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Lecture 4 : Contextual Analysis


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Lecture 4 : Contextual Analysis

  1. 1. Lecture 4 Contextual Analysis : Consolidating and Interpreting Work Activity Data UX Theory / IIT 2014 Spring Class hours : Monday 4 pm – 7 pm 24th March
  2. 2. Homework Lecture #4 IIT_UX Theory 2 Readings And Critiques Complete System Concept Statement Exercise Complete the Online Survey 1 2 3 Your Blog Post #3 - Summarize the papers - Add your critiques for each paper Your Blog Post #4 - 150 words or fewer Google Doc Survey - Background Information for Team-ups - /d/1phvvuDydK- 6QYPxXMmoQ3aR0mEOn2_Xtw9TiXi5 sk3E/viewform
  3. 3. To Do List for Today • Paper Seminar • System Concept Statement Presentation • Complete Online Survey • Github • VVVV Group • Classroom computer workshop setting & Laptop Setting Lecture #4 IIT_UX Theory 3
  4. 4. To Do List for Today • Seminar – Core Research Ideas : Bring out some keywords or related technological trends, backgrounds, and concerns – Research Questions : What they investigated – Key theories : Some they referred and some they developed by their own – Method : How they proved – Results & Findings : What they learned from the study Lecture #4 IIT_UX Theory 4
  5. 5. Reading List • Week 04 Reading – Sabanovic, S., Reeder, S. & Kechavarzi, B. (2014). Designing Robots in the Wild: In situ Prototype Evaluation for a Break Management Robot, Journal of Human-Robot Interaction, Vol. 3, No. 1, 2014, pp. 70-88. (Park, Jihyeon) – Bowen, S., & Petrelli, D. (2011) Remembering today tomorrow : Exploring the human-centred design of digital mementos, International Journal of Human- Computer Studies 69, pp. 324-337. (Lee, Changmin) • Textbook – Chapter 4. Contextual Analysis : Consolidating and Interpreting Work Activity Data (Kim, Jungbae) Lecture #4 IIT_UX Theory 5
  7. 7. INTRODUCTION Lecture #4 IIT_UX Theory 7 Figure 4-1 You are here; in the contextual analysis chapter, within understanding user work and needs in the context of the Wheel lifecycle template.
  8. 8. INTRODUCTION • Contextual Analysis – Contextual analysis is the systematic analysis—identification, sorting, organization, interpretation, consolidation, and communication—of the contextual user work activity data gathered in contextual inquiry, for the purpose of understanding the work context for a new system to be designed. • Flow Model – A flow model is a diagram giving the big picture or overview of work, emphasizing communication and information flow among work roles and between work roles and system components within the work practice of an organization. Lecture #4 IIT_UX Theory 8
  9. 9. INTRODUCTION • Work Activity Note – A work activity note is used to document a single point about a single concept, topic, or issue as synthesized from the raw contextual data. Work activity notes are stated as simple and succinct declarative points in the user’s perspective. • Affinity Diagram – An affinity diagramming is a hierarchical technique for organizing and grouping the issues and insights across large quantities of qualitative data and showing it in a visual display, usually posted on one or more walls of a room. Lecture #4 IIT_UX Theory 9
  10. 10. INTRODUCTION • Work Activity – Affinity Diagram A work activity affinity diagram (WAAD) is an affinity diagram used to sort and organize work activity notes in contextual analysis, pulling together work activity notes with similarities and common themes to highlight common work patterns and shared strategies across all users. • Work Role – A work role is defined and distinguished by a corresponding job title or work assignment representing a set of work responsibilities. A work role usually involves system usage, but some work roles can be external to the organization being studied. Lecture #4 IIT_UX Theory 10
  11. 11. INTRODUCTION • Contextual Analysis Is Data Interpretation – Interpretation of raw work activity data is accomplished through: • building a flow model and • synthesizing work activity notes – Data consolidation and communication are accomplished by, respectively: • building a work activity affinity diagram (WAAD) from the work activity notes • walkthroughs of all these work products Lecture #4 IIT_UX Theory 11
  12. 12. INTRODUCTION Lecture #4 IIT_UX Theory 12 Figure 4-2 Data interpretation in contextual analysis.
  13. 13. ORGANIZING CONCEPTS: WORK ROLES AND FLOW MODEL • Managing Complexity with Work Roles and Flow Models – We need two things to help control the complexity and wrap our heads around the problem: • a big picture of the work domain, its components, and how information flows among them • a way to divide the big picture into manageable pieces – Because these two things are somewhat in opposition and cannot be done by one single means, we need two complementary concepts to solve the two parts of the problem, respectively: • a flow model to provide the big picture • the concept of work roles as a basis to divide and conquer Lecture #4 IIT_UX Theory 13
  14. 14. ORGANIZING CONCEPTS: WORK ROLES AND FLOW MODEL • Identify Work Roles as Early as Possible – a work role is a “collection of responsibilities that accomplish a coherent part of the work.” The work activities of the enterprise are carried out by individual people who act in the work roles, performing tasks to carry out the associated responsibilities. – Example: Initial Work Role Identification in MUTTS • The two obvious work roles in MUTTS are the ticket seller and ticket buyer. • The event manager interacts with external event sponsors and venue managers to book events for which they sell tickets. • The financial manager is responsible for accounting and credit card issues. • The advertising manager interacts with outside sponsors to arrange for advertising, for example, ads printed on the back of tickets, posted on bulletin boards, and on the Website. Lecture #4 IIT_UX Theory 14
  15. 15. ORGANIZING CONCEPTS: WORK ROLES AND FLOW MODEL • Start Sketching an Initial Flow Model as Early as Possible – A flow model is your picture of the work domain, its components and interconnections among them, and how things get done in that domain. – A flow model captures workflow relationships among key work roles. – A flow model tells who does what and how different entities communicate to get work done. Lecture #4 IIT_UX Theory 15
  16. 16. ORGANIZING CONCEPTS: WORK ROLES AND FLOW MODEL Lecture #4 IIT_UX Theory 16 Figure 4-3 An initial flow model sketch of the MUTTS system.
  17. 17. CREATING AND MANAGING WORK ACTIVITY NOTES • The main point of contextual analysis has two basic parts: – Converting raw contextual data into work activity notes – Converting work activity notes into a work activity affinity diagram • Transcribing Interview and Observation Recordings • Reviewing Raw User Work Activity Data Lecture #4 IIT_UX Theory 17
  18. 18. CREATING AND MANAGING WORK ACTIVITY NOTES • Synthesizing Work Activity Notes – As you create each new work activity note, tag it with a source ID, a unique identifier of the person being observed and/or interviewed when the note was written. – Paraphrase and synthesize instead of quoting raw data text verbatim. – Make each work activity note a simple declarative point instead of quoting an interviewer’s question plus the user’s answer. – Filter out all noise and fluff; make each note compact and concise, easily read and understood at a glance. – Be brief: Keep a note to one to three succinct sentences. – Each note should contain just one concept, idea, or fact, with possibly one rationale statement for it. Break a long work activity note into shorter work activity notes. Lecture #4 IIT_UX Theory 18
  19. 19. CREATING AND MANAGING WORK ACTIVITY NOTES • Synthesizing Work Activity Notes – Make each note complete and self-standing. – Never use an indefinite pronoun, such as “this,” “it,” “they,” or “them” unless its referent has already been identified in the same note. – State the work role that a person represents rather than using “he” or “she.” – Add words to disambiguate and explain references to pronouns or other context dependencies. – Avoid repetition of the same information in multiple places. Lecture #4 IIT_UX Theory 19
  20. 20. CREATING AND MANAGING WORK ACTIVITY NOTES • Extending the Anticipated Data Bins to Accommodate Your Work Activity Note Categories – Examples of typical data categories you might encounter in your raw data are: • User and user class information • Social aspects of work practice (how people interact with and influence each other) • Emotional impact and long-term phenomenological aspects • Task-specific information • Physical work environment • Design inspiration ideas • Printing Work Activity Notes Lecture #4 IIT_UX Theory 20
  21. 21. CONSTRUCTING YOUR WORK ACTIVITY AFFINITY DIAGRAM (WAAD) • What You Need to Get Started – Here is how you should prepare the room: • Tape up a large “belt” of butcher paper or similar around the walls of the room (Curtis et al., 1999) as a working space for posting work activity notes. • We have found that blue “painter’s tape” holds well but releases later without pulling off paint. • Set Rules of the Game • Avoid Inappropriate Mind-Sets in Dealing with Work Activity Notes – Sit on your designer and implementer instincts. – Do not make sweeping decisions involving technology solutions. Lecture #4 IIT_UX Theory 21
  22. 22. CONSTRUCTING YOUR WORK ACTIVITY AFFINITY DIAGRAM (WAAD) • Growing Clusters • Compartmentalizing Clusters by Work Roles • Topical Labels for Clusters • Work Activity Note Groups • Speeding It Up • Stay Loose • Do Not Get Invested in Data Ownership Lecture #4 IIT_UX Theory 22
  23. 23. CONSTRUCTING YOUR WORK ACTIVITY AFFINITY DIAGRAM (WAAD) • Monitoring Note Groups • Label Colors • Labeling Groups • Grouping Groups • Number of Levels • Representing Hierarchical and Nonhierarchical Relationships • Walkthrough of the WAAD: Consolidation and Communication Lecture #4 IIT_UX Theory 23
  24. 24. CONSTRUCTING YOUR WORK ACTIVITY AFFINITY DIAGRAM (WAAD) Lecture #4 IIT_UX Theory 24 Figure 4-7 Team studying clusters to form groups.
  25. 25. CONSTRUCTING YOUR WORK ACTIVITY AFFINITY DIAGRAM (WAAD) Lecture #4 IIT_UX Theory 25 Figure 4-8 Second-level labels for groups of groups shown in pink.
  26. 26. CONSTRUCTING YOUR WORK ACTIVITY AFFINITY DIAGRAM (WAAD) Lecture #4 IIT_UX Theory 26 Figure 4-9 Building a WAAD on a large touchscreen.
  27. 27. CONSTRUCTING YOUR WORK ACTIVITY AFFINITY DIAGRAM (WAAD) Lecture #4 IIT_UX Theory 27 Figure 4-10 The WAAD that we built for the MUTTS example.
  28. 28. ABRIDGED CONTEXTUAL ANALYSIS PROCESS Lecture #4 IIT_UX Theory 28 Figure 4-11 A close-up of the MUTTS WAAD.
  29. 29. ABRIDGED CONTEXTUAL ANALYSIS PROCESS • Plan Ahead during Contextual Inquiry by Capturing One Idea per Note • Focus on the Essence of WAAD Building • Use Finer-Grained Iteration to Address Pressure for Early Deliverables Lecture #4 IIT_UX Theory 29 Figure 4-12 Coarse-grained iteration of contextual inquiry, contextual analysis, requirements, and design.
  30. 30. HISTORY OF AFFINITY DIAGRAMS – “This process exposes and makes concrete common issues, distinctions, work patterns, and needs without losing individual variation.” (Wood, 2007) – The original conception of affinity diagrams is attributed to Jiro Kawakita (1982) in the 1960s. Lecture #4 IIT_UX Theory 30 Figure 4-13 Finer-grained iteration among contextual inquiry, contextual analysis, requirements, and design.
  31. 31. Exercise 4-1: Flow Model Sketch for Your System • Goal – Get practice in making an initial flow model sketch for the work practice of an organization. • Activities: – For your target system sketch out a flow model diagram, in the same style as our flow model sketch for MUTTS, shown in Figure 4-3, showing work roles, information flow, information repositories, transactions, etc. – Draw on your raw work activity data and construct a representation of the flow of data, information, and work artifacts. Even if there is no existing automated system, you should capture the flow of the manual work process. – Start with representing your work roles as nodes, add in any other nodes for databases and so on. – Label communication and flow lines. – If you do not have enough contextual data from your limited data-gathering exercise, make some up to make this work. • Deliverables – A one-page diagram illustrating a high-level flow model for the existing work process of your target system. • Schedule – Given the simplicity of the domain, we expect this exercise to take about an hour. Lecture #4 IIT_UX Theory 31
  32. 32. Next Week Reading List • Download From YSCEC > User Experience > Books & Papers > Week 05 Reading – Blythe, M. et. al. (2006) Interdisciplinary criticism: analysing the experience of riot! a location-sensitive digital narrative, Behaviour & Information Technology, Vol. 25, No. 2, pp.127 – 139. – Loeliger, E., & Stockman, T., (2013) Wayfinding without Visual Cues : Evaluation of an Interactive Audio Map System, Interacting with Computers. • Textbook – Chapter 5. Extracting Interaction Design Requirements – Chpater6. Constructing Design-Informing Models Lecture #4 IIT_UX Theory 32
  33. 33. Homework Lecture #4 IIT_UX Theory 33 Readings And Critiques Complete Flow Model Sketch for Your System Complete the Online Survey 1 2 3 Your Blog Post #5 - Summarize the papers - Add your critiques for each paper Your Blog Post #6 - A one-page Diagram - 5 Benchmark Cases You may wish to refer Google Doc Survey - Background Information for Team-ups - /d/1phvvuDydK- 6QYPxXMmoQ3aR0mEOn2_Xtw9TiXi5 sk3E/viewform Submission Due : 11: 59 pm Sun. 30rd March
  34. 34. GITHUB SETTING Homework #3 Lecture #4 IIT_UX Theory 34
  35. 35. Github Set up • Setup Github Account • Follow/Watch/Star – Libraries you are referencing • Send an email informing your github address – Lecture #4 IIT_UX Theory 35
  36. 36. VVVV Learning • Online Learning – – – – Lecture #4 IIT_UX Theory 36