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  1. 1. Cambodia Terms to Remember             Cambodia Khmer Angkor Vat/Wat (Wat means temple or temple complex) Temple-mountain rather than a temple Bordering countries: Thailand, Laos, and Vietnam Kingdom of Fu Nan The Mekong River, and the Mekong Delta Tribhanga (S-curve) Horror vacuui Mandorla Architectonic quality Elongated Gupta style was preferred in the earlier period of Cambodian art.
  2. 2.                Hinduism Devaraja=God-king (temporal & spiritual authority) God Shiva God Vishnu Mt. Meru Cham Champa Vietnam Malay Laos The Bayon at Angkor Thom The Mongols Theravada Mahayana Gupta
  3. 3. Chronology of Khmer kings 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Jayavarman I: 657-681 Jayavarman II: 802-850 (Devaraja, came from the court of Shrivijaya in Java, identified himself w/Shiva) Jayavarman III: 850-877 Indravarman I: 877-889 Jayavarman IV: 928-941 Jayavarman V: 968-1001 Suryavarman I: 1006-1050 Jayavarman VI: 1080-1107 Suryavarman II: 1113-1150 (Angkor Wat, identified himself with Vishnu) Jayavarman VII: 1181-1218 (Bayon at Angkor Tham, identified himself with the universal Buddha)
  4. 4. Cambodia/Khmer  Sea contact with India in the 3rd. Century.  Primarily commercial in nature.  Interaction between a high culture and a low culture.  Cultural hegemony.  Its manifestation begins to appear in the art and culture of Cambodia, Thailand and Indonesia.  This reflected not only in art but also in administration and organization of society.  Indianization/Hinduization of Southeast Asia
  5. 5.  Influence of Hinduism was mostly visible because of sheer number of temples and its art.  Indianized kingdom of Fu Nan stretched from the Mekong delta to Thailand and Burma.  The Cambodian rulers remained Hindus, taking Hindu names, customs and manners.  Khmer Empire was re-established under the reign of King Jayavarman II.
  6. 6. Cambodia/Khmer  Devaraja=God-king, instituted by Jayavarman II in 850  In 850 Jayavarman II identified himself with God Shiva.  Temple mountain or temple as mountain.  Indravarman (877-889)—devised irrigational system  Suryavarman identified himself with Vishnu and built Angkor Wat (temple).  The temples were destroyed by the Chams by burning the capital in 1177.
  7. 7.    Jayavarman II (c. 770–850) is widely recognized as the founder of the Khmer Empire. Khmer, as an empire ruled much of Southeast Asia, and it lasted for more than six hundred years. Before Jayavarman II came to power, there was much fighting among local overlords who ruled different parts of Cambodia.
  8. 8.  The country was not unified under one ruler.  An inscription from the Sdok Kak Thom temple recounts that Jayavarman II instructed a Brahman priest named Hiranhadama to conduct a religious ritual known as the cult of the devaraja which placed him as a chakravartin, universal monarch.
  9. 9. Jayavarman II  The cult established him as the supreme ruler of the land, and therefore he succeeded in unifying the country.  But Hindu civilization had already existed for centuries in the region; the fact that Jayavarman was the second monarch to carry that name was an indication that there had been a powerful king in the past.
  10. 10.  Suryavarman II’s son Jayavarman VII drove the Chams out of Angkor Vat in 1181 and annexed the territories of Champa, Malaya, Thailand and Laos.  By now the Khamer rulers were predominantly Mahayana Buddhists.
  11. 11.  Jayavarman VII built the Bayon temple complex at Angkor Thom  By the middle of the 13th century with the rise of the Mongols, the Khmer empire began to decline.  Theravada supplanted the Mahayana.
  12. 12.  The golden age of Khmer civilization extended from the 9th to the 13th centuries, when Khmer Empire, which gave Kampuchea, or Cambodia, its name, ruled large territories from its capital in the region of Angkor in western Cambodia.
  13. 13.  Legend has it that in 802 CE, Jayavarman II, king of the Khmers, first came to the Kuhlen hills, the future site of Angkor Wat.  Later, under Jayavarman VII (1181–ca. 1218), Khmer reached its zenith of political power and cultural creativity.  Jayavarman VII gained power and territory in a series of successful wars.
  14. 14.  Khmer conquests were unstoppable as they raided home cities of powerful seafaring Chams.  Territorial expansion stopped only after a defeat by Dai Viet. The battle also witnessed Suryavarman II's death.  Following Jayavarman VII's death, Khmer experienced a gradual decline.
  15. 15.  Important factors were the aggressiveness of neighboring peoples (especially the Thai), chronic interdynastic strife, and the gradual deterioration of complex irrigation system that had ensured rice surpluses.  Angkor Dynasty survived until 1431, when the Thai captured Angkor Thom and the Cambodian king fled to the southern part of the country.
  16. 16. Funan in the the 3rd century
  17. 17. Kingdon of Fu-Nan. Funan was heavily influenced by Indian civilization, perhaps through intermediaries like the Dvāravatī polity of Thailand. Learned Indian immigrants were employed in the administration of the state. Sanskrit was the language at the court, and the Funanese adopted Hindu and, after the 5th century, Buddhist religious doctrines.
  18. 18. Angkor Wat temple complex
  19. 19. Phnom Da from distance
  20. 20. Phnom Da, 6th century Indianizing period, first Hindu temple of Cambodia
  21. 21. Bantaey Srei temples complex, 10th century
  22. 22. Bantaey Srei temples complex, 10th century
  23. 23. Bantaey Srei temples complex, 10th century
  24. 24. Krishna killing a demon, 6th century India Krishna Govardhana, early 6th century, Cambodia
  25. 25. Hari=Vishnu Hara=Shiva Composite like Ardhanarisvara (half Shiva, half Parvati Hindu God Hari-Hara from Phnom Da, 7th century
  26. 26. God Vishnu Krishna Art of Gupta period of India, 5th-6th century
  27. 27. God Vishnu, India Vishnu from Phnom Da, 6th century
  28. 28. Pollished sandstone sculpture of Uma Cambodia, Baphoun, 11th century God Vishnu, 10th century
  29. 29. General view of Banteay Srei in Angkor, Cambodia, 10th century
  30. 30. General view of Banteay Srei in Angkor, Cambodia, 10th century
  31. 31. Temple façade at Banteay Srei, Angkor, Cambodia, 10th century
  32. 32. It has been speculated that the temple's modern name,Bantãy Srĕi is due to the many devatas carved into the red sandstone walls.
  33. 33. Temple entrance at Banteay Srei in Angkor, Cambodia, 10th century
  34. 34. The combat between Vāli and Sugrīva is depicted on the western gopura.
  35. 35. Ramayana from Banteay Shrei, 10 th century
  36. 36. Asura Sunda and Upasunda disputing the apsara Tilattama. Cambodia, Banteay Srei, ca. 967. Sandstone. Musée Guimet
  37. 37. Indra riding elephants, Bantaey Shrei
  38. 38. Ravana shaking Mt. Kailash from Banteay Shrei, 10th century
  39. 39. Shiva-Parvati from Bantaey Shrei, 10th century
  40. 40. Hindu God Brahma
  41. 41. King Suryavarman II, the builder of Angkor Wat
  42. 42. Central plan ANGKOR WAT Gallery Detailed plan Miniature model
  43. 43. Angkor Wat, 11th century
  44. 44. Angkor Wat, Temple as mountain Matterhorn
  45. 45. Hindu cosmology Vishnu Loka Angkor Wat, took 37 years to build it, dedicated to God Vishnu Built by King Suryavarman II during his reign 1113–1150 Mountains beyond mountains: The 5 big towers represent Mount Meru, which in Hindu tradition is the home of the gods. The National flag of Cambodia Their distinct shapes appear on the Cambodian flag. Closer look: There are only 3 towers on the flag –the back 2 towers are hidden. The big photo is taken from off-center, so you can see all 5.
  46. 46. Apsaras
  47. 47. Apsara
  48. 48. Panel from Angkor Wat
  49. 49. The Churning of the Sea of Milk
  50. 50. Vishnu in the center He himself becomes the mountain Or represents the mountain. Tortoise supports the Mt. Meru or Mt Mandara
  51. 51. Monkey god Hanuman
  52. 52. Meru
  53. 53. Churning of the Sea of Milk in Bangkok International Airport, contemporary
  54. 54. India Starts Angkor Wat Replica in Bihar by Amarnath Tewary, BBC correspondent, 3/6/2012  A Hindu Trust in India’s eastern state of Bihar has begun building a replica of Cambodia’s Angkor Wat temple.  On March 6, 2012 a foundation laying ceremony for the $20 million project was held 16 miles from Bihar’s capital Patna, on the banks of the Ganges.  The temple will be constructed on a sprawling 40-acre site in Vaishali district in north Bihar.  The builders say the result will be the world’s largest Hindu temple.  The construction will take 10 years to complete.  "It will be the world’s largest Hindu temple….bigger in size, shape and height than the Angkor Wat of Cambodia,” the Trust’s secretary told the BBC.  It will be called Virat Angkor Wat Ram Temple, but will aslo house other Hindu deities like Radha-Krishna, Shiva-Parvati, Ganesha, Surya and 10 incarnations of Lord Vishnu.  Bamiyan in China
  55. 55. The word "Angkor" is derived from Sanskrit, an ancient Indian language, of "Nagara" which means "City". Angkor Wat literally means "City of Temples" and Angkor Thom "The Magnificent City". Gate Jayavarman VII: 1182-1200 Road Gate Gate Gate Road
  56. 56.  Gate at each of the cardinal point  It leads to the Bayon, located at the center of the city  A causeway goes over a moat in front of each tower  South causeway has a row of devas on the left and asuras on the right, each row holding a naga in the attitude of a tug-ofwar  This appears to be a reference to the myth of the Churning of the Sea of Milk  The temple-mountain of the Bayon would then be the pivot around which the churning takes place
  57. 57. Churning of the Sea of Milk, South gate, entrance to Angkor Thom
  58. 58. Churning of the Milk of Sea
  59. 59. Churning of the Sea of Milk
  60. 60. Ke jasto dekcha? Mt. Meru The Bayon temple at Angkor Thom built by Jajavarman VII The Bayon was the last state temple to be built at Angkor. It was built as a state temple and is the only Mahayana Buddhist shrine dedicated to the Buddha. There are 216 gigantic faces on the temple's 23 towers.
  61. 61. Their Resemblance to the King Jayavarman VII has led scholars to conclude that they are the portrait of the king himself, who, unlike his predecessors, identified himself with Avalokitesvara, the Bodhisattva or Lokesvara, the universal Buddha of compassion. Do you see the Devaraja principle operating here?
  62. 62. The Bayon at Angkor Thom, Avalokitesvara/Lokesawara as guardian of the city
  63. 63. Jayavarman VII
  64. 64. Bayon Temple (circa 1190) is a Buddhist temple but retains elements of Hindu cosmology and imagery. Standing in the center of the walled city is Bayon temple that represents the intersection of heaven and earth. It is known for its enigmatic smiling faces of Avalokiteshvara, the Bodhisattva of compassion or Lokesvara, Buddha as the lord of the universe.
  65. 65. Jayavarman VII (ruled c.1181-1200) of the Khmer Empire in present day Siem Reap, Cambodia.
  66. 66. The Bayon is a well-known and richly decorated Khmer temple at Angkor. Built in the late 12th century or early 13th century as the official state temple of the Mahayana Buddhist King Jayavarman VII, the Bayon stands at the centre of Jayavarman's capital, Angkor Thom. Following Jayavarman's death, it was modified and augmented by later Hindu and Theravada Buddhist kings in accordance with their own religious preferences.
  67. 67. Khmer army going to war against the Cham; relief at the Bayon-temple in Angkor Thom, 12 th-13th century
  68. 68. Battle scene, Angkor Thom (perhaps with the Champs)
  69. 69. Khmer market on Bayon. Much of what is known of the ancient Khmers comes from the many stone reliefs. They offer first hand accounts of the 13th century and earlier. The ancient Khmers relied heavily on rice growing. The farmers planted rice near the banks of the Tonlé Sap or in the hills when it was flooded. The farms were irrigated by Barays, or giant water reservoirs and canals. Sugar palm trees, fruit trees and vegetables were grown in the villages. Fishing gave the population their main source of protein, which was turned into Prahok or dried or roasted or steamed in banana leaves.
  70. 70. Bronze replica of one of the twenty-three stone images King Jayavarman VII sent to different parts of his kingdom in 1191. Ta Prohm In 1186, Jayavarman dedicated Ta Prohm ("Ancestor Brahma" or " Eye of Brahma") to his mother. An inscription indicates that this massive temple at one time had 80,000 people assigned to its upkeep, including 18 high priests and 615 female dancers. The first Lara Croft film was shot in Ta Prohm as well as a few scenes from the movie Troy. Jayavavarman VII was a great and generous king of Cambodia. He built 102 hospitals to treat all of his citizens. According to the Preah Khan inscription, he had two wives and four sons, as also noted on the inscription in Ta Prohm's temple..
  71. 71.  Jayavarman VII constructed Rajavihara in honor of his family.  The temple's main image, representing Prajnaparamita, the personification of wisdom, was modelled on the king's mother.
  72. 72.  The northern and southern satellite temples in the third enclosure were dedicated to the king's guru and his elder brother respectively.  As such, Ta Prohm formed a complementary pair with the temple monastery of Preah Khan, dedicated in 1191 A.D., the main image of which represented the Bodhisattva of compassion Lokesvara and was modelled on the king's father.
  73. 73.  The temple's stele records that the site was home to more than 12,500 people (including 18 high priests and 615 dancers), with an additional 800,000 souls in the surrounding villages working to provide services and supplies.  The stele also notes that the temple amassed considerable riches, including gold, pearls and silks.  Expansions and additions to Ta Prohm continued as late as the rule of Srindravarman at the end of the 15th century.
  74. 74. The End