Government-how is their government set up; who is incharge; how does it work?Athens SpartaOnly citizens could vote OligarchyCouncil of 500 ran day to day business 5 ephors 500 30 year olds and older, Council of Elders chosen each year 2 Kings and 28 elected men that were older than 60 and from a noble familyThe Assembly debated on laws Had the most power in Sparta At least 6000 citizens Assembly Very large; male citizens; could The “birthplace” of democracy. vote yes or no by shouting
SPARTAN GOVERNMENT:Five Ephors: unlimited power.Council of Elders: 28 members all over 60years of age; proposed laws on which theAssembly voted.Kings: two kings elected by theAssembly; served as high priests,judges, and army commanders. ATHENIAN GOVERNMENT:Assembly: all citizens over 30 years ofage; elected the officials and voted on Assembly: all male citizens over 20 yearsmajor policies. of age; enjoyed full and final power. Council of Five Hundred: citizens over 30 years of age; chosen by lot, fifty from each tribe; proposed laws to the Assembly. Court: chosen by lot from the citizens; no judge; juries were very large; each juror voted by secret ballot. Archons: nine citizens who at one time were all-powerful, but after reforms the Council of Five Hundred took over most of their powers.
Economy-How does this city-state make money? How does itconduct trade? Do they have a currency?Athens SpartaBased on trade- traded with many places Based on farming and conquering land- needed land for growing populationUsed the agora to sell goods Turned neighbors into helots and used noncitizens (perioikoi)Slaves were also sold at the agora Discouraged tradeDeveloped coins to make trade easier Used heavy metal bars as moneySpent lots of money beautifying the city
Education-What do children learn? Who can go to school?Athens SpartaBased education on making good citizens Purpose: to produce men and women to protect and defend SpartaValued a sharp mind and healthy body From 7, boys were taught to fight, read, and writeBoys learned reading, writing, arithmetic,and literature Spartan boys were taught to suffer any amount of painGirls stayed in the house After 30, Spartan men could become citizens
Women and slaves- What types of rights andresponsibilities do women and slaves have?Athens SpartaWomen have few rights but was in charge Women were expected to be strong andof the home healthyMany people owned slaves Women had many rights (own land, marry a new man, speak freely)Some slaves were born into slavery,others were prisoners of war Helots were treated very harshly because of the fear of a revoltSlaves performed a wide variety of jobs Helots had some rights
Warm Up: November 29, 2011Write A for Athens and S for Sparta1. Based their economy on trade.2. Turned neighbors into helots.3. Council of 500 ran day to day business.4. Spent lots of money on building beautiful temples.5. The Assembly could only vote yes or no on issues.6. Based education on making good citizens.7. The Assembly had to have at least 6000 people present.
The Persian WarsPersia vs. GreeceStrengths and Weaknesses?
The Persian EmpireStarted as tribes in present-day IranBuilt a large empire by conquering its neighbors (Mesopotamia, Asia Minor,Egypt)Was the largest empire the world had ever known
The Persian EmpireHow did the empire get so powerful?1. Persia ruled the conquered people with mercy- allowed them to keep their own customs and beliefs2. Persia developed many miles of roads to connect the empire3. Persia had good leaders- ex: Cyrus the Great ruled with mercy; Darius reorganized the government to control such a huge area4. Persia had full-time professional soldiers, unlike the citizen-armies of Greece
When did trouble begin betweenGreece and Persia?Persia conquered the Greek state of IoniaIonians ask mainland Greece to help themoverthrow PersiaAthens helps, but leaves too early and Persiadefeats Ionia and destroys the city aspunishmentDarius (leader of Persia) decides to try andconquer mainland Greece next
Main Battles of the Persian War MARATHON THERMOPYLAE SALAMIS PLATAEA
MarathonGreeks refused to submit to Persia; killed manyPersian messengersAthens sent a runner to go for Sparta for help;Sparta refused; Athens had to fight at MarathonaloneAthens used a three-prong attack
ThermopylaeXerxes crossed at Hellespont using a bridge made ofboatsSparta waited for Persia to reach them at a narrowpassage between the mountains and the seaLeonidas (Spartan King) ordered most troops toflee; leaving only 300 Spartans to fight 180,000PersiansSpartans fought to the death; all died.Persia moves onto Athens
Hellespont Google Earth Image How to build a bridge at Hellespont
SalamisAthenians flee AthensAthens navy lures Persian ships into a narrowchannel near SalamisGreeks surround and sink 300 Persian shipsXerxes flees back to Hellespont
PlataeaAthens and Sparta join forces to defeat Persia aftermany days
Importance of the Persian WarGreek keeps its independence and kept Persia from conquering all of EuropeCity of Athens was in ruin Athens now has to rebuild itself
End of the WarWhy did Persia lose? Why did Greece win?After Xerxes, other rulers raised taxes and Advantage of being on the defensetreated people harshly Believed in what they were fighting in,Persian royal family fought over who whereas it was a “job” to Persianswould be king Used the element of surprise often andPersian Empire remained intact for about effectively150 more years
Review- Persian War1. Explain why the Persian War started?2. Why did Greece end up winning?3. What can the Persian Wars reveal to us about what happens when cultures interact with each other?4. What can we learn from understanding why past empires (like Persia) collapsed and how can we use that information to analyze similar conditions today?5. What, do you think, was the number one reason why the Greeks win thePersian War? They were joined together as allies. They had better fighting equipment. They knew the geography of the area. They used clever military strategy.
The Delian League- Human Heritage, page 173-1741. What is a defensive league?2. Why did the Greeks want a defensive league?3. Who did not join the league?4. From the 2 nd paragraph, what were three rules of the Delian League?5. Many call the Delian League the Athenian Empire. What were three things that Athens did that were considered unfair by the other city- states?6. Who was the leader of Athens for 30 years and had the city rebuilt?