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Towards Visual Analytics to Improve Scientific Reading & Writing

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Learning Analytics Summer Institute (LASI) UK Talk, Informatics Forum, Edinburgh, Scotland, UK

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Towards Visual Analytics to Improve Scientific Reading & Writing

  1. 1. TOWARDS VISUAL ANALYTICS TO IMPROVE SCIENTIFIC READING & WRITING Duygu Simsek PhD Research Student Knowledge Media Institute The Open University, UK The Open Science Laboratory Learning Analytics Summer Institute (LASI), UK, Informatics Forum, Edinburgh July 5, 2013 Supervisors: Prof. Simon Buckingham Shum, Dr. Rebecca Ferguson, Dr. Anna De Liddo Xerox Research Centre Europe: Ágnes Sándor people.kmi.open.ac.uk/simsek duygu.simsek@open.ac.uk simsekduygu_
  2. 2. “Piled Higher and Deeper” by Jorge Cham www.phdcomics.com Learning Analytics Summer Institute (LASI), UK, Informatics Forum, Edinburgh July 5, 2013
  3. 3. Imagine if a machine that could detect… Human analyst -Highlight key contributions of the project outcomes http://bit.ly/HumanVsXIP Learning Analytics Summer Institute (LASI), UK, Informatics Forum, Edinburgh July 5, 2013
  4. 4. Human analyst http://bit.ly/HumanVsXIP XIP Learning Analytics Summer Institute (LASI), UK, Informatics Forum, Edinburgh July 5, 2013 Imagine if a machine that could detect…
  5. 5. Reading a Paper Writing a Paper CRITICAL MIND Learning Analytics Summer Institute (LASI), UK, Informatics Forum, Edinburgh July 5, 2013 Engaging with the literature
  6. 6. Being able to critique and contrast Identifying gaps in our knowledge Identifying when significant claims made Reading a Paper Writing a Paper Learning Analytics Summer Institute (LASI), UK, Informatics Forum, Edinburgh July 5, 2013 Engaging with the literature
  7. 7. o What’s the research problem about X? o What are the open questions about X? o What has been found about X? o What are the research themes for X? o Are there any major advances concerning X? Learning Analytics Summer Institute (LASI), UK, Informatics Forum, Edinburgh July 5, 2013 Scholarly writing has particular hallmarks!
  8. 8. oMeta-discourse Signals o The problem, the claim, the argument, the evidence and the implications o Explicitly organises the discourse, expresses a viewpoint, engages the readers, and signals the writer's stance Learning Analytics Summer Institute (LASI), UK, Informatics Forum, Edinburgh July 5, 2013 Meta-discourse
  9. 9. oAutomatic processing of scientific documents oRecognition of the rhetorically significant sentences o8 categories of Rhetorical Moves o Background Knowledge o Summarising o Tendency o Novelty o Significance o Surprise o Open Question o Contrasting Ideas Learning Analytics Summer Institute (LASI), UK, Informatics Forum, Edinburgh July 5, 2013 Xerox Incremental Parser (XIP)
  10. 10. Learning Analytics Summer Institute (LASI), UK, Informatics Forum, Edinburgh July 5, 2013 Xerox Incremental Parser (XIP)
  11. 11. Xerox Incremental Parser (XIP) BACKGROUND KNOWLEDGE: Recent studies indicate … the previously proposed … … is universally accepted http://bit.ly/DCLA13 Learning Analytics Summer Institute (LASI), UK, Informatics Forum, Edinburgh July 5, 2013
  12. 12. Xerox Incremental Parser (XIP) BACKGROUND KNOWLEDGE: Recent studies indicate … the previously proposed … … is universally accepted SUMMARISING: The goal of this study ... Here, we show ... Our results ... indicate http://bit.ly/DCLA13 Learning Analytics Summer Institute (LASI), UK, Informatics Forum, Edinburgh July 5, 2013
  13. 13. Xerox Incremental Parser (XIP) BACKGROUND KNOWLEDGE: Recent studies indicate … the previously proposed … … is universally accepted TENDENCY: ... emerging as a promising approach Our understanding ... has grown exponentially ... Growing recognition of the importance ... SUMMARISING: The goal of this study ... Here, we show ... Our results ... indicate http://bit.ly/DCLA13 Learning Analytics Summer Institute (LASI), UK, Informatics Forum, Edinburgh July 5, 2013
  14. 14. Xerox Incremental Parser (XIP) BACKGROUND KNOWLEDGE: Recent studies indicate … the previously proposed … … is universally accepted NOVELTY: New insights provide direct evidence… …suggest a new approach… Results define a novel role ... TENDENCY: ... emerging as a promising approach Our understanding ... has grown exponentially ... Growing recognition of the importance ... SUMMARISING: The goal of this study ... Here, we show ... Our results ... indicate http://bit.ly/DCLA13 Learning Analytics Summer Institute (LASI), UK, Informatics Forum, Edinburgh July 5, 2013
  15. 15. Xerox Incremental Parser (XIP) BACKGROUND KNOWLEDGE: Recent studies indicate … the previously proposed … … is universally accepted NOVELTY: New insights provide direct evidence… …suggest a new approach… Results define a novel role ... TENDENCY: ... emerging as a promising approach Our understanding ... has grown exponentially ... Growing recognition of the importance ... SIGNIFICANCE: studies ... have provided important advances ... is crucial for ... understanding valuable information ... from SUMMARISING: The goal of this study ... Here, we show ... Our results ... indicate http://bit.ly/DCLA13 Learning Analytics Summer Institute (LASI), UK, Informatics Forum, Edinburgh July 5, 2013
  16. 16. Xerox Incremental Parser (XIP) BACKGROUND KNOWLEDGE: Recent studies indicate … the previously proposed … … is universally accepted NOVELTY: New insights provide direct evidence… …suggest a new approach… Results define a novel role ... TENDENCY: ... emerging as a promising approach Our understanding ... has grown exponentially ... Growing recognition of the importance ... SIGNIFICANCE: studies ... have provided important advances ... is crucial for ... understanding valuable information ... from SURPRISE: We have recently observed ... surprisingly We have identified ... unusual The recent discovery ... suggests intriguing roles SUMMARISING: The goal of this study ... Here, we show ... Our results ... indicate http://bit.ly/DCLA13 Learning Analytics Summer Institute (LASI), UK, Informatics Forum, Edinburgh July 5, 2013
  17. 17. Xerox Incremental Parser (XIP) BACKGROUND KNOWLEDGE: Recent studies indicate … the previously proposed … … is universally accepted NOVELTY: New insights provide direct evidence… …suggest a new approach… Results define a novel role ... OPEN QUESTION: Little is known … … role … has been elusive Current data is insufficient… TENDENCY: ... emerging as a promising approach Our understanding ... has grown exponentially ... Growing recognition of the importance ... SIGNIFICANCE: studies ... have provided important advances ... is crucial for ... understanding valuable information ... from SURPRISE: We have recently observed ... surprisingly We have identified ... unusual The recent discovery ... suggests intriguing roles SUMMARISING: The goal of this study ... Here, we show ... Our results ... indicate http://bit.ly/DCLA13 Learning Analytics Summer Institute (LASI), UK, Informatics Forum, Edinburgh July 5, 2013
  18. 18. Xerox Incremental Parser (XIP) BACKGROUND KNOWLEDGE: Recent studies indicate … the previously proposed … … is universally accepted NOVELTY: New insights provide direct evidence… …suggest a new approach… Results define a novel role ... OPEN QUESTION: Little is known … … role … has been elusive Current data is insufficient… TENDENCY: ... emerging as a promising approach Our understanding ... has grown exponentially ... Growing recognition of the importance ... CONTRASTING IDEAS: In contrast with previous hypotheses ... ... inconsistent with past findings ... SIGNIFICANCE: studies ... have provided important advances ... is crucial for ... understanding valuable information ... from SURPRISE: We have recently observed ... surprisingly We have identified ... unusual The recent discovery ... suggests intriguing roles SUMMARISING: The goal of this study ... Here, we show ... Our results ... indicate http://bit.ly/DCLA13 Learning Analytics Summer Institute (LASI), UK, Informatics Forum, Edinburgh July 5, 2013
  19. 19. o Fine for researchers or machines but it is not learner/educator friendly Learning Analytics Summer Institute (LASI), UK, Informatics Forum, Edinburgh July 5, 2013 XIP Output
  20. 20. Visual Analytics of XIP Output o Dataset Proceedings of the Learning Analytics and Knowledge (LAK) conferences since 2011and a journal special issue, and the Educational Data Mining (EDM) conferences since 2008 and journal. o XIP Analysis All of the papers (66 LAK and 239 EDM papers 305 in total) were analysed using XIP, extracting 7847 sentences and 40163 concepts. o Paper Prototype Learning Analytics Summer Institute (LASI), UK, Informatics Forum, Edinburgh July 5, 2013
  21. 21. o Similar patterns in LAK & EDM o Summary & Contrast categories higher & rising Visual Analytics of XIP Output http://bit.ly/DCLA13 Learning Analytics Summer Institute (LASI), UK, Informatics Forum, Edinburgh July 5, 2013
  22. 22. Visual Analytics of XIP Output http://bit.ly/DCLA13 Learning Analytics Summer Institute (LASI), UK, Informatics Forum, Edinburgh July 5, 2013
  23. 23. Visual Analytics of XIP Output http://bit.ly/DCLA13 Learning Analytics Summer Institute (LASI), UK, Informatics Forum, Edinburgh July 5, 2013
  24. 24. Learning Analytics Potential? oA promising language technology oNow visual analytics built on top of it oWhat happens when we bring it into the realm of learning? Learning Analytics Summer Institute (LASI), UK, Informatics Forum, Edinburgh July 5, 2013
  25. 25. S288 Practical Science o ~300 undergraduate students o 5 strands: o Physics and Astronomy o Chemistry and Analysis o Environmental Sciences o Earth and Environment o Biology and Health o Collaborative scientific writing assignment Learning Analytics Summer Institute (LASI), UK, Informatics Forum, Edinburgh July 5, 2013 Learning Analytics Potential?
  26. 26. Learning Analytics Potential? XIP Highlighted Student Essays Is the use of XIP’s rhetorical categories predictive of final grades? Student Grades Learning Analytics Summer Institute (LASI), UK, Informatics Forum, Edinburgh July 5, 2013
  27. 27. Learning Analytics Potential? What is the overlap between XIP’s output and how tutors judge quality? Tutor Highlighted Student Essays Learning Analytics Summer Institute (LASI), UK, Informatics Forum, Edinburgh July 5, 2013 XIP Highlighted Student Essays
  28. 28. Do learners find it helpful to receive formative feedback of this sort on their own writing, or of the literature? Learning Analytics Summer Institute (LASI), UK, Informatics Forum, Edinburgh July 5, 2013 Learning Analytics Potential? C O L L A B O R A T I V E W R I T I N G E D I T O R
  29. 29. Resources & Contact Details o Simsek, D., Buckingham Shum, S., Sándor, Á., De Liddo, A. and Ferguson, R. (2013). XIP Dashboard: Visual Analytics from Automated Rhetorical Parsing of Scientific Metadiscourse. 1st International Workshop on Discourse-Centric Learning Analytics. (3rd International Conference on Learning Analytics & Knowledge, 8 April 2013, Leuven, Belgium). http://bit.ly/DCLA13 o Taibi, D., Sándor, Á., Simsek, D., Buckingham Shum, S., De Liddo, A. and Ferguson, R. (2013) Visualizing the LAK/EDM Literature Using Combined Concept and Rhetorical Sentence Extraction, 1st Learning Analytics and Knowledge Data Challenge at Learning Analytics and Knowledge (LAK ’13), Leuven, Belgium http://bit.ly/DataChal o De Liddo, Anna; Sándor, Ágnes and Buckingham Shum, Simon (2012). Contested Collective Intelligence: rationale, technologies, and a human-machine annotation study. Computer Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW), 21(4-5) pp. 417–448. http://bit.ly/HumanVsXIP people.kmi.open.ac.uk/simsek duygu.simsek@open.ac.uk simsekduygu_ Learning Analytics Summer Institute (LASI), UK, Informatics Forum, Edinburgh July 5, 2013

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