong leader for Civil Rights and believed Blacks should fight back when attacked </li></ul><ul><li>Other leaders stressed “Black Power” such as Black Panthers </li></ul><ul><li>Many Blacks were frustrated at the slow progress being made </li></ul><ul><li>This led to race riots in major cities </li></ul><ul><li>After Dr. King was assassinated riots spread to over 100 cities </li></ul><ul><li>By 1970 the Civil Rights movement had achieved many of its goals </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>Organized the United Farm Workers (UFW) </li></ul><ul><li>UFW organized strikes and boycotts to protest for, and later win, higher wages for those farm workers who were working on farms </li></ul><ul><li>César Chávez died on April 23, 1993 </li></ul>