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Introduction to Biodiversity Informatics

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Delivered Apr 2, 2013 at Redpath Museum auditorium, McGill University for Science and Museums, REDM400

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Introduction to Biodiversity Informatics

  1. 1. Biodiversity InformaticsDavid P. Shorthouse, Université de Montréal
  2. 2. TrochosaterricolaThorell, 1856 Trochosaruricola(De Geer, 1778)
  3. 3. What is biodiversity informatics?How are biodiversity data used?How are biodiversity data made available?What are the key challenges?What are its organizations?Where can I go for more?
  4. 4. Bioinformaticsfocused on the *omics
  5. 5. Biodiversity Informaticsinteroperability of scientific names, classifications
  6. 6. History of “Biodiversity Informatics” Canadian Biodiversity Informatics Consortium (1993) John S. Whiting
  7. 7. Johnson Norm F. 2007. Biodiversity informatics. Annu Rev Entomol. 52:421-38.DOI 10.1146/annurev.ento.52.110405.091259
  8. 8. Who, What,Where, When?
  9. 9. http://www.simplemappr.net
  10. 10. How are biodiversity data used?
  11. 11. Chapman, A. D. 2005. Uses of PrimarySpecies-Occurrence Data, version 1.0.Report for the Global BiodiversityInformation Facility, Copenhagen.
  12. 12. Uses of Primary Occurrence Data1 Taxonomy: research, indices, floras/faunas, field guides, phylogenies2 Biogeography: distributional atlases, species distribution modeling, species decline3 Life Histories and Phenologies4 Endangered, Migratory, and Invasive Species5 Impact of Climate Change6 Ecology, Evolution and Genetics: habitat loss, ecosystem function7 Environmental Planning: impact assessments8 Conservation Planning: rapid biodiversity assessments, identifying priority areas, reserve selection, sustainable use
  13. 13. Uses of Primary Occurrence Data9 Health and Public Safety: disease and disease vectors, bioterrorism, biosafety, parasitology10 Bioprospecting11 Border Control and Wildlife Trade12 Education and Public Outreach13 Ecotourism14 Society and Politics: data repatriation15 Recreational activities
  14. 14. DOI 10.7717/peerj.11
  15. 15. Dr. Jeremy Kerr, University of Ottawa
  16. 16. How are biodiversity data made available?
  17. 17. The Process Collect Prepare Digitize Standardize Publish
  18. 18. CollectWhy do we collect specimens?
  19. 19. PrepareCreating a long-term voucher for scientific research
  20. 20. Specimen labelPrimary biodiversity dataWhat, when, where & who
  21. 21. What?Scientific name & classification • Anemone narcissiflora • Anemone parviflora • Anemone richardsonii • Arabis lyrata • Caltha leptosepala • Campanula lasiocarpa • Cardamine umbellata • Carex aquatilis • Carex capillaris • Carex enanderi • Carex gynocrates • Carex podocarpa • Carex vaginata • Claytonia sarmentosa • Corydalis pauciflora • Dodecatheon frigidum • Draba crassifolia • Dryas integrifolia • Epilobium anagallidifolium • Epilobium latifolium • Equisetum variegatum • Eriophorum angustifolium • Eriophorum brachyantherum
  22. 22. When?Date -> trends
  23. 23. Where?Locality, elevation & habitat
  24. 24. GeoreferencingLocality description -> Coordinates
  25. 25. Who?Collector -> history
  26. 26. Locked in paper format Not easily accessible
  27. 27. DigitizeRecording specimen information in a digital format
  28. 28. StandardizeDifferent database systems Different formats Different languages
  29. 29. Darwin CoreA common biodiversity information language bit.ly/DarwinCore
  30. 30. 175 terms
  31. 31. Darwin Core Archive A common biodiversity information format
  32. 32. Simplify Standardize Harvest & publish Tapir protocol GBIF’sDatabase central index DarwinCore Archive User
  33. 33. Publish Make available onlineGBIF Integrated Publishing Toolkit (IPT)
  34. 34. What are the key challenges?
  35. 35. DOI 10.1016/j.tree.2010.09.004
  36. 36. DOI 10.1007/11530084_8
  37. 37. Homonymssame name for many taxaSynonyms different names for same taxaVariant representations orthography, spelling,differences in authority
  38. 38. What are (a few of) the Biodiversity Informatics organizations?
  39. 39. Global Names Find Atomize Index …{ genus: { epitheton: "Pardosa" }, species: { basionymAuthorTeam: { year: "1892”, authorTeam: "Banks", author: ["Banks”] }, epitheton: "moesta", authorship: "Banks, 1892" } http://gni.* }…http://gnrd.* Resolve Edit http://gnite.org http://resolver.* *.globalnames.org
  40. 40. Applying Global Names Tools 80 70 60 # Names found 50 40 30 20 t220 =, 3.68 p = 0.0003 10 0 Data Packages Published PDF
  41. 41. What about Canadian Organizations? Federal Biodiversity Information Partnership Canadian Biodiversity Information Facility OBIS Canada
  42. 42. canadensys.net
  43. 43. A networkOf people and collections
  44. 44. Academic11 universities, 5 botanical gardens & 2 museums
  45. 45. Canadensys HeadquartersUniversité de MontréalBiodiversity Centre
  46. 46. 35+ researchers Mainly systematists
  47. 47. 30 collectionsPlants, insects and fungi
  48. 48. 13 mil. specimens 2 out of 3 are insects
  49. 49. GoalMobilize 3 million specimen records (20%) by 2013
  50. 50. Carole SinouData Publication Support Professional
  51. 51. Download Per datasetNot very flexible
  52. 52. ChecklistsData about taxa (vs specimens) Now also supported by DwC-A, GBIF & IPT
  53. 53. VASCANDatabase of Vascular Plants of Canada data.canadensys.net/vascan
  54. 54. Data licenseAllow data to be used bit.ly/cc0-for-data
  55. 55. Where can I go for more?
  56. 56. Biodiversity Informatics Commercialization
  57. 57. What is biodiversity informatics?How are biodiversity data used?How are biodiversity data made available?What are the key challenges?What are its organizations?Where can I go for more?
  58. 58. Thanks! www.canadensys.net @canadensys @dpsSpiders david.shorthouse@umontreal.caDavid P. Shorthouse

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