Lymphatic and Immune System Terms


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Presentation on the terms "antigen" "ELISA" and "nosocomial"

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Lymphatic and Immune System Terms

  1. 1. Chapter 6: Lymphatic and Immune System Terms By: Deanna Shippee
  2. 2. Nosocomial <ul><li>Hospital acquired infection </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bacterial </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fungal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Viral </li></ul></ul><ul><li>CDC estimates 1.7million nosocomial infections annually </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Contribute to or cause 99,000 deaths per year </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Causes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Poor hygiene of personnel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Failure to follow standards of sanitization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Invasive procedures that bypass the natural barriers to infections </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vectors that move from patient to patient </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ie: medical staff </li></ul></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Nosocomial <ul><li>Common pathogens </li></ul><ul><ul><li>MRSA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pneumonia </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Common sites </li></ul><ul><ul><li>UTI: urinary tract infection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Surgical site </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Blood Stream infection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pneumonia </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Complications </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Patients admitted are often very ill and pathogens may be drug resistant </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Other patients are at increased risk </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Infection on admission give rise to possibility of dual-infection </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Antigen <ul><li>Substance that causes the body to produce antibodies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Origin: ANTI body GEN erator </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sources </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Found within the environment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Produced in the body </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Self vs non-self </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ self” antigens are usually found on cells of the body and tolerated by the immune system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ non-self” antigens indicate an invader and trigger immune response </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Antigen <ul><li>Usually comprised of proteins or polysaccharides </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Parts of bacteria </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Coats, flagella, capsules, cell walls, toxins </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Viruses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Other microorganisms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lipids and nucleic acids are antigenic when combined with proteins or polysaccharides </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nonmicrobial </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Egg white </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pollen </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Transplanted organs/blood proteins </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Special Case: Immunogenic Antigens (Immunogen) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Induce adaptive immune response on its own </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ie: vaccines </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Other antigens combine with elements of the immune system to produce response </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. ELISA <ul><li>E nzyme- L inked I mmunosorbent A ssay </li></ul><ul><li>Test used to detect the presence of a specific antigen </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ie: HIV, Rotavirus </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Purpose </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Diagnostic tool </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Quality-control check </li></ul></ul><ul><li>3 Types </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Indirect ELISA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sandwich ELISA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Competitive ELISA </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Indirect ELISA <ul><li>Process </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Specimen being tested for antigen is added to wells and antigen (if present) adheres to plastic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wells are washed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Antibodies linked to enzymes are added to wells </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>If antigen is present and bonded to wells, antibodies bind </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wells are washed (removing unbound antibody) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Solution is added containing a substrate that is converted by the bound enzyme </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Degree of conversion is measured to determine if antigen was present in the original specimen </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Sandwich ELISA <ul><li>Process </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Antibodies (specific to antigen of interest) are bound to the bottom/walls of wells </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Solution/specimen to be tested in added in controlled amounts to these wells </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Incubated to allow antigen-antibody binding </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wells rinsed with DI water and/or mild detergent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Solution containing a second antibody specific to the antigen is added to the wells </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>This antibody is also conjugated with an enzyme </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Incubated to allow binding </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wells rinsed again (if no antigen is present, second antibody and enzymes are washed away) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Final solution is added to the wells </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Contains substance that is converted measurably (usually visibly) by the enzyme attached to the second antibody </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conversion of substance is measured to determine presence of antigen </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Indirect (A) and Sandwich (B) ELISA
  10. 10. Competitive ELISA <ul><li>Process </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Antibody incubated with antigen-containing solution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Antigen-antibody complexes added to antigen-coated wells </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wells are washed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Removes previously bound antibody-antigen complexes and unbound antigen/antibodies </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>More antigen in original sample means less binding of antibody to antigen in wells </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Secondary antibody (specific to first antibody) is added and conjugated with enzyme </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Binds with primary antibody </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wells are washed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Removes unbound secondary antibody </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Solution containing substance converted by enzyme is added to wells and degree of conversion is measured </li></ul></ul>