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[IxD] Week 01. What is interaction design?


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Jenny Preece, Helen Sharp, and Yvonne Rogers (2015) Interaction Design: Beyond Human-Computer Interaction, 4th Edition, Wiley, Chapter 1.

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[IxD] Week 01. What is interaction design?

  1. 1. Lecture 1 What is Interaction Design? Interaction Design / IID 2016 Spring Class hours : Tuesday 2 pm – 6 pm Lecture room : International Campus Veritas Hall B203 8th March
  2. 2. HELLO & WELCOME Beginning of the Semester Lecture #1 IID_Interaction Design 2
  3. 3. Lecture #1 IID_Interaction Design 3 Samsung S7 Edge Demo via Gear VR @ Mobile World Congress 2016
  4. 4. Goals & Overview Lecture #1 IID_Interaction Design 4 The New Spectators
  5. 5. Goals & Overview • Beyond Human-Computer Interaction – Interaction Design has been developed and emerged by the major influence of Human Computer Interaction researches, and practices. To understand Interaction Design as an academic discipline, we must address the background and history of the evolution. While the process, students would become to understand what the subjects, and objects of Interaction Design are, and how academia and industries have been collaborating to achieve the common goal, “optimal experiences of digital users and consumers.” • 2016 Spring Creative Agenda : “The Future of Films” – Few decades ago Brenda Laurel, the evangelist of Design Research, declared “Computer as Theatre.” In 2016, the prediction is even more true, and very close to our real lives. Now we would promptly encounter the future of films, and stage entertainments by the emerging technology of AR, VR, and Game Engines. The creative agenda of 2016 Spring studio will coping up the apparent innovations in entertainment industries, and academic endeavors that follow. Lecture #1 IID_Interaction Design 5
  6. 6. Class Operations • Part I. Lectures (The first 2 hours) – The lecture classes will cover the main textbook, “Interaction Design: Beyond Human-Computer Interaction,” that includes overall theoretical disciplines on the Human Computer Interaction subject essentially exerted the modern Interaction Design basics, such User Experience, Design Research, Cognitive Science, and Innovation Theories. • Part II. Workshops and Crits (The second 2 hours) – The second part of classes will go through the traditional studio type operation, and students will be prepared for the Summer Show 2016 according to the progress. Lecture #1 IID_Interaction Design 6
  7. 7. Evaluation • Homework 30 % • Midterm 30% • Final 30% • Attendance 10% Lecture #1 IID_Interaction Design 7
  8. 8. Textbooks 1. Main Textbooks [1] Jenny Preece, Helen Sharp, and Yvonne Rogers (2015) Interaction Design: Beyond Human-Computer Interaction, 4th Edition, Wiley. 2. Auxiliary Textbooks : Additional Books/Chapters (will be added more after class interviews) [2] Brenda Laurel (2013) Computer as Theatre, 2nd Edition, Addison-Wesley. [3] Anthony Dunne and Fiona Raby (2013) Speculative Everything: Design, Fiction, and Social Dreaming, MIT Press. [4] Nathan Shedroff, and Christopher Noessel (2012) Make It So: Interaction Design Lessons from Science Fiction, Rosenfield Media. Lecture #1 IID_Interaction Design 8
  9. 9. Design Fiction Lecture #1 IID_Interaction Design 9 Figure 1. Alternative presents and speculative futures. At the origin is here and now—everyday life and real products available on the high street. The lineage of these products can be traced back to when the technology became available to iterate them beyond their existing states. In Figure 1, the technology element on the left hand side represents research and development work, the higher the line the more emergent the technology and the longer and less predictable its route to everyday life. As we move to the right of the diagram and into the future we see that speculative designs exist as projections of the lineage, developed using techniques that focus on contemporary public understanding and desires, extrapolated through imagined developments of an emerging technology. Alternative presents step out of the lineage at some poignant time in the past to re-imagine our technological present. These designs can challenge and question existing cultural, political and manufacturing systems. (Auger, 2013)
  10. 10. Speculative Everything Lecture #1 IID_Interaction Design 10 - Anthony Dunne at Resonate 2013
  11. 11. World Building Lecture #1 IID_Interaction Design 11 - Alex McDowell, RDI
  12. 12. In the Eyes of Animals Lecture #1 IID_Interaction Design 12 - By Marshmallow Laser Feast
  13. 13. WHAT IS INTERACTION DESIGN? Lecture 1 Lecture #1 IID_Interaction Design 13
  14. 14. Bad designs • Elevator controls and labels on the bottom row all look the same, so it is easy to push a label by mistake instead of a control button • People do not make same mistake for the labels and buttons on the top row. Why not? Lecture #1 IID_Interaction Design 14
  15. 15. Why is this vending machine so bad? • Need to push button first to activate reader • Normally insert bill first before making selection • Contravenes well known convention Lecture #1 IID_Interaction Design 15
  16. 16. Good design • Marble answering machine (Bishop, 1995) – • Based on how everyday objects behave • Easy, intuitive and a pleasure to use • Only requires one-step actions to perform core tasks Lecture #1 IID_Interaction Design 16
  17. 17. Good and bad design • Why is the TiVo remote so much better designed than standard remote controls? – Peanut shaped to fit in hand – Logical layout and color-coded, distinctive buttons – Easy to locate buttons • See: – past-present-and-future Lecture #1 IID_Interaction Design 17
  18. 18. Dilemma • Which is the best way to interact with a smart TV? – Standard remote device? – Apple slimline remote control? – Minnum’s new keyboard? Lecture #1 IID_Interaction Design 18
  19. 19. Dilemma Lecture #1 IID_Interaction Design 19
  20. 20. What to design • Need to take into account: – Who the users are – What activities are being carried out – Where the interaction is taking place • Need to optimize the interactions users have with a product: – So that they match the users’ activities and needs Lecture #1 IID_Interaction Design 20
  21. 21. What to design Lecture #1 IID_Interaction Design 21 Figure 1.3 Turn Signal Biking Jacket using e-textiles developed by Leah Beuchley
  22. 22. Understanding users’ needs • Need to take into account what people are good and bad at • Consider what might help people in the way they currently do things • Think through what might provide quality user experiences • Listen to what people want and get them involved • Use tried and tested user-centered methods Lecture #1 IID_Interaction Design 22
  23. 23. What is interaction design? • “Designing interactive products to support the way people communicate and interact in their everyday and working lives.” – Preece, Sharp and Rogers (2015) • “The design of spaces for human communication and interaction.” – Winograd (1997) Lecture #1 IID_Interaction Design 23
  24. 24. Goals of interaction design • Develop usable products – Usability means easy to learn, effective to use and provide an enjoyable experience • Involve users in the design process Lecture #1 IID_Interaction Design 24
  25. 25. Which kind of design? • Number of other terms used emphasizing what is being designed, e.g. – user interface design, software design, user-centered design, product design, web design, experience design (UX) • Interaction design is the umbrella term covering all of these aspects – fundamental to all disciplines, fields, and approaches concerned with researching and designing computer-based systems for people Lecture #1 IID_Interaction Design 25
  26. 26. HCI and interaction design Lecture #1 IID_Interaction Design 26
  27. 27. Relationship between ID, HCI and other fields • Academic disciplines contributing to ID: – Psychology – Social Sciences – Computing Sciences – Engineering – Ergonomics – Informatics Lecture #1 IID_Interaction Design 27
  28. 28. Relationship between ID, HCI and other fields • Design practices contributing to ID: – Graphic design – Product design – Artist-design – Industrial design – Film industry Lecture #1 IID_Interaction Design 28
  29. 29. Relationship between ID, HCI and other fields • Interdisciplinary fields that ‘do’ interaction design: – HCI – Ubiquitous Computing – Human Factors – Cognitive Engineering – Cognitive Ergonomics – Computer Supported Co-operative Work – Information Systems Lecture #1 IID_Interaction Design 29
  30. 30. Working in multidisciplinary teams • Many people from different backgrounds involved • Different perspectives and ways of seeing and talking about things • Benefits – more ideas and designs generated • Disadvantages – difficult to communicate and progress forward the designs being create Lecture #1 IID_Interaction Design 30
  31. 31. Interaction design in business • Increasing number of ID consultancies, examples of well known ones include: – Nielsen Norman Group: “help companies enter the age of the consumer, designing human-centered products and services” – Cooper: “From research and product to goal-related design” – Swim: “provides a wide range of design services, in each case targeted to address the product development needs at hand” – IDEO: “creates products, services and environments for companies pioneering new ways to provide value to their customers” Lecture #1 IID_Interaction Design 31
  32. 32. What do professionals do in the ID business? • interaction designers - people involved in the design of all the interactive aspects of a product • usability engineers - people who focus on evaluating products, using usability methods and principles • web designers - people who develop and create the visual design of websites, such as layouts • information architects - people who come up with ideas of how to plan and structure interactive products • user experience designers (UX) - people who do all the above but who may also carry out field studies to inform the design of products Lecture #1 IID_Interaction Design 32
  33. 33. The User Experience • How a product behaves and is used by people in the real world – the way people feel about it and their pleasure and satisfaction when using it, looking at it, holding it, and opening or closing it – “every product that is used by someone has a user experience: newspapers, ketchup bottles, reclining armchairs, cardigan sweaters.” (Garrett, 2010) – “all aspects of the end-user's interaction with the company, its services, and its products. (Nielsen and Norman, 2014) • Cannot design a user experience, only design for a user experience Lecture #1 IID_Interaction Design 33
  34. 34. Why was the iPod user experience such a success? • Quality user experience from the start • Simple, elegant, distinct brand, pleasurable, must have fashion item, catchy names, cool, etc. Lecture #1 IID_Interaction Design 34
  35. 35. What is involved in the process of interaction design • Establishing requirements • Developing alternatives • Prototyping • Evaluating Lecture #1 IID_Interaction Design 35
  36. 36. Core characteristics of interaction design • Users should be involved through the development of the project • Specific usability and user experience goals need to be identified, clearly documented and agreed at the beginning of the project Lecture #1 IID_Interaction Design 36
  37. 37. Why go to this length? • Help designers: – understand how to design interactive products that fit with what people want, need and may desire – appreciate that one size does not fit all • e.g., teenagers are very different to grown-ups – identify any incorrect assumptions they may have about particular user groups • e.g., not all old people want or need big fonts – be aware of both people’s sensitivities and their capabilities Lecture #1 IID_Interaction Design 37
  38. 38. Are cultural differences important? • 5/21/2015 versus 21/5/2015? – Which should be used for international services and online forms? • Why is it that certain products, like the iPod, are universally accepted by people from all parts of the world whereas websites are reacted to differently by people from different cultures? Lecture #1 IID_Interaction Design 38
  39. 39. Accessibility • Degree to which a product is usable and accessible by as many people as possible • Focus on disability: – Have a mental or physical impairment – This has an adverse affect on their everyday lives – It is long term Lecture #1 IID_Interaction Design 39
  40. 40. Anna, IKEA online sales agent • Designed to be different for UK and US customers • What are the differences and which is which? • What should Anna’s appearance be like for other countries, like India, South Africa, or China? Lecture #1 IID_Interaction Design 40
  41. 41. Usability goals • Effective to use • Efficient to use • Safe to use • Have good utility • Easy to learn • Easy to remember how to use Lecture #1 IID_Interaction Design 41
  42. 42. User experience goals • Desirable aspects – satisfying helpful fun – enjoyable motivating provocative – engaging challenging surprising – pleasurable enhancing sociability rewarding – exciting supporting creativity emotionally fulfilling – entertaining cognitively stimulating • Undesirable aspects – boring unpleasant – frustrating patronizing – making one feel guilty making one feel stupid – annoying cutesy – childish gimmicky Lecture #1 IID_Interaction Design 42
  43. 43. Usability and user experience goals • Selecting terms to convey a person’s feelings, emotions, etc., can help designers understand the multifaceted nature of the user experience • How do usability goals differ from user experience goals? • Are there trade-offs between the two kinds of goals? – e.g. can a product be both fun and safe? • How easy is it to measure usability versus user experience goals? Lecture #1 IID_Interaction Design 43
  44. 44. Design principles • Generalizable abstractions for thinking about different aspects of design • The do’s and don'ts of interaction design • What to provide and what not to provide at the interface • Derived from a mix of theory-based knowledge, experience and common-sense Lecture #1 IID_Interaction Design 44
  45. 45. Visibility • This is a control panel for an elevator • How does it work? • Push a button for the floor you want? • Nothing happens. Push any other button? Still nothing. What do you need to do? • It is not visible as to what to do! Lecture #1 IID_Interaction Design 45
  46. 46. Visibility …you need to insert your room card in the slot by the buttons to get the elevator to work! – How would you make this action more visible? – make the card reader more obvious – provide an auditory message, that says what to do (which language?) – provide a big label next to the card reader that flashes when someone enters – make relevant parts visible – make what has to be done obvious Lecture #1 IID_Interaction Design 46
  47. 47. What do I do if I am wearing black? • Invisible automatic controls can make it more difficult to use Lecture #1 IID_Interaction Design 47
  48. 48. Feedback • Sending information back to the user about what has been done • Includes sound, highlighting, animation and combinations of these – e.g. when screen button clicked on provides sound or red highlight feedback: Lecture #1 IID_Interaction Design 48 “ccclichhk”
  49. 49. Constraints • Restricting the possible actions that can be performed • Helps prevent user from selecting incorrect options • Physical objects can be designed to constrain things – e.g. only one way you can insert a key into a lock Lecture #1 IID_Interaction Design 49
  50. 50. Logical or ambiguous design? • Where do you plug the mouse? • Where do you plug the keyboard? • top or bottom connector? • Do the color coded icons help? Lecture #1 IID_Interaction Design 50
  51. 51. How to design them more logically • A provides direct adjacent mapping between icon and connector • B provides color coding to associate the connectors with the labels Lecture #1 IID_Interaction Design 51
  52. 52. Consistency • Design interfaces to have similar operations and use similar elements for similar tasks • For example: – always use ctrl key plus first initial of the command for an operation – ctrl+C, ctrl+S, ctrl+O – Main benefit is consistent interfaces are easier to learn and use Lecture #1 IID_Interaction Design 52
  53. 53. When consistency breaks down • What happens if there is more than one command starting with the same letter? – e.g. save, spelling, select, style • Have to find other initials or combinations of keys, thereby breaking the consistency rule – e.g. ctrl+S, ctrl+Sp, ctrl+shift+L • Increases learning burden on user, making them more prone to errors Lecture #1 IID_Interaction Design 53
  54. 54. Internal and external consistency • Internal consistency refers to designing operations to behave the same within an application – Difficult to achieve with complex interfaces • External consistency refers to designing operations, interfaces, etc., to be the same across applications and devices – Very rarely the case, based on different designer’s preference Lecture #1 IID_Interaction Design 54
  55. 55. Keypad numbers layout • A case of external inconsistency Lecture #1 IID_Interaction Design 55 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 7 8 9 1 2 3 4 5 6 0 0 (a) phones, remote controls (b) calculators, computer keypads
  56. 56. Affordances: to give a clue • Refers to an attribute of an object that allows people to know how to use it – e.g. a mouse button invites pushing, a door handle affords pulling • Norman (1988) used the term to discuss the design of everyday objects • Since has been much popularised in interaction design to discuss how to design interface objects – e.g. scrollbars to afford moving up and down, icons to afford clicking on Lecture #1 IID_Interaction Design 56
  57. 57. What does ‘affordance’ have to offer interaction design? • Interfaces are virtual and do not have affordances like physical objects • Norman argues it does not make sense to talk about interfaces in terms of ‘real’ affordances • Instead interfaces are better conceptualized as ‘perceived’ affordances – Learned conventions of arbitrary mappings between action and effect at the interface – Some mappings are better than others Lecture #1 IID_Interaction Design 57
  58. 58. Activity • Virtual affordances – How do the following screen objects afford? – What if you were a novice user? – Would you know what to do with them? Lecture #1 IID_Interaction Design 58
  59. 59. Key points • Interaction design is concerned with designing interactive products to support the way people communicate and interact in their everyday and working lives • It is concerned with how to create quality user experiences • It requires taking into account a number of interdependent factors, including context of use, type of activities, cultural differences, and user groups • It is multidisciplinary, involving many inputs from wide-reaching disciplines and fields Lecture #1 IID_Interaction Design 59
  60. 60. Homework Lecture #1 IID_Interaction Design 60 Make Blog Upload Personal Statement Upload Portfolio 1 2 3 Make a personal blog - Blogger - Wordpress - Tumblr *Tools and S/W Your Blog Post #1 - Length : 1,000 words or less - Who I am, and What I have been through - Things that I like - What I like to Learn from the course - My dreams Your Blog Post #2 - Upload images of your works - Pick your Favorite - Tell us why the work is your favorite Submission Due : 11: 59 pm Sun. 13th March
  61. 61. Contacts • Email – • Class Blog – Lecture #1 IID_Interaction Design 61