Terms to Remember
Angkor Vat/Wat (Wat means temple or temple complex)
Temple-mountain rather than a temple
Bordering countries: Thailand, Laos, and Vietnam
Kingdom of Fu Nan
The Mekong River, and the Mekong Delta
Elongated Gupta style was preferred in the earlier period of
Devaraja=God-king (temporal & spiritual authority)
The Bayon at Angkor Thom
Chronology of Khmer kings
Jayavarman I: 657-681
Jayavarman II: 802-850 (Devaraja, came from the court of
Shrivijaya in Java, identified himself w/Shiva)
Jayavarman III: 850-877
Indravarman I: 877-889
Jayavarman IV: 928-941
Jayavarman V: 968-1001
Suryavarman I: 1006-1050
Jayavarman VI: 1080-1107
Suryavarman II: 1113-1150 (Angkor Wat, identified
himself with Vishnu)
Jayavarman VII: 1181-1218 (Bayon at Angkor Tham, identified
himself with the universal Buddha)
Sea contact with India in the 3rd. Century.
Primarily commercial in nature.
Interaction between a high culture and a low culture.
Its manifestation begins to appear in the art and
culture of Cambodia, Thailand and Indonesia.
This reflected not only in art but also in administration
and organization of society.
Indianization/Hinduization of Southeast Asia
Influence of Hinduism was mostly visible because of
sheer number of temples and its art.
Indianized kingdom of Fu Nan stretched from the
Mekong delta to Thailand and Burma.
The Cambodian rulers remained Hindus, taking
Hindu names, customs and manners.
Khmer Empire was re-established under the reign of
King Jayavarman II.
Devaraja=God-king, instituted by Jayavarman II in 850
In 850 Jayavarman II identified himself with God Shiva.
Temple mountain or temple as mountain.
Indravarman (877-889)—devised irrigational system
Suryavarman identified himself with Vishnu and built
Angkor Wat (temple).
The temples were destroyed by the Chams by burning
the capital in 1177.
Jayavarman II (c. 770–850) is widely recognized
as the founder of the Khmer Empire.
Khmer, as an empire ruled much of Southeast
Asia, and it lasted for more than six hundred years.
Before Jayavarman II came to power, there was
much fighting among local overlords who ruled
different parts of Cambodia.
The country was not unified under one ruler.
An inscription from the Sdok Kak Thom temple
recounts that Jayavarman II instructed a Brahman
priest named Hiranhadama to conduct a religious
ritual known as the cult of the devaraja which placed
him as a chakravartin, universal monarch.
The cult established him as the supreme ruler of the
land, and therefore he succeeded in unifying the
But Hindu civilization had already existed for
centuries in the region; the fact that Jayavarman was
the second monarch to carry that name was an
indication that there had been a powerful king in the
Suryavarman II’s son Jayavarman VII drove the
Chams out of Angkor Vat in 1181 and annexed the
territories of Champa, Malaya, Thailand and Laos.
By now the Khamer rulers were predominantly
Jayavarman VII built the Bayon temple complex
at Angkor Thom
By the middle of the 13th century with the rise
of the Mongols, the Khmer empire began to
Theravada supplanted the Mahayana.
The golden age of Khmer civilization extended
from the 9th to the 13th centuries, when Khmer
Empire, which gave Kampuchea, or Cambodia,
its name, ruled large territories from its capital in
the region of Angkor in western Cambodia.
Legend has it that in 802 CE, Jayavarman II, king of
the Khmers, first came to the Kuhlen hills, the future
site of Angkor Wat.
Later, under Jayavarman VII (1181–ca. 1218),
Khmer reached its zenith of political power and
Jayavarman VII gained power and territory in a
series of successful wars.
Khmer conquests were unstoppable as they raided
home cities of powerful seafaring Chams.
Territorial expansion stopped only after a defeat by
Dai Viet. The battle also witnessed Suryavarman
Following Jayavarman VII's death, Khmer
experienced a gradual decline.
Important factors were the aggressiveness of
neighboring peoples (especially the Thai), chronic
interdynastic strife, and the gradual deterioration of
complex irrigation system that had ensured rice
Angkor Dynasty survived until 1431, when the Thai
captured Angkor Thom and the Cambodian king fled
to the southern part of the country.
Kingdon of Fu-Nan. Funan was heavily influenced by Indian civilization, perhaps through intermediaries like the
Dvāravatī polity of Thailand. Learned Indian immigrants were employed in the administration of the state. Sanskrit was
the language at the court, and the Funanese adopted Hindu and, after the 5th century, Buddhist religious doctrines.
Angkor Wat, took 37 years to build it, dedicated to God Vishnu
Built by King Suryavarman II during his reign 1113–1150
mountains: The 5 big towers
represent Mount Meru, which in
Hindu tradition is the home of the
The National flag of Cambodia
Their distinct shapes appear on the
Cambodian flag. Closer look: There
are only 3 towers on the flag –the back
2 towers are hidden. The big photo is
taken from off-center, so you can see
Churning of the Sea of Milk in Bangkok International Airport, contemporary
India Starts Angkor Wat Replica in Bihar
by Amarnath Tewary, BBC correspondent, 3/6/2012
A Hindu Trust in India’s eastern state of Bihar has begun building a replica of
Cambodia’s Angkor Wat temple.
On March 6, 2012 a foundation laying ceremony for the $20 million project was held 16 miles
from Bihar’s capital Patna, on the banks of the Ganges.
The temple will be constructed on a sprawling 40-acre site in Vaishali district in north Bihar.
The builders say the result will be the world’s largest Hindu temple.
The construction will take 10 years to complete.
"It will be the world’s largest Hindu temple….bigger in size, shape and height than the Angkor
Wat of Cambodia,” the Trust’s secretary told the BBC.
It will be called Virat Angkor Wat Ram Temple, but will aslo house other Hindu deities like
Radha-Krishna, Shiva-Parvati, Ganesha, Surya and 10 incarnations of Lord Vishnu.
Bamiyan in China
The word "Angkor" is derived from Sanskrit, an ancient Indian
language, of "Nagara" which means "City". Angkor Wat literally
means "City of Temples" and Angkor Thom "The Magnificent City".
Jayavarman VII: 1182-1200
Gate at each of the cardinal point
It leads to the Bayon, located at the center of the city
A causeway goes over a moat in front of each tower
South causeway has a row of devas on the left and asuras on
the right, each row holding a naga in the attitude of a tug-ofwar
This appears to be a reference to the myth of the Churning of
the Sea of Milk
The temple-mountain of the Bayon would then be the pivot
around which the churning takes place
Churning of the Sea of Milk, South gate, entrance to Angkor Thom
Ke jasto dekcha?
The Bayon temple at Angkor Thom
built by Jajavarman VII
The Bayon was the last state temple
to be built at Angkor.
It was built as a state temple and is
the only Mahayana Buddhist shrine
dedicated to the Buddha.
There are 216 gigantic faces on the
temple's 23 towers.
Their Resemblance to the King Jayavarman VII
has led scholars to conclude that they are the
portrait of the king himself, who, unlike his
predecessors, identified himself with
Avalokitesvara, the Bodhisattva or Lokesvara,
the universal Buddha of compassion.
Do you see the Devaraja principle operating
The Bayon at Angkor Thom, Avalokitesvara/Lokesawara as guardian of the city
Bayon Temple (circa 1190) is a Buddhist temple but retains elements of Hindu cosmology and imagery. Standing in the
center of the walled city is Bayon temple that represents the intersection of heaven and earth. It is known for its enigmatic
smiling faces of Avalokiteshvara, the Bodhisattva of compassion or Lokesvara, Buddha as the lord of the universe.
Jayavarman VII (ruled c.1181-1200) of the Khmer
Empire in present day Siem Reap, Cambodia.
The Bayon is a well-known and richly
decorated Khmer temple at Angkor.
Built in the late 12th century or early
13th century as the official state temple
of the Mahayana Buddhist King
Jayavarman VII, the Bayon stands at
the centre of Jayavarman's capital,
Following Jayavarman's death, it was
modified and augmented by later Hindu
and Theravada Buddhist kings in
accordance with their own religious
Khmer army going to war against the Cham; relief at the Bayon-temple in Angkor Thom, 12 th-13th century
Battle scene, Angkor Thom (perhaps with the Champs)
Khmer market on Bayon. Much of what is known of the ancient Khmers comes from the many stone
reliefs. They offer first hand accounts of the 13th century and earlier. The ancient Khmers relied heavily
on rice growing. The farmers planted rice near the banks of the Tonlé Sap or in the hills when it was
flooded. The farms were irrigated by Barays, or giant water reservoirs and canals. Sugar palm trees, fruit
trees and vegetables were grown in the villages. Fishing gave the population their main source of
protein, which was turned into Prahok or dried or roasted or steamed in banana leaves.
Bronze replica of one of the twenty-three
stone images King Jayavarman VII sent to
different parts of his kingdom in 1191.
In 1186, Jayavarman dedicated Ta Prohm
("Ancestor Brahma" or " Eye of Brahma") to
his mother. An inscription indicates that this
massive temple at one time had 80,000 people
assigned to its upkeep, including 18 high
priests and 615 female dancers.
The first Lara Croft film was shot in Ta
Prohm as well as a few scenes from the movie
Jayavavarman VII was a great and generous
king of Cambodia.
He built 102 hospitals to treat all of his
citizens. According to the Preah Khan
inscription, he had two wives and four sons,
as also noted on the inscription in Ta Prohm's
Jayavarman VII constructed Rajavihara in
honor of his family.
The temple's main image, representing
Prajnaparamita, the personification of wisdom,
was modelled on the king's mother.
The northern and southern satellite temples in the
third enclosure were dedicated to the king's guru
and his elder brother respectively.
As such, Ta Prohm formed a complementary pair
with the temple monastery of Preah Khan,
dedicated in 1191 A.D., the main image of which
represented the Bodhisattva of compassion
Lokesvara and was modelled on the king's father.
The temple's stele records that the site was home to
more than 12,500 people (including 18 high priests
and 615 dancers), with an additional 800,000 souls in
the surrounding villages working to provide services
The stele also notes that the temple amassed
considerable riches, including gold, pearls and silks.
Expansions and additions to Ta Prohm continued as
late as the rule of Srindravarman at the end of the 15th