Buddhist art in india 2


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Buddhist art in India

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Buddhist art in india 2

  1. 1. Buddhism and Buddhist Art in India
  2. 2. Buddhism/Buddhist Art  Life of the Buddha  Siddhartha Gautama   Shakya Shakyamuni  Lumbini  Kapilavastu  Monastic order  Ashoka
  3. 3. From Prince to Buddha His early life recorded in the Lalitavistara  Conception    Miraculous birth at Lumbini Garden    On occasion his life parallels the life of Jesus Immaculate conception, e.g. Came out of his mother Mayadevi’s right flank Born in 563 BCE Died in 483 BCE
  4. 4. Mayadevi’s Dream  A white elephant enters Mayadevi’s womb  Seen as a sign of divine intervention  Seen as past Buddha descending from the Tushita Heaven  A few days later, Mayadevi becomes pregnant  Customary of the time, Mayadevi goes to visit her parents  But on her way, she goes into labor  Delivers the baby in the Lumbini Garden
  5. 5. Siddhartha  Father Suddhodana     King of Kapilavastu Republic (oligarchy) Northern Gangetic region—non-Vedic belt Brahmanic orthodoxy vs. Shakyan heterodoxy  Discussion: What’s Michael Carrithers’ take on it?
  6. 6. Astrologer’s Prediction   Visitation by astrologer Atisa  Visitation by magi ? Atisa’s prediction  Siddhartha will be a great king or a redeemer
  7. 7. Siddhartha  Naming the child   Siddhartha Gautama (Gotama)—Family name Shakya (Clan name)—Shakyamuni  Buddha is a title given only after enlightenment  Early years     Suddhodana builds three palaces for his son Creates a utopia filled with only happiness & pleasure Absence of pain, suffering, old age, sickness, disease Siddhartha grows up in a deliberately controlled or programmed environment
  8. 8. Siddhartha  Siddhartha is being groomed for taking over his father’s throne  He excels in everything     Siddhartha’s nemesis—cousin Devadutta plots to get him killed many times   Archery, warfare Sports Reading and writing Judas? Siddhartha gets married  With Yosodhara, a young and beautiful woman (a distant cousin)
  9. 9. Siddhartha  Siddhartha is not happy   His heart is empty He hasn’t seen his own kingdom   He’s been held within the confines of his palace as a prisoner He begs his father to see his kingdom  His father agrees, but sends his army in advance to stage a picture perfect scene  Chhana—his companion
  10. 10. Teaching  Middle Path  Music teacher admonishing a student  The middle path lies between the two opposites  In Bodhgaya, he sat under a Bodhi tree to meditate  He sat there for 40 days and 40 nights until he attained enlightenment
  11. 11. Mara’s Attack (darkness, ignorance, evil, devil)  On the last day Mara comes to tempt Siddhartha  Is Mara the same as Satan who attempts to tempt Jesus?  Mara uses everything in his arsenal to foil Siddhartha’s concentration  Mara’s five daughters  1) Desire, 2) Ego, 3) Pride, 4) Greed, and 5) Fear
  12. 12. Siddhartha Four sights An old man  A sick man  A corpse  An ascetic   Film
  13. 13. Buddha’s teaching Four Noble Truths 1. 2. 3. 4. Life is Dukkha There is a cause of Dukkha There is a way to stop it By following the 8-fold path The Eight-fold Paths 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Right intention Right speech Right action Right livelihood Right view Right effort Right mindfulness Right concentration
  14. 14. Buddha’s teaching  “Don’t take my word for it. Try it yourself.”  “Be a light onto yourself.”  His famous aphorism, “Look within, thou art the Buddha.” All this served the lower the resistance that so often attends the arrival of a new and unfamiliar faith. (Prateka Buddha)  Very practical man. He offered no promises of heaven, just release from the clutches of transmigration of life (samsara).
  15. 15. Buddha  What does the word “Buddha” mean?  The word 'Buddha' means 'awakened one'. He was, by his own insistence, a man, and he lived and died like everyone else.  Any teacher, the Buddha said, can only point the way. The rest is up to you. Both the teaching and student exceed the teacher.  As Morpheus in the movie Matrix said, “I can only show you the door, you have to walk through it.”
  16. 16. Man of the common people Buddha gave his sermons in Prakrit, or Pali A language spoken by the masses  He avoided using Sanskrit, the language of the Brahmins, or the elite class of society Why? Discussion  Jesus, too, taught in Aramaic, the language the general masses spoke.  Was Buddha a reformer? He recognized the existence of an infinite number of past and future Buddhas In light of this, can we call him the founder of Buddhism?
  17. 17. Siddhartha's Departure  Siddhartha leaves his palace at midnight   Discussion-How Siddhartha views the world?  Samsara (phenomenal world) is seen as a place of Dukkha (suffering)   In search of freedom from Samsara He believes in Karma and transmigration of life (birth & rebirth) He was 29 when he left his palace
  18. 18. Understanding life   What’s the turning point in his life? The Four Sights He could live with oldness and sickness  But he couldn’t accept death  He thought death was cruel, b/c rebirth is inevitable after death   Hindu concept of life as a cycle that revolves w/o stopping  The only way to break the cycle is through Nirvana
  19. 19. Nelumbo nucifera
  20. 20. Pipal leaf Pipal tree, or the Bodhi tree (ficus religiosa)
  21. 21. Indus figurine, c. 2,000 BCE Buddha Roman boy in a toga, c. 1st.c. CE
  22. 22. Siddhartha’s Birth Marks Born with 32 auspicious physical signs (lakshanas): 1. Urna (dot between eyebrows) 2. Ushanisha (cranial bump) 3. Srivatsa (diamond shaped birth mark in chest) 4. Long arms 5. Long ears 6. Long and webbed fingers 7. Three rings around the neck 8. Smooth skin 9. Long and perfectly arched eyebrows 10. Curly hair 11. Full lips 12. Eyelids in the shape of a lotus bud 13. No physical blemishes, and so on…..
  23. 23. Buddha’s heads showing urna and ushanisa
  24. 24. Iconometry of Buddha
  25. 25. The wheel of Samsara (phenomenal world) Keeps moving w/o stopping Beings caught in Samsara aren’t free Nirvana is the answer Samsara is the field of: Desire Desire leads to attachment Since there is no end to desire, human beings are fettered to Samsara forever. The field of Nirvana lies outside of Samsara
  26. 26. The eight-spoked wheel (chakra—Dharmacakra). The eight spokes represent the Noble Eightfold Path of Buddhism.
  27. 27. Mahaparinirvana
  28. 28. Anionic Representation of the Buddha
  29. 29. Chorten
  30. 30. Stupa iconography
  31. 31. Early Buddhist sites  Lomas Risi cave  Bhaja  Bharhut  Sanchi  Amaravati  Karla caves in Karli  Mathura  Ajanta caves
  32. 32.  King Ashoka (Maurya)  King Kaniska (Kushan)  Middle Path  Theravada—also Hinayana—(Sri Lanka—former Ceylon, Thailand—former Siam, Myanmar—former Burma)  Mahayana (Nepal, Tibet, China, South East Asia and Japan)
  33. 33.                Chaitya Vihara Yaksha Yakshi Chakra Mudra Abhaya Dhyana Varada Dharmachakra pravartana Vyakhyana Prana Mithuna (amorous couple, often in embrace or in sexual position) Mara Greco-Roman style (Gandhara)
  34. 34. Yakshi from Sanchi, 1st century CE
  35. 35. Highly polished columns
  36. 36. Bharhut stupa, 1st century B.C.E
  37. 37. Bharhut Mithuna couple, 1st century B.C.E.
  38. 38. Bharhut
  39. 39. Bharhut
  40. 40. A Greek Warrior
  41. 41. Karli
  42. 42. Mithuana couple from Karli cave, 2nd. century CE
  43. 43. Stupa with Buddha’s relic Vaisali, Bihar
  44. 44. Jataka tale Kapi Jataka Bharhut stupa 1st BCE
  45. 45. Rock cut cave architecture, Lomas Risi, 3rd. BCE
  46. 46. Bhaja rock cut caves
  47. 47. Bhaja
  48. 48. Bhaja Caves are a group of 221 rock-cut caves dating back to 200 BCE located at Karli in Maharashtra. The location of Bhaja caves is not far from location of Karla Caves and these are stylistically similar to the Karla Caves. These caves are on a major trade route of the past that ran from the Arabian Sea eastward into the Deccan region, the division between North India and South India. The Bhaja caves share the same set of architectural designs as Karla caves. Visually most impressive monument is large shrine chaityagriha - with open, horseshoe-arched entrance part. The chaitrya has unique reliefs of Indian mythology. Other caves have a nave and aisle, with an apse containing a solid stupa and the aisle circling round the apse, providing the circumambulation path. Notable part of monument is a group of 14 stupas, five inside and nine outside an irregular excavation. One of the caves has some fine sculptures. Near the last cave is a waterfall which, during the monsoon season, has water that falls into a small pool at the bottom.
  49. 49. Bhaja cave, 2nd-1st century BCE
  50. 50. Bhaja cave, entrance to the inner rooms, 2 nd-1st century BCE
  51. 51. Indra riding an elephant, door relief From Bhaja cave, 2nd. Century BCE
  52. 52. Bhaja
  53. 53. Questions Which is the earliest rock cave? Lomas Risi Bhaja Karla None of the above Symbolism of the cave Provides not only shelter from the elements of nature, but also psychological safety, because……..? Enclosed and deep recesses of the rock is similar to the mother’s womb—warm, comfortable and safe. Womb stands for fertility—creation of life. Interior of Bhaja Chaitya, 1st century BCE
  54. 54. Chaitya Hall, Bhaja cave, 1st century BCE
  55. 55. Bhaja, living quarters
  56. 56. Bhaja
  57. 57. Main facade of the Bhaja caves. Horse-shoe shaped façade.
  58. 58. Pillars Rafters Beams
  59. 59. Karla/Karle/Karli
  60. 60. Karle Chaitya Hall, a Buddhist cathedral with a nave and two aisles, 2 nd century CE
  61. 61. Karle cave
  62. 62. Buddha flanked by Bodhisattvas. 5th century CE
  63. 63. Karle 2nd cent. CE
  64. 64. Amarous couple (Mithuna) from Karle cave
  65. 65. The caves were historically associated with the Mahāsāṃghika sect of Buddhism, which had great popularity in this region of India, as well as wealthy patronage. The caves house a Buddhist monastery dating back to the 2nd century BCE. The caves at Karla are believed to be some of thousands of similar caves excavated in the Sahyadri Hills in the early 1st millennium CE.
  66. 66. Questions Which is the earliest rock-cut cave? a. Karle b. Bhaja c. Lomas Risi d. None of the above Symbolism of the cave Provides not only shelter from the elements of nature, but also psychological safety, because……..? Enclosed and deep recesses of the rock is similar to the mother’s womb—warm, comfortable and safe. Womb stands for fertility—creation of life. Amaravati stupa, 2nd century CE
  67. 67. Parkham Yaksha 2nd century BCE Shakyamuni, presented to the shrine at Sarnath by Friar Bala, 2nd century CE The Katra Buddha, Buddha seated on a lion throne, C. A.D. 130, Sikri sandstone, H. 27.75 in.
  68. 68. LACMA
  69. 69. Ajanta cave, 5th century CE
  70. 70. Buddha teaching, Ajanta
  71. 71. Gandhara=Gandharan Natural Realistic Greco-Roman Yogic body Idealized form
  72. 72. Buddha with two Bodhisattvas Buddha Triad Grey Schist Dated 182 CE Gandhara
  73. 73. Maitreya Buddha, Gandhara, 2nd century CE
  74. 74. Gandhara Maitreya
  75. 75. Bodhisattva Maitreya, Gandhara 3nd century CE
  76. 76. The End