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Deanna Shippee Fractures Ppt


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Report on greenstick, impacted, and spiral fractures

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Deanna Shippee Fractures Ppt

  1. 1. Fractures Deanna Shippee Chapter 4 Presentation
  2. 2. Fractures 101 <ul><li>A fracture is a break in a bone due to one of a variety of injuries </li></ul><ul><li>Types of fractures and names are determined by the way in which the bone breaks </li></ul><ul><li>Three types focused on in this presentation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Greenstick Fracture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Impacted Fracture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spiral Fracture </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Greenstick Fracture <ul><li>Bone is flexible so it bends and does not break completely </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Similar to fresh (“green”) wood </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Usually occurs in infants and children </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bones have not completely calcified and are still pliable </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Caused by a variety of activities in children but most often falling or receiving a blow to the forearm or shins </li></ul><ul><li>Prognosis: almost always heal but oftentimes some angular deformity remains </li></ul>
  4. 4. Greenstick Fracture <ul><li>Symptoms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Swelling </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Abnormally bent or twisted limb </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sometimes no symptoms </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Tests/Treatment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>X-rays will show fracture in bone </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Closed reduction and traction (if necessary) used to straighten the bone </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If closed reduction fails to adjust the bone correctly, open reduction may be employed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Limb is casted to immobilize and allow it to heal </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Greenstick Fracture
  6. 6. Impacted Fracture <ul><li>A fracture in which one of the bone fragments is driven into the cancellous bone of another fragment. </li></ul><ul><li>Caused most often by falls or collisions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bone breaks into multiple fragments that block one another and are then impacted </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bone breaks at an strange angle which causes the insertion of broken ends into one another </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Prognosis: bones will likely heal but the process may take longer and involve more future complications, depending on the severity of the impacted fracture </li></ul>
  7. 7. Impacted Fracture <ul><li>Symptoms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Excruciating pain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Limited movement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Swelling and Bruising </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sometimes “cracking” noises upon movement </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Tests and Treatment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>X-rays, CT scans and MRIs can diagnose the extent of the fracture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Often open reduction and internal immobilization such as screws, pins and rods are necessary </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Impacted Fracture
  9. 9. Spiral Fracture <ul><li>Fracture line curves around the bone shaft </li></ul><ul><li>Also called a “torsion” fracture </li></ul><ul><li>Occurs when torque, twisting, is applied to the bone </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tension and compressive forces </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ie: skiing accidents </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Feet stationed in skis while body and legs twist during a fall </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Prognosis: Bones will likely heal but require a longer healing time than other fracture types. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Complications depend on fragmentation of bone and location of the fracture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nerve complications may arise </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Spiral Fracture <ul><li>Symptoms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Severe pain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Deformed limb </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Swelling </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Tests/Treatment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>X-rays initially </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>If bone is fragmented CT and MRI testing is necessary to ensure no damage has been done to surrounding tissue </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Usually open reduction and internal immobilization techniques are used </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rods and pins used to straighten bone and align bone splinters </li></ul></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Spiral Fracture