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Lecture 3 Users’ Mental Models 
Human Computer Interaction / COG3103, 2014 Fall 
Class hours : Tue 1-3 pm/Thurs 12-1 pm 
1...
From Usability to User Experience Lecture #3 COG_Human Computer Interaction 2 
Figure 1-2 User experience occurs within in...
User’s Mental Models : The Very Ideas 
• 
Book 
– 
Stephen J. Payne, “User’s Mental Models : The Very Ideas” in John M. Ca...
Design Philosophy 
• 
Herb Simon: “Engineers are not the only professional designers. Everyone designs who devises courses...
Intro COG_Human Computer Interaction 5 
Figure 1 (adapted from Norman (1988) p. 16): The problem of ensuring that the user...
Users 
• 
Mental Models 
– 
User’s knowledge about the system they use. 
• 
Bounded Rationality (Simon, 1955) 
– 
People o...
Mental Models 
• 
Idea 1. Mental Content vs. Cognitive Architecture : Mental Models as Theories 
– 
Bounded Rationality : ...
Cognitive Architecture COG_Human Computer Interaction 8 
A model of the user based on 
an information processing metaphor ...
Mental Models 
• 
Idea 2. Models vs. Methods : Mental Models as Problem Spaces 
– 
Mental models of machines can provide a...
Her - Alien Child / Hologram sequences Lecture #3 COG_Human Computer Interaction 10 
https://vimeo.com/97740427
Mental Models 
• 
Idea 3. Models vs. Descriptions : Mental Models as Homeomorphisms 
– 
Mental models are a special kind o...
Swankolab COG_Human Lecture #3 Computer Interaction 12
Mental Models 
• 
Idea 4. Models of Representations : Mental Models Can Be Derived from Language, Perception, or Imaginati...
Interactive landscape 'Dune 4.2' COG_Human Computer Interaction 14 
http://youtu.be/TsnBo0CZMRk Lecture #3
Mental Models 
• 
Idea 5. Mental Representations of Representational Artifacts 
– 
The yoked state space hypothesis(Payne,...
Social Networking Space Lecture #3 COG_Human Computer Interaction 16
Mental Models 
• 
Idea 6. Mental Models as Computationally Equivalent to External Representations 
– 
If structure-sharing...
Wishing wall by Varvara Guljajeva and Mar Canet Lecture #3 COG_Human Computer Interaction 18 
http://youtu.be/MX0Z6aHZYDw
Contacts 
• 
Email 
– 
digital.sd.lab@gmail.com 
• 
Class Blog 
– 
http://invisiblecomputers.wordpress.com/ 
• 
Class Face...
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Week 02 Users mental models

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Week 02 Users mental models

  1. 1. Lecture 3 Users’ Mental Models Human Computer Interaction / COG3103, 2014 Fall Class hours : Tue 1-3 pm/Thurs 12-1 pm 11th September
  2. 2. From Usability to User Experience Lecture #3 COG_Human Computer Interaction 2 Figure 1-2 User experience occurs within interaction and usage context
  3. 3. User’s Mental Models : The Very Ideas • Book – Stephen J. Payne, “User’s Mental Models : The Very Ideas” in John M. Carroll, (2003) HCI Models, Theories, and Frameworks : Toward a Multidisciplinary Science, CA : Morgan Kaufmann Publishers, pp. 135-156. COG_Human Lecture #3 Computer Interaction 3
  4. 4. Design Philosophy • Herb Simon: “Engineers are not the only professional designers. Everyone designs who devises courses of action aimed at changing existing situations into preferred ones. The intellectual activity that produces material artefacts is no different fundamentally from the one that prescribes remedies for a sick patient or the one that devises a new sales plan for a company or a social welfare policy for a state.” –Herbert A. Simon, The Sciences of the Artificial, 1969 (p.129 of 1981 MIT press 2nd edition) COG_Human Lecture #3 Computer Interaction 4
  5. 5. Intro COG_Human Computer Interaction 5 Figure 1 (adapted from Norman (1988) p. 16): The problem of ensuring that the user's mental model corresponds to the designer's model arises because the designer does not talk directly with the user. The designer can only talk to the user through the "system image" - the designer's materialised mental model. The system image is, like a text, open to interpretation. Lecture #3
  6. 6. Users • Mental Models – User’s knowledge about the system they use. • Bounded Rationality (Simon, 1955) – People often have to act too quickly to allow full consideration of all their relevant knowledge – they do the best they can to achieve their goals according to the knowledge they can bring to mind, and the inferences that knowledge supports, in the time allowed. – “Bounded rationality” : rationality that is bounded by the environmental constraints on their performance, interacting with their limits on access to knowledge and the limits on their performance, interacting with their limits on access to knowledge and the limits on their ability to process relevant information. COG_Human Lecture #3 Computer Interaction 6
  7. 7. Mental Models • Idea 1. Mental Content vs. Cognitive Architecture : Mental Models as Theories – Bounded Rationality : the general limits of the human information-processing system – the constrains on attention, retrieval, and processing. – Human information-processing architecture : theories of the structure of the mind. – Contents of the mind : what do people believe about an aspect of the world, what is the relation between these beliefs and reality, and how do the beliefs affect their behavior? COG_Human Lecture #3 Computer Interaction 7
  8. 8. Cognitive Architecture COG_Human Computer Interaction 8 A model of the user based on an information processing metaphor Lecture #3
  9. 9. Mental Models • Idea 2. Models vs. Methods : Mental Models as Problem Spaces – Mental models of machines can provide a problem space that allows more elaborate encoding of remembered methods, and in which novice or expert problem solvers can search for new methods to achieve tasks. – Stepping through a sequence of states in some mental models of a machine, is often called “mental simulation” in the mental-models literature, and the kind of model that allows simulation is often called “surrogate” – Reasoning is performed by sequential application of completely domain- specific rules and thus is knowledge bounded rather than architecture bounded. COG_Human Lecture #3 Computer Interaction 9
  10. 10. Her - Alien Child / Hologram sequences Lecture #3 COG_Human Computer Interaction 10 https://vimeo.com/97740427
  11. 11. Mental Models • Idea 3. Models vs. Descriptions : Mental Models as Homeomorphisms – Mental models are a special kind of representation, sometimes called an analog representation – one that shares the structure of the world it represents. – Example • The spoon is to the left of the fork  spoon fork • The knife is to the left of the spoon  knife spoon fork – Such a model allows deductive inferences to be “read off” COG_Human Lecture #3 Computer Interaction 11
  12. 12. Swankolab COG_Human Lecture #3 Computer Interaction 12
  13. 13. Mental Models • Idea 4. Models of Representations : Mental Models Can Be Derived from Language, Perception, or Imagination – Mental models can be constructed by processing language, but the same models might also, in principle, have been constructed through interaction with and perception of the world. Therefore a mental model provides a way of mapping language to perception. COG_Human Lecture #3 Computer Interaction 13
  14. 14. Interactive landscape 'Dune 4.2' COG_Human Computer Interaction 14 http://youtu.be/TsnBo0CZMRk Lecture #3
  15. 15. Mental Models • Idea 5. Mental Representations of Representational Artifacts – The yoked state space hypothesis(Payne, Squibb, & Howes, 1990) • To construct a conceptual model of a device, the user must conceptualize the device's representation of the task domain. This knowledge can be represented by three components: a device-based problem space, which specifies the ontology of the device in terms of the objects that can be manipulated and their interrelations, plus the operators that perform the manipulations; a goal space, which represents the objects in terms of which user's goals are expressed; and a semantic mapping, which determines how goal space objects are represented in the device space. COG_Human Lecture #3 Computer Interaction 15
  16. 16. Social Networking Space Lecture #3 COG_Human Computer Interaction 16
  17. 17. Mental Models • Idea 6. Mental Models as Computationally Equivalent to External Representations – If structure-sharing is taken to be an important property of mental models, then a mental model derived from text shares the structure of the situation, not of the text. – However, it is not clear that this distinction extends to mental models derived from “reading” other representational artifacts, such as maps, or diagrams. COG_Human Lecture #3 Computer Interaction 17
  18. 18. Wishing wall by Varvara Guljajeva and Mar Canet Lecture #3 COG_Human Computer Interaction 18 http://youtu.be/MX0Z6aHZYDw
  19. 19. Contacts • Email – digital.sd.lab@gmail.com • Class Blog – http://invisiblecomputers.wordpress.com/ • Class Facebook Page – https://www.facebook.com/HCI2.0 Lecture #3 COG_Human Computer Interaction 19

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